The west coast of Barbados is known as a favorite winter destination for British tourists, ranging from the upmarket Sandy Lane resort to the all-drinks-included package holiday crowd arriving by economy class. Many will come from Scotland, but few will realise that just fourteen miles away on the rocky east side of the island live a community of McCluskies, Sinclairs and Baileys who are not, as might be expected, black Bajans bearing the family names given by slave owners centuries ago, but poor whites eking out a subsistence existence. Known as the Redlegs, they are the direct descendants of the Scots transported to Barbados by Cromwell after the Civil War. Scottish author and broadcaster Chris Dolan went to meet them to discover why they are still here 350 years later, what they know about their roots, and what their prospects are today when they are the poorest community on the island. Chris speaks to leading historians in Barbados and Scotland about how their ancestors were treated when they first arrived. Was their plight as severe as that of the black slaves from Africa? Nearly two centuries after emancipation, this Redleg community has yet to find a role on the island, where it is damned by association with the days of slavery, even though many of its forbears were victims themselves. In recent years, it has begun to come out of its racial isolation; could there yet be a hopeful future for this lost Scottish tribe?
Redlegs was a term used to refer to the class of poor whites that lived on colonial Barbados, St. Vincent, Grenada and a few other Caribbean islands. In Belize, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago they are known as “Bakras” (“Back-Row”). Many of these people were English, Irish, or Scottish, and had originally arrived on Barbados in the early to mid 17th century as slaves, indentured servants, or as transported prisoners, notably from Oliver Cromwell‘s wars in Ireland and Scotland and from southwest England following the Monmouth Rebellion. Small groups of Germans and Portuguese were also imported as plantation labourers. Many were described as “white slaves”. According to folk etymology, the name is derived from the effects of the tropical sun on their fair-skinned legs. However, the term “Redlegs” and its variants were in use for Irish soldiers of the same sort as those later transported to Barbados, and the variant “Red-shankes” is recorded by Edmund Spenser in his dialogue on “the Present State of Ireland” as early as the 16th century.
By the 18th century, white slavery was becoming more and more uncommon, and fewer and fewer whites existed on Barbados outside of the sugar plantation. African slaves were trained in all needed trades, so there was no demand for paid white labour. The Redlegs, in turn, were unwilling to work alongside the freed slave population on the plantations. Therefore, most of the white population that chose to stay eked out, at best, a subsistence living. Because of the deplorable conditions under which the Redlegs lived, a campaign was initiated in the mid-19th century to move portions of the population to other islands which would be more economically hospitable. The relocation process succeeded, and a distinct community of Redleg descendants live in the Dorsetshire Hill district on St. Vincent as well as on the islands of Grenada and Bequia.
In addition to Redlegs the term underwent extensive progression in Barbados and the following terms were also used: “Redshanks”, “Poor whites”, “Poor Backra”, “Backra Johnny”, “Ecky-Becky”, “Poor whites from below the hill”,”Edey white mice” or “Beck-e Neck” (Baked-neck). Historically everything besides “poor whites” were used as derogatory insults.
THE WORD SLAVE MEANS SLAV. AN EASTERN EUROPEAN!!
ORIGINALLY SLAVES WHERE WHITE SKINNED ,THE SLAVE TRADERS WHERE BLACK, OLIVE OR JEWISH!!
Saqaliba (Arabic: صقالبة, sg. Siqlabi) refers to the Slavs, particularly Slavic slaves and mercenaries in the medieval Arab world, in the Middle East, North Africa, Sicily and Al-Andalus. It is generally thought that the Arabic term is a Byzantine loanword: saqlab, siklab, saqlabi etc. is a corruption of Greek Sklavinoi for “Slavs”. The word was also often used more generally to refer to all slaves from Central and Eastern Europe.
The Persian chronicler Ibn al-Faqih wrote that there were two types of saqaliba: those with swarthy skin and dark hair that live by the sea and those with fair skin and light hair that live farther inland.
Ibrahim ibn Yaqub placed the people of “Saqalib” in the mountainous regions of Central Balkans, west of the Bulgarians and east from the “other Slavs” (Croat and Serb land). The Saqalib had the reputation of being “the most courageous and violent”.
There were several major routes of the trade of Slav slaves into the Muslim world: through Central Asia (Mongols, Tatars, Khazars, etc.); through the Mediterranean (Byzantium); through Central and Western Europe to Al-Andalus and further to North Africa (Morocco, Egypt).
The Volga trade route and other European routes, according to Ibrahim ibn Jakub, were serviced by Radanites, Jewish merchants.
In the Muslim world, Saqaliba served or were forced to serve in a multitude of ways: servants, harem girls, eunuchs, craftsmen, soldiers, and as Caliph’s guards.
Slavery is a system under which people are treated as property and are forced to work. Slaves can be held against their will from the time of their capture, purchase or birth, and deprived of the right to leave, to refuse to work, or to demand compensation. Slavery predates written records, has existed in many cultures and in some historical situations it has been legal for owners to kill slaves.
The number of slaves today remains as high as 12 million to 27 million, though this is probably the smallest proportion of the world’s population in history. Most are debt slaves, largely in South Asia, who are under debt bondage incurred by lenders, sometimes even for generations. Human trafficking is primarily for prostituting women and children into sex industries.
1.^ Brace, Laura (2004). “8. Slaveries and Property: Freedom and Belonging”. The politics of property: labour, freedom and belonging. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0748615350. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=osZnIiqDd4sC&pg=PA162.
2.^ a b c d e f “Historical survey > Slave-owning societies”. Encyclopædia Britannica.
3.^ “Welcome to Encyclopćdia Britannica’s Guide to Black History”. Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-24164. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
4.^ “Forced labour – Themes”. Ilo.org. http://www.ilo.org/global/Themes/Forced_Labour/lang–en/index.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
5.^ Bales, Kevin (1999). “1”. Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy. University of California Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-520-21797-7.
6.^ By E. Benjamin Skinner Monday, Jan. 18, 2010 (2010-01-18). “sex trafficking in South Africa: World Cup slavery fear”. Time.com. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1952335,00.html. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
7.^ a b “UN Chronicle | Slavery in the Twenty-First Century”. Un.org. http://www.smfcdn.com/assets/pubs/un_chronicle.pdf. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
8.^ Slavery is not dead, just less recognizable.
Evidence of slavery predates written records, and has existed in many cultures.Prehistoric graves from about 8000 BC in Lower Egypt suggest that a Libyan people enslaved a San-like tribe.
Slavery is rare among hunter–gatherer populations, as slavery is a system of social stratification. Mass slavery also requires economic surpluses and a high population density to be viable. Due to these factors, the practice of slavery would have only proliferated after the invention of agriculture during the Neolithic revolution about 11,000 years ago.
The earliest records of slavery can be traced to the Code of Hammurabi (ca. 1760 BC)
In the West the targets of Viking slavery were primarily English, Irish, and Scottish, while in the East they were mainly Slavs. The Viking slave trade slowly ended in the 11th century, as the Vikings settled in the European territories they once raided, Christianized serfdom, and merged with the local populace. The Normans made slaves of the English gentry after invasion in 1066 and deported them to Spain. They continued taking Welsh Slaves during the Medieval period who were traded in London.
The early medieval slave trade was mainly confined to the South and East: the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim world were the destinations, pagan Central and Eastern Europe, along with the Caucasus and Tartary, were important sources. Viking, Arab, Greek and Jewish merchants (known as Radhanites) were all involved in the slave trade during the Early Middle Ages
A brief History of White Slavery
The Barbary Corsairs, sometimes called Ottoman Corsairs or Barbary Pirates, were Muslim pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa from the time of the Crusades (11th century) until the early 19th century. Based in North African ports such as Tunis, Tripoli, Algiers, Salé, and other ports in Morocco, they sailed mainly along the stretch of northern Africa known as the Barbary Coast. Their predation extended throughout the Mediterranean, south along West Africa‘s Atlantic seaboard, and into the North Atlantic as far north as Iceland, and they primarily commandeered western European ships in the western Mediterranean Sea. In addition, they engaged in Razzias, raids on European coastal towns, to capture Christian slaves to sell at slave markets in places such as Algeria and Morocco.
Pirates destroyed thousands of French, Spanish, and English ships, and long stretches of coast in Spain and Italy were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants, discouraging settlement until the 19th century. From the 16th to 19th century, pirates captured an estimated 800,000 to 1.25 million Europeans as slaves, mainly from seaside villages in Italy, Spain, and Portugal, but also from France, England, the Netherlands, Ireland and as far away as Iceland and North America. The most famous corsairs were the brothers Hayreddin Barbarossa (“Redbeard“) and Oruç Reis, who took control of Algiers in the early 16th century, beginning four hundred years of Ottoman Empire presence in North Africa and establishing a centre of Mediterranean piracy.
Slavery during the Early Middle Ages had several distinct sources. The Vikings raided across Europe, though their slave raids were the most destructive in the British Isles and Eastern Europe. While the Vikings kept some slaves for themselves as servants, known as thralls, most people captured by the Vikings would be sold on the Byzantine or Islamic markets. In the West the targets of Viking slavery were primarily English, Irish, and Scottish, while in the East they were mainly Slavs. The Viking slave trade slowly ended in the 1000s, as the Vikings settled in the European territories they once raided, Christianized, and merged with the local populace.
The Islamic World was also a main factor in Medieval European slavery. From the early 700s until the early Modern time period (rough the 18th or 19th centuries) Muslims consistently took European slaves. This slavery began during the Muslim Conquest of Visigothic Spain and Portugal in the 8th century. The Muslim powers of Iberia both raided for slaves and purchased slaves from European merchants, often the Jewish Radhanites, one of the few groups that could easily move between the Christian and Islamic worlds. As the Muslims failed to conquer Europe in the 8th century they took to pirate raids against the shores of Spain, southern Portugal and France, and Italy, that would last roughly from the 9th century until the 12th century, when the Italian city-states of Genoa, Venice, and Pisa, along with the Spanish kingdoms of Aragon and Castile, as well as the Sicilian Normans, began to dominate the Mediterranean. The Middle Ages from 1100 to 1500 saw a continuation of the European slave trade, though with a shift from the Western Mediterranean Islamic nations to the Eastern, as Venice and Genoa, in firm control of the Eastern Mediterranean from the 12th century and the Black Sea from the 13th century sold both Slavic and Baltic slaves, as well as Georgians, Turks, and other ethnic groups of the Black Sea and Caucasus, to the Muslim nations of the Middle East. The sale of European slaves by Europeans slowly ended as the Slavic and Baltic ethnic groups Christianized by the Late Middle Ages. European slaves in the Islamic World would, however, continue into the Modern time period as Muslim pirates, primarily Algerians, with the support of the Ottoman Empire, raided European coasts and shipping from the 16th to the 19th centuries, ending their attacks with the naval decline of the Ottoman Empire in the late 16th and 17th centuries, as well as the European conquest of North Africa throughout the 19th century.
Romans inherited the institution of slavery from the Greeks and the Phoenicians . As the Roman Republic expanded outward, entire populations were enslaved, thus creating an ample supply to work in Rome’s farms and households. The people subjected to Roman slavery came from all over Europe and the Mediterranean. Such oppression by an elite minority eventually led to slave revolts (see Roman Servile Wars); the Third Servile War led by Spartacus was the most famous and severe. Greeks, Berbers, Germans, Britons, Thracians, Gauls (or Celts), Jews, Arabs, and many more were slaves used not only for labor, but also for amusement (e.g. gladiators and sex slaves). If a slave ran away, he was liable to be crucified. By the late Republican era, slavery had become a vital economic pillar in the wealth of Rome. Slavery was so common, and citizenship restricted so firmly (only to native-born adult males and people granted citizenship under special circumstances), that the slaves in Rome far outnumbered the citizens
Here is a new take on the African Slave trade in the New World.
Who Brought the Slaves to America?
Especially when you consider
The Muslim powers of Iberia both raided for slaves and purchased slaves from European merchants, often the Jewish Radhanites, one of the few groups that could easily move between the Christian and Islamic worlds.
It seems Jewish European merchants where selling European slaves to the Muslims! Where and how did they get these slaves?