The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion is a wide-ranging, comparative study of mythology and religion, written by Scottish anthropologist Sir James George Frazer (1854–1941). The Golden Bough attempts to define the shared elements of religious belief, ranging from ancient belief systems to relatively modern religions such as Christianity. Its thesis is that old religions were fertility cults that revolved around the worship of, and periodic sacrifice of, a sacred king.
This king was the incarnation of a dying and reviving god, a solar deity who underwent a mystic marriage to a goddess of the Earth, who died at the harvest, and was reincarnated in the spring. Frazer claims that this legend is central to almost all of the world’s mythologies.
The book scandalized the British public upon its first publication, because it included the Christian story of Jesus in its comparative study, thus inviting an agnostic reading of the Lamb of God as a relic of a pagan religion
“The danger, however, is not less real because it is imaginary; imagination acts upon man as really as does gravitation, and may kill him as certainly as a dose of prussic acid.” (Chapter 21, “Golden Bough ,Tabooed Things”.)
All ancient religions seem to originate from this philosophy.There are many “organic” belief systems practiced today. Many are ancient and combine wisdom , natural science , and cultural knowledge and history.These include the beliefs of native peoples across the world .They are vibrant parts of a living culture ,until monotheism stomps them out! This monotheistic fascistic belief system has no part to play in a modern society. If you pray to Jesus , Yahawa or Allah , you might as well pray to Osiris , Zeus ,Mithra or Set! They hold as much relevance today , they are “organic” in origin unlike Abrahamic monotheism ,which is an invention for the purpose of material empire building and it is these “Old gods” that the invented god of Abraham owes his existance. Hopefully this belief system will pass the same way as other ancient primitive tribal belief systems.
Abrahamic Monotheism was a CON from the start.It is nothing more than Polytheism re-hashed. All its old stories are rip offs of polythesic originals.Monotheisms god is a three in one god. This is a rip off of Polytheism which gods came in three.
THE ORIGINAL HOLY TRINITY
The Sumerian An .. was one of the oldest gods in the Sumerian pantheon, and part of a triad including Enlil, god of the sky and Enki,
Also the Egyptian Amun-Mut-Chons triad of Thebes that arose during the Middle Kingdom in 2134-1991 B.C.)
Egypt had Hathor-Menkaure-Bat triad of the fourth dynasty
In Celtic Gaul The Divine Woodman ,Esus or Hesus (“lord” or “master”) was a Gaulish god known from two monumental statues and a line in Lucan’s Bellum civile.
A well-known section in Lucan’s Bellum civile talks about the gory sacrificial offerings proffered to a triad of Celtic deities: Teutates, Hesus (an aspirated form of Esus), and Taranis. According to the Berne Commentary on Lucan, human victims were sacrificed to Esus by being tied to a tree and flailed .
In Polytheism there is a Head or Ruling Deity ,usually called An , Anu , Danu , Amen , Amun etc.. This is why monotheists still send thier prayers to AMEN! There will be lesser gods in polytheism that carry out the Head gods wishes and are in charge of certain aspects of life. This is NO DIFFERENT from modern Abrahamic monotheism ,with its three in one Head deity and his arch angels , angels , saints and devils and demons.
The Invention of Judaism
Cyrus the Great invented Judaism by converting the captured hebrews in Babylon, from Egyptian SET worship to Zoroastrian monotheism. He made himself the messiah of this new monotheistic religion and was the builder of the temple. He did this to create a loyal buffer state for his Persian Empire.
The Invention of Christianity
Constantine the Great invented “Christianity”,or “Arianism” as Constantine refered to it, to unite his Western and Eastern Roman empires under one unified religion. One Empire , one emperor one religion. It was a combination of Egyptian monotheistic sun worship with Druidic and Hindu beliefs ,the joining of Hesus and Krishna , added to Greek philosophy. Its book was the New Testemonies…… see “book of Kells” or the “Lindisfarne gospels” for an example.(No old testament and NO Jewish references in this version of the New Testament)
It was the Byzantine Emperor Justinian that made messianic judaism the state religion of the Byzantine Empire and the BI-BLE (2 books or 2 bulls) the book of books. He was trying to save a dying empire from the rise of the Islamic empire. Convert or die is the state policy.
The Invention of Islam
Islam is the conversion of Quraysh moon worship to a “heretical” version of judaic monotheism. Brought to Arabia by Nestorian and Ebonite priests to unite the tribes and fight against the power of the Byzantine and Persian Empires.They convert the locals by the sword.
This “one god’s” religion has been spread by force and violence and book burning and has NOTHING to do with love and tolerance.
To take this reasoning a step further. It would seem if my atheism is incorrect and “gods” do run the universe ,then it is GODS PLURAL and NOT A GOD.
ALL the Abrahamic monotheistic beliefs being re-written LIES from the ORIGINAL POLYTHEISTIC stories. Usually from Sumerian or Egyptian original stories. It is IMPOSED on a population by FORCE ,usually convert or die.
It would then follow that if these ORIGINAL POLYTHESTIC stories are true , then WHICH GOD DO THESE ABRAHAMIC MONOTHEISTS WORSHIP TODAY?
It would seem to be the ….
God of the MATERIAL (for all the claims of poverty have you seen the Vatican !)
God of LIES (unless you think the world is flat and the sun revolves around us, and how else do you explain the polytheistic original story versions and what else could be the reason that the words are so nice BUT the ACTIONS are bloodsoaked and intolerant)
God of BLOOD and HUMAN SACRIFICE (remember Jews ,Christians and Muslims ALL worship the same monotheistic god of Abraham, he is all seeing and all knowing ,so he must want his disciples to slaughter each other in his name! )
God of DESTRUCTION and ANNILATION (remember ALL these monotheists are HELL BENT on bringing on the END OF THE WORLD!!!!)
God of VENGENCE and BIGOTRY (crusades , Judaism’s chosen ones , Jihad etc…)
God of DOGMA and IGNORANCE (remember these people have frequently burned knowledge rather than study it, they also would rather burn humans than debate with them)
God of FILTH and PESTILENCE (remember that PAGANS where clean and educated , it was the monotheists that closed the bath houses and stopped pagan ritual bathing and burned all knowledge that did not come from the bible ,including the wise women and herbalists and healers. IMHO it is NOT coincidence that plagues swept through Europe following the trail of monotheism )
God of PERVERSTION (it certainly attracts the paedophiles and it certainly covers for them as well )
SO IF “GODS” EXIST THEN THE MONOTHEISTS BASICALLY WORSHIP THE FALLEN ONE a.k.a. the Devil , Satan , “He who cannot be named” , SET !
I call myself an Atheist ,NOT because I have the answers of Life the Universe and everything ,BUT because I KNOW that the unexplained we face today has NOTHING to do with ancient primitive tribal gods.Science is my tool NOT my belief .I also believe the MORE theories and ideas there are the better! It shows humanity is thinking and encourages debate ,all a good healthy state of being.BUT the trouble with dogmatic religions is that they CLOSE and indoctrinate the minds of thier followers. Saying that all routes to “salvation” can only be found in this book is just ignorant , bigotted and WRONG.Especially when these people attack modern science and scientific and archeological facts.They also seem hell bent on destroying the only known fertile planet in the Solar system/Universe ,JUST to bring THIER god to Earth on a White horse. It would be hysterically funny ,if they where not so damn serious!
Here are some interesting documentries on this subject. I do NOT agree with ALL they say ,BUT they are thought provoking and encourage debate, which is a healthy state of being.
What the Bleep Do We Know!? (2004)
The Original 108 minute film – released in theaters in February 2004. Starring Marlee Matlin and 14 Scientists and Mystics. Exploring the worlds of Quantum Physics, Neurology, and Molecular Biology in relation to the spheres of Spirituality, Metaphysics and Polish weddings. Part documentary, part drama, part animation, How does it all fit together???
Esoteric Agenda (2008)
“There is an Esoteric Agenda behind every facet of life that was once believed to be disconnected. There is an Elite faction guiding most every Political, Economic, Social, Corporate, some Non-Governmental or even Anti-Establishment Organizations. This film uses the hard work and research of professionals in every field helping to expose this agenda put the future of this planet back into the hands of the people.
What do we KNOW about the (multi)universe?
GENESIS FOR ATHEISTS
Energy equals mass multiplied by the speed of light squared.
The (multi)universe is made of mass and energy ,two forms of the same thing. The (multi)universe converts one form to another with 100% efficiency. This is one definition of perfection.
WE are made of the same mass and energy,so are the stars and the trees and everything. This mass and energy is indestructable, it can only change form ,which is part of its nature to do so and it does so perfectly,but mass ,energy or information as some scientists refer to this, cannot be destroyed ,only converted, it does this with 100% efficiency. This could be called immortality via a form of reincarnation.
The universal struggle to become self aware.
The universe seems to show a level of self awareness ,even at its basic levels. On the molecular level ,basic molecules seem to naturally form complex patterns,like the DNA helix , instead of randoms strings of things. This seems to show a form of awarness.
Electrons are aware if they are being watched and will change thier behaviour accordingly.They will behave like a wave if not watched , they behave like a particle if watched. This can be demonstrated repeatedly in experiments.
Inorganic molecules also form crystallic structures ,regular in form and pattern again.
Like mass seems to defy randomness and form more and more complex forms , evolution. So it would seem the same is for energy. Somewhere in here lies the struggle for “universal” self awareness.
Self awarness is shown in many forms on planet Earth. Higher levels are shown amoungst dolphins ,whales and some primates. There is no guarantee that these forms will continue to rise in awareness or even survive. On this spiralling rock ,there have been many forms of Mankind , at least 20 that we know of ,and today WE are the only survivors. We have no guarantee of survival either and we have actually been really lucky to survive this long.We have on more than one occasion been reduced to a handful of survivors. Actually the clock is ticking so to speak.The Earth is expected to be effectively habitable for about another 500 million years, although this may be extended up to 2.3 billion years if the nitrogen is removed from the atmosphere. The Sun, as part of its evolution, will become a red giant in about 5 Gyr. Models predict that the Sun will expand out to about 250 times its present radius, roughly 1 AU (150,000,000 km)a more recent simulation indicates that Earth’s orbit will decay due to tidal effects and drag, causing it to enter the red giant Sun’s atmosphere and be destroyed.
This natural process will lead to the sun blasting off its outer layers and spreading clouds of gases rich in heavy elements and organic molecules through the universe. This cloud will condense ,stars will form and light up the darkness , planets will form and the process will start again. This process has already happened before, as the elements WE are made of where created within the furneces of stars that have long since exploded.
The universal Balance
Mass seems to prefer Law and travels in revolutions and predictable motions, doomed to stagnate and degrade ,only to be born again new and start the process again.
Energy seems to prefer chaos and lives in fields that vary constantly and behave unpredictably, always varying and changing form and direction at the slightest provocation.
There are many theories as to the “Creation” of the universe .
Current scientific theory suggests before Space and Time there was a gravitational singularity .This is, approximately, a place where quantities which are used to measure the gravitational field become infinite. Such quantities include the curvature of spacetime or the density of matter. An infinitly small but infinitly dense point.
SPACE AND TIME ARE CREATED FROM ENERGY BEING CONVERTED INTO MATTER POWERED BY GRAVITY.
Thanks to the Hubble Telescope we can look back 13 billions years and see what happened.The Hubble Ultra Deep Field is the deepest image of the universe ever taken in visible light, looking back approximately 13 billion years, and it will be used to search for galaxies that existed between 400 and 800 million years after the Big Bang.
For current theories on this check Quantum gravity and M-theory(Superstrings)and Stephen Hawkin’s A brief History of Time
A Brief History of Time attempts to explain a range of subjects in cosmology, including the Big Bang, black holes, light cones and superstring theory, to the nonspecialist reader
THE HOLY TRINITY
ENERGY(FATHER) MATTER(SON) GRAVITY(HOLY GHOST)
STARS AWAKE HEAVY ELEMENTS ARE CREATED AND PLANETS FORM ALL POWERED BY GRAVITY
4.6 Billion years ago ,the Solar system forms
4.56 Billions years ago , Proto-Earth is formed. It is hit by a Mars sized object and the Earth and Moon are formed. The astroid belt is also a possible remnant of this collision.
Some scientists now believe that comets, meteorites, and interplanetary dust deliver organic compounds created in interstellar space to newly formed planets, and that such space-born substances could have “kick-started” the development of life on Earth. Researchers working with NASA’s Astrobiology Institute have created “proto-cells” that mimic the membranous structures used to create the living cells found on our planet. They subjected icy dust particles that are rich in organic compounds (i.e., water, methanol or wood alcohol, ammonia, and carbon monoxide) that are found in dense molecular clouds of interstellar space to the harsh conditions found there, such as intense cold and ultraviolet light. An abundance of such structures raining down on wet areas of Earth during its early years could have been important in protecting self-replicating molecules (i.e., the precursors of RNA and DNA) that became encapsulated within them, and eventually such proto-cells could have evolved into primitive lifeforms. (See a NASA summary.) In 2006, two scientists argued that the development of life on Earth was the necessary consequence of available energy built up by geological processes (including polyphosphates made in volcanic processes) on the early Earth, in the same way that lightning relieves the accumulation of electrical charge in thunderclouds (Morowitz and Smith, 2006; and Phillip Ball, Nature, November 14, 2006).
Initially, the Earth’s surface was mostly molten rock that gradually cooled through the radiation of heat into space. The primeval atmosphere was composed mostly of water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and monoxide (CO), molecular nitrogen (N2) and molecular hydrogen (H2), and hydrogen chloride (HCl) outgassed from molten rock, with only traces of reactive molecular oxygen (O2). This steamy atmosphere was rich with water released from hydrated minerals and cometary impactors. As the Earth continued to cool from Years 0.1 to 0.3 billion, a torrential rain fell that turned to steam upon hitting the still hot surface, then superheated water, and finally collected into hot or warm seas and oceans above and around cooling crustal rock leaving sediments. Every once in a while, however, a large asteroid or comet would strike the planet which remelted crustal rock and turned oceans back into hot mist. Eventually, a stable rocky crust may have developed between Years 0.2 and 0.4 billion (see J. Bret Bennington’s discussion of recycled zircons (crystals of zirconium silicate) from the rocks of western Australia in the Hadean Eon and the January 11, 2001 announcement of zircons found north of Perth that appear to be 4.4 billion years old), covered and surrounded by soupy water that was already rich with organic compounds from interstellar space.
On July 3, 2008, a team of scientists published results (Nemchin et al, 2008) on finding unusually high “light-carbon” isotope ratios possibly indicative of biological origin found in micrometer-sized diamond and graphite inclusions that were later incorporated within 22 zircons from the Jack Hills of Western Australia, which were formed under the pressure of 100 to 150 kilometers (62 to 93 miles) of crustal rock. As the zircons were radioactively dated to be as old as 4.25 billion years, the new findings suggest that carbon-based life may have been present on Earth within the first 300 million years after planetary formation.
5,000,000 BC Hominids separated from other primates
2,000,000 BC Homo habilis
1,750,000 BC Initial hominid exodus from Africa
1,500,000 BC Home erectus
1,000,000 BC Early hominids in Spain and Central Asia
Prehistory is a term often used to describe the period before written history. The early human migrations patterns in the Lower Paleolithic saw Homo erectus spreads across Eurasia. The controlled use of fire from ca. 800 thousand years ago occurred.
800,000BC: Dating for human remains discovered recently by archaeologists. A site reveals about 80 human bones and bone fragments from two adult females and four children, maybe eaten by other humans, as some bones had marks from sharp stone tools. Around the remains were bones from horses, deer, bison, rhino and possibly elephants. This is possibly the earliest known example of human cannibalism, found in Northern Spain in a cave at Atapuerca. It is possible the specimens were Homo antecessor, (Ancestor Man, who developed into Neandertal). It is thought that possibly Ancestor Man came from Africa one million years ago, to Europe, and that their fellows who stayed in Africa developed into Homo sapiens? See a recent issue of journal, Science. Meantime, tools made 900,000 years ago were found at an even deeper level of the Atapuerca cave site. Reported in Sydney, 31 May, 1997
800,000BC: Soleilhac, in the Massif Central of France, is the oldest “unquestionable” site of hominid occupation in Europe, with remains of fauna remains and tools, but no hominid bones.
800,000BC: Some Indonesian and Dutch archaeologist refer to evidence that early hominids in Asia have made it to the island of Flores in the Javan archipelago.
700,000BC: Mary Leakey finds that a famous Acheulian hand-axe was being made by Homo erectus, while about this time, the magnetic poles of the earth reverse. (Ardrey, Hunting Hypothesis, pp. 130-133) The South Pole develops a negative polarity. About now the Arctic seems to freeze over for the first time. Ardrey feels the evidence on use of fire comes from colder areas of Europe and Asia. Soon comes the first wave of the glaciation of Europe. Perhaps soon, Heidelberg Man appears in Germany?
500,000 BC Common ancestor of Homo sapiens sapiens (Hss) and Homo neanderthalensis
500,000BC: Heidelberg Man is seen, in Cold Eurasia, possibly an early appearance of an African-evolved home erectus. (Ardrey, Hunting Hypothesis, p. 147) Diet exclusively of uncooked meat (the fats of which allow may brain growth?)
450,000BC to 380,000BC: Evidence of a wooden hut with a hearth at Terra Amata, near Nice, France, time of Mindel Glaciation. Also near Nice, France, an Acheulean hut dated 500,000-400,000BC a home evidently for Neandertals, with use of a fireplace, and furs, grasses, seaweeds used as bedding.
400,000 BC Early hominids in China
300,000BC-400,000-BC: Man begins to appreciate-learn to use fire. (Ardrey, Hunting Hypothesis, p. 56)
340,000-330,000BC: Glaciation of Earth. Neandertals displace Homo erectus in some areas.
Neandertal, is an extinct member of the Homo genus that is known from Pleistocene specimens found in Europe and parts of western and central Asia. Neanderthals are either classified as a subspecies of humans (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) or as a separate species (Homo neanderthalensis).The first proto-Neanderthal traits appeared in Europe as early as 600,000–350,000 years ago.The youngest Neanderthal finds include Hyaena Den (UK), considered older than 30,000 years ago, while the Vindija (Croatia). No definite specimens younger than 30,000 years ago have been found. Modern human skeletal remains with ‘Neanderthal traits’ were found in Lagar Velho (Portugal), dated to 24,500 years ago and interpreted as indications of extensively admixed populations.Neanderthal stone tools provide further evidence for their presence where skeletal remains have not been found. The last traces of Mousterian culture, a type of stone tools associated with Neanderthals, were found in Gorham’s Cave on the remote south-facing coast of Gibraltar .Other tool cultures sometimes associated with Neanderthal include Châtelperronian, Aurignacian, and Gravettian, with the latter extending to 22,000 years ago, the last indication of Neanderthal presence.
160,000-130,000BC: Glaciation of Earth which begins what some term the African/Oceanic Ice Age Civilization. Modern humans displace Neandertals in Africa and Oceanic Areas.
For more, see a website from Tony Smith at:
Circa 250,000BC: About this time the human brain size stopped its slow trend toward enlargement. This may correspond with the human attainment of the rudiments of language?
133,000BC: According to global oxygen isotope records, the second last glacial cycle, which is called Stage 6, reaches its coldest extremes between 135,000 and 130,00 years ago. (Shreeve, Neandertal)
125,000BC: Neandertal Homo sapiens indicates that brain size and organization were basically modern. The Neandertals were the first people known to bury their dead. The Neandertals spread all across Europe, the Middle East, and western and central Asia.
130,000BP: Humans first acquire chins
125,000 BP: Scientists in 2000 identified human stone tools of this time from a fossil reef along the Red Sea coast of Eritrea. They identified the area as the “world’s first oyster bar.”
Seaside living, Eritrea: It now seems that humans have been living by the sea and using boats for at least 125,000 years. The earliest known seaside settlement has been identified via the use of stone tools on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea. Further work may help establish how humans fanned out from Africa to settle in other parts of the world? The finding was made by Dr. Robert Walker of the Centre of Scientific Investigation in Ensenada, Mexico. Humans were also living at the same time in Israel, Ethiopia, Kenya, and the Sudan. The new finding supports the “out of Africa” theory of single human evolution.
100,000BC: Hunters live in limestone caves of Eastern Spain.
100,000BC: Possible occupation of Japan, period not yet accurately fixed. (Pottery use there from 12,000BC, preceding farming.)
100,000BC: Wooden tools used at Kalambo Falls, borders of Tanzania and Zambia.
100,000BC to 40,000 years ago: Neandertal Man in West Germany.
98,000BC: Stone tools survive from the Kirkuk area, Iraq, now held in a museum in Iraq.
90,000BC: Potassium-argon dating and thermoluminescence can be used to date pieces of pottery back to about this time.
68,000BC approx: Two Neandertal skulls from France of this time are found. They had a hypoglossal canal the size of modern humans, which was thought to be indicative of speech. By now, Neandertals have spread over much of Europe and Western Asia. (See Shreeve, Neandertal)
NEANDERTAL MAN CREATES GOD THE BEAR AND HOMO ERECTUS/SAPIENS CREATES GOD THE SNAKE
Archeological evidence from Middle Paleolithic caves,shows that a widespread Middle Paleolithic Neanderthal bear cult existed (Wunn, 2000, p. 434-435).
78,000BC: About 1962, French archaeologists at Regourdou find the remains of what might have been a “bear cult” conducted by Neandertals. The bones of a brown bear have been carefully arranged. (Shreeve, Neandertal)
Bear worship (also known as the Bear Cult or Arctolatry) is the religious practice of the worshiping of bears found in many North American and North Eurasian ethnic circumpolar religions such as the Sami, Nivkhs, Ainu, and pre-christian Finns. There are also a number of deities from Celtic Gaul and Britain associated with the bear and the bear is featured on many totems throughout northern cultures that carve them. Bear worship may have been practiced as far back as the Middle paleolithic period amongst Neanderthal societies c.300,000 to 30,000 BC
Additional evidence in support of Middle Paleolithic animal worship originates from the Tsodilo Hills (c 70,000BCE) in the African Kalahari desert where a giant rock resembling a python that is accompanied by large amounts of colored broken spear points and a secret chamber has been discovered inside a cave. The Broken spear points were most likely sacrificial offerings and the python is also important to and worshipped by contemporary Bushmen Hunter-gatherers who are the descendants of the of the people who devised the ritual at the Tsodilo Hills and may have inherited their worship of the python from their distant Middle Paleolithic ancestors.
MODERN MAN IS BORN
Near c. 250 thousand years ago, Homo sapiens evolves in Africa.
c.150,000 BC Mitochondrial Eve in Africa (MOM mother of man)
71,000 BC Eruption of Toba, Sumatra volcano and the ensuing cold millennium which killed almost all Homo Sapien sapien (estimate of 5,000 left) This was right at a minimum temperture of about 7 degrees C below current temperature.The eruption took the temperature down to about 9 degrees C below current temperature for about 1000 years
68,000BC approx: Two Neandertal skulls from France of this time are found. They had a hypoglossal canal the size of modern humans, which was thought to be indicative of speech. By now, Neandertals have spread over much of Europe and Western Asia. (See Shreeve, Neandertal)
Around c. 70–60 thousand years ago, modern humans migrate out of Africa along a coastal route to South and Southeast Asia and reach Australia.
60,000 BC Y-chromosome Adam (DAD direct ancesteral descendant)
60,000BC: At Shanidar, a large cave in the Zagros mountains of northeastern Iraq soil samples from a grave of a [Neandertal] man of this time indicated pollen grains from 8 different types of flowers, some of them used for medicinal purposes. When excavated by Ralph Solecki of Columbia University, the remains are found of nine Neandertals, with some evidence of “spirituality”. One man has received wounds to head and body meaning he had a withered arm and was blind in one eye. In 1971, Solecki published his book, Shanidar: The First Flower People. (Shreeve, Neandertal)
60,000BC: A Neandertal from Kebara cave (Israel) shows an age of 60,000 years. An Israeli-French team working in Israel uses the technique of thermoluminescence to study the relationship between early humans and Neandertals. Shreeve in his book on Neandertals notes that about 58,000BC in the Levant area at least was one of the coldest periods of the Ice Age, for the Qafzeh-Skhul people. At this time, did Homo sapiens co-exist in the same area with Neandertals?
60,000BC: Custom of head deformation, also seen amongst Ancient Mesoamericans, seen as early as 60,000BC in the Near East, as found with Neandertal skulls in the Shanidar cave of Northern Iraq. (James/Thorpe).
60,000BC-58,000BC: One of the earliest ceremonial burials found is a “suttee and flowers” burial at (cave?) Shanidar in northern Iraq
60,000-10,000BC: The Acheulian Age or early Stone Age culture lasted over this period. (Encyclopedia of Africa, 1976, p.165)
58,000 years ago? To 9000BC approx homo floriensis (little people, Hobbits),in 2004, from the Indonesian island of Flores just near the North-West coast of Western Australia, came news from a team largely of Australian archaeologists that a new species of humanity, homo floriensis (little people, Hobbits) has been discovered. They became extinct about 11,000 years ago. The saga of, or, about, the Hobbits now continues as archaeologist Mike Morwood from University of New England now suggests that one-metre tall Hobbits, who were wiped out by difficulties with volcanoes, may have lived also in Australia
In March 2005 scientists who published details of the brain of Flores Man in Science supported species status.A study published in July 2009 found that cladistic analysis supports that H. floresiensis is a separate species.
58,0000BC: Approx: The Mungo Man controversy on the genetics of human origins breaks out: Australia was enlivened on 9 January 2001 to read reports of far-reaching new research by Australian scientists on the origins and dispersal of humanity, globally, which counters the orthodox “Out of Africa” theory of human origins.
The scientific argument is extremely complicated and multi-disciplinary, but it does seem as though arguments will never be the same again. Crucial to the arguments are views on the origins of Australia’s Aboriginal people.
Evidence used is basically some flakes from the skull of Mungo Man, remains found in 1974 in New South Wales by Australian Jim Bowler. Later, Mungo Man (scientifically called LM3) was radiocarbon-dated at about 28,000-32,000 years old, a view which supported opinions that Aboriginals had been in Australia for up to 40,000 years. By the mid-1980s, better radiocarbon-dating techniques pushed LM3’s dates to about 36,000BC. In 1999, LM3 again caused excitement, since his dates were more like 58,000BC, or, 56,000-68,000 BP (Before present). This trebled the “human settlement time” of the Australian continent. But other evidence arising by the late 1990s tended to support the “Out of Africa” theory of human origins, which suggests that fully-modern Homo sapiens arose in Africa, and then dispersed elsewhere, 150,000-100,000 years ago. As they dispersed they displaced (possibly killed?) earlier or more archaic people, Neandertals or the earlier-arising Homo erectus. However, Mungo Man is anatomically modern, but his DNA does not match ours. His genes are now extinct.
So, by 2001, Australian researchers are proposing a Regional Continuity argument of human origins, which suggests that from about 1.5 million years ago, waves of people began migrating from Africa, becoming “a single evolving species”. These forms of humanity continually interbred, and became ourselves. Mungo Man was “a modern man” but his genetic lineage is now extinct, which may in turn suggest that some other human (non-Neandertal) genetic lines became extinct before modern man appeared between 100,000BC-150,000BC?
Significantly, research on Mungo Man involves analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is passed down only the maternal line. However, the argument will continue for a long time. It now seems, Mungo Man’s lineage should stand as firmly in the history of humanity as the stockily-built Neandertal, and Java Man. (Those interested should find a copy of The Australian newspaper, 9 January 2001)
About c. 50 thousand years ago, modern humans spread from Asia to the Near East.
53,000-27,000BC: Pre-human fossils from a site on the Solo River near the Javanese town of Ngandong were dated in 1996 to this period, and identified as belonging to the species of Homo erectus. Brain size was equivalent to modern humans. (Estimated number of cells in the human brain – 10,000 million.)
40,700BC: In 1992 rock engravings in South Australia are carbon dated at 42,700 years.
Followed by c. 40 thousand years ago, in which Europe was first reached by modern humans.
Circa 43,000BC: About this time some seven women led to the descendants of the population of moern Europe. In 2001 geneticist Bryan Sykes authored The Seven Daughters of Eve. (Such issues are well-discussed in Shreeve, Neandertal)
The first such study dates back to 1999 and was conducted by the Estonian biologist Toomas Kivisild, a pioneer in the field, with fourteen co-authors from various nationalities (including M. J. Bamshad). It relied on 550 samples of mtDNA and identified a haplogroup called “U” as indicating a deep connection between Indian and Western-Eurasian populations.In other words, there is a genetic connection between India and Europe, but a far more ancient one than was thought and the flow was out of, not into, India.
“indeed, nearly all Europeans — and by extension, many Americans — can trace their ancestors to only four mtDNA lines, which appeared between 10,000 and 50,000 years ago and originated from South Asia.”
43,000BC: A flute-like instrument made of bear bone was found by archaeologist Janez Dirjec at the Divje Babe site in the valley of the Idrijca River in Slovenia. It was believed to be about 45,000 years old.
c.30,500 BC Ice Age in Europe starts
28,000 BC Date of latest fossil of Homo Neanderthalensis. Probably died off because of climate change and the arrival of Homo Sapien sapien(modern man)
“This definitely is its own species,” Dr. Tattersall affirmed, glancing first to the Neanderthal and then to a modern human skeleton next to it. “If people didn’t believe that before, by all rights they should now.”Also Gary Sawyer, a senior technician in anthropology, who directed the reconstruction and other technicians began developing their skills several years ago with the reconstruction of Peking Man, a Homo erectus from China. Their goal is to recreate skeletons of about 20 hominid species.
By c. 15 thousand years ago, the migration to the New World occurred.
c11,300 BC Ice Ages ends in Europe
The Ice Age (c.30,000 to 13,300 years ago),ends c. 11 300 BC. Ice sheets extended to about 45 degrees north latitude. These sheets were 3 to 4 km thick
In Egypt Cemetery 117 is an ancient cemetery near the northern border of Sudan 59 bodies were recovered at Cemetery 117, and many more partial pieces found. There were twenty-four females and nineteen males all over nineteen years of age, thirteen children ranging in age from infancy to fifteen years old, and also three bodies that remain unaged and unsexed due to damage and missing pieces. The skeletons were dated using radiocarbon dating at 13,740 years before present plus or minus 600 years. Of the people buried in Jebel Sahaba about forty percent died of violent wounds. Stone projectile points were found in the bodies at places that suggest that they were attached to a spear or arrow. The wound sites were in the chest or abdomen area, the back, or in the skull through the lower jaw or neck. Also the lack of bony calluses due to healing around these wounds indicates that they were most likely fatal
Some have speculated that this violence and aggression was due to diminishing resources in the area and the rising aridity of the land. Also the failure of earlier agricultural experiments may have led to this series of raiding and or ambush by other tribes or bands of people
An early temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe dated to 10,000 BC may be regarded as the beginning of the Neolithic. This site was developed by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, evidenced by the lack permanent housing in the vicinity. This temple site is the oldest known man-made place of worship.Through the radiocarbon method, the end of stratum III could be determined at circa 9,000 BC ; its beginnings are estimated to 11,000 BC or earlier. Stratum II dates to about 8,000 BC.
Thus, the complexes originated before the so-called Neolithic Revolution, the beginning of agriculture and animal husbandry, which is assumed to begin after 9,000 BC.The oldest occupation layer (stratum III) contained monolithic pillars linked by coarsely built walls to form circular or oval structures. So far, four such buildings, with diameters between 10 and 30m have been uncovered. Geophysical studies suggest 16 further structures
But the construction of the Göbekli Tepe complex implies organisation of a degree of complexity not hitherto associated with pre-Neolithic societies. The archaeologists estimate that up to 500 persons were required to extract the 10-20 ton pillars (in fact, some weigh up to 50 tons) from local quarries and move them 100 to 500m to the site.The monoliths are decorated with carved relief of animals or of abstract pictograms. These signs cannot be classed as writing, but may represent commonly understood sacred symbols, as known from Neolithic cave paintings elsewhere.
After 8000 BC, the site was abandoned and purposely covered up with soil.
The Fertile Crescent is a region in the Near East, incorporating the Levant and Mesopotamia, and often incorrectly extended to Egypt. Mesopotamia is considered the Cradle of civilization and saw the development of the earliest human civilizations and is the birthplace of writing and the wheel
The Levant The Natufian culture existed in the Mediterranean region of the Levant 12,000 to 9600 BCE. It was a Mesolithic culture, but unusual in that it was sedentary, or semi-sedentary, before the introduction of agriculture.Settlements occur in the woodland belt where oak and Pistacia species dominated. The underbrush of this open woodland was grass with high frequencies of grain. The high mountains of Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon, the steppe areas of the Negev desert in Israel and Sinai, and the Syro-Arabian desert in the east put up only small Natufian living areas due to both their lower carrying capacity and the company of other groups of foragers who denuded this large region.The superstructure was probably made of brushwood. No traces of mudbrick have been found, which became common in the following Pre-Pottery Neolithic A, abbreviated PPN A. The round houses have a diameter between 3 and 6 meters, they contain a central round or subrectangular fireplace
The Natufian communities are possibly the ancestors of the builders of the first Neolithic settlements of the region.A semi-sedentary life may have been made possible by abundant resources due to a favourable climate at the time, with a culture living from hunting, fishing and gathering, including the use of wild cereals. Tools were available for making use of cereals: flint-bladed sickles for harvesting, and mortars, grinding stones, and storage pits.
Ain Mallaha was a Natufian settlement built and settled circa 10,000–8,000 BCE. The site is located in Northern Israel, and is in an area surrounded by hills and located by an ancient lake, Lake Huleh. The inhabitants are known to have eaten gazelle, fallow deer, wild boar, red and roe deer, hare, tortoise, reptiles, and fish. Also known as Eynan (Hebrew) or Mallaha (Arabic), this Natufian village was colonized in three phases. The first two phases were comprised of massive stone-built structures with smaller ones in the third phase. The phases occurred from 12,000 to 9600 BCE.Hundreds of Natufian graves have been excavated in Israel, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon.In 2008, the grave of a Natufian ‘priestess’ was discovered (in most media reports referred to as a shaman or witch doctor ). The burial contained complete shells of 50 tortoises, which are thought to have been brought to the site and eaten during the funeral feast
c. 12,000 BC Round wooden houses, oak woodland and massive stone structures,hunter gatherers with flint blades and sickles and priestess shaman ,these are proto-Celtic people. Not only were there women Druids but from written accounts it is known that women also fought in battle. Diodorus described Celtic women as being “nearly as big and strong as their husbands and as fierce.” By c.11,000 BC the ice sheets would melt and reveal Central and then Northern Europe.The first hunter gatherers arrive in Scotland c.10,800 BC but probably settled in the North Sea basin before it flooded c.4,000BC.Its then we see,and still can see today in the British Isles, massive stone structures and roundhouses.Also sickles and Druidic Prietesses meeting in oak woodlands.
So it would seem the “Holy Land” belongs to the Celtic peoples. So if the Jews would like to send the rent checks made payable to the Aryan Celtic Nations ,we’ll say no more.As the land now belongs to the Palestinians they can stay there free of charge as long as they take good care of it. 😉
In the 10th millennium BC, Invention of agriculture is the earliest given date for the beginning of the ancient era. In the 7th millennium BC, Jiahu culture began in China. By the 5th millennium BC, the late Neolithic civilizations saw the invention of the wheel and spread of proto-writing. In the 4th millennium BC, the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in the Ukraine-Moldova-Romania region develops. By 3400 BC, “proto-literate” Sumerian cuneiform is spread in the Middle East. The 30th century BC, referred to as the Early Bronze Age II, saw the beginning of the literate period in Sumer and Ancient Egypt arise. Around ca. 27th century BC, the Old Kingdom of Egypt and the First Dynasty of Uruk are founded
China -Jiahu (?? pinyin: Jiahú) was the site of a Neolithic Yellow River settlement based in the central plains of ancient China, modern Wuyang, Henan Province. Archaeologists consider the site to be one of the earliest examples of the Peiligang culture. Settled from 7000 to 5800 BC, the site was later flooded and abandoned
Archaeologists have divided Jiahu into three distinct phases. The oldest phase ranges from 7000 to 6600 BC. The middle phase ranges from 6600 to 6200 BC. The last phase ranges from 6200 to 5800 BCThe inhabitants of Jiahu cultivated foxtail millet and rice. rice cultivation at Jiahu is unique. Jiahu rice cultivation is one of the earliest found, and the most northerly found at such an early stage in history.
Over 300 burials have been unearthed at Jiahu, accompanied by burial offerings. Burial objects range from pottery to tortoise shells. One of the most significant offerings discovered were playable tonal flutes.Jiahu yielded some of the oldest pottery yet found in Neolithic China. Scientists from the University of Pennsylvania applied chemical analysis to pottery jars from Jiahu and found evidence of alcohol fermented from rice, honey and hawthorn
At Jiahu, archaeologists identified eleven markings Jiahu script, nine on tortoise shells and two on bone, as possible evidence for proto-writing. The markings correspond to the middle phase. Some of the markings are quite similar to later Chinese characters; two of the most intriguing marks appear to be similar to later characters for eye (?) and sun (?).
Europe East The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, also known as Cucuteni culture (Romanian), Trypillian culture (from Ukrainian) or Tripolie culture (from Russian), is a late Neolithic archaeological culture that flourished between ca. 5500 BC and 2750 BC in the Dniester-Dnieper region of modern-day Romania, Moldova, and Ukraine.J.P. Mallory reports that the
culture is attested from well over a thousand sites in the form of everything from small villages to vast settlements comprised of hundreds of dwellings surrounded by multiple ditches
The inhabitants were involved with animal husbandry and agriculture, fishing and gathering. Wheat, Rye and peas were grown. Tools included ploughs made of antlers, stone, bone and sharpened sticks. The harvest was collected with scythes made of flint inlaid blades. The grain was milled by stone wheels. Women were involved in pottery, clothing and played a leading role in community life. Men hunted, looked out for the cattle, made tools from flint, bone and stone. Cattle were important and pigs, sheep and goats took a secondary place. The horse was domesticated. Female statues and amulets were made of clay. Rarely one comes across copper items, primarily bracelets, rings and hooks. One settlement in Korbuni, Moldova had a large number of copper items, primarily jewelry which were dated back to the beginning of the 5th millennium BC
Europe West Celtic Culture- It is believed that the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago(10800 BC), as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation The Orkney islands may have been attached to the mainland, as was the present-day island of Great Britain to Continental Europe. Much of the North Sea basin was also dry land until after 4000 BC. This would have made travel to northern Scotland relatively easy for early human settlers.Little is known of the people who settled in the Hebrides but they were likely of the same Celtic stock that had settled in the rest of Scotland.Scholars say that people arrived in Ireland after 8000 B.C. via land bridges from Scotland. These land bridges were submerged by c.7000 B.C. The first inhabitants were Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) hunters and gatherers.
Groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago (4000 BC).It is possible earlier settlements are now under the North Sea(Atlantis or Flood myth?).Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherers are known to have occupied constructed lakeshore platforms in central and northwest Ireland at c.4500 BC. Neolithic crannogs are also known in Scotland. The islet of Eilean Domhnuill, Loch Olabhat on North Uist may be the earliest crannóg, dated to 3200-2800 BC in the Neolithic period.A variant of the crannóg was the island roundhouse. Built on a small, rocky island in a lochan and usually reached by means of a causeway, these are extremely common in the Western Isles
A stone circle is different from a henge or isolated monolith, although each of these features is often encountered in a single location. Earlier features, such as the Goseck circle in Saxony-Anhalt, may have served similar religious/calendrical/astronomical purposes, though probably at a much earlier epoch. Stone circles usually date from the late Neolithic / early Stone Age, that is, c. 7000-3500 B.C
Often oriented on sight lines for the rising or setting sun or moon at certain times of the year, it seems likely that for their builders the cycle of seasons was very important.Ardnadam Burial Chamber is also known as Adam’s Grave Cromlech. It is a Neolithic burial site which would have been covered by a cairn. The burial chamber is about nine feet in length. The chamber is dated about 5000 B.C. making it over 7000 years old
Historically, Anglesey has long been associated with the Druids.Anglesey is rich in prehistoric remains. The first evidence of humans on the island comes from the Mesolithic period, about 7000 BC. Throughout the next several millennia, the various tribes that occupied Anglesey erected numerous stone burial chambers, standing stones, and hill forts, many of which survived the ages in good condition and can be visited today.
Skara Brae (pronounced /’sk?r? ‘bre?/) is a large stone-built Neolithic settlement, located on the Bay of Skaill on the west coast of mainland Orkney, Scotland. It consists of ten clustered houses, and was occupied from roughly 3100-2500BC. It is Europe’s most complete Neolithic village The dwellings contain a number of stone-built pieces of furniture, including cupboards, dressers, seats, and storage boxes. A sophisticated drainage system was even incorporated into the village’s design, one that included a primitive form of toilet in each dwelling.The eighth house has no storage boxes or dresser, but has been divided into something resembling small cubicles. When this house was excavated, fragments of stone, bone and antler were found. It is possible that this building was used as a workshop to make simple tools such as bone needles or flint axes A comparable — if smaller — site exists at Rinyo on Rousay.
Knap of Howar on the Orkney island of Papa Westray, is a well preserved Neolithic farmstead. Dating from 3500 BC to 3100 BC, it is similar in design to Skara Brae, but from an earlier period, and it is thought to be the oldest preserved standing building in northern Europe.Unstan ware is the name used by archaeologists for a type of finely made and decorated Neolithic pottery from the 4th millennium BC. Typical are elegant, round based bowls with a band of grooved patterning below the rim.It is named after Unstan chambered cairn and fort on the Mainland of the Orkney Islands, a fine example of a stalled burial chamber in a circular mound, where the style of pottery was first found.It has been found at many sites including Knap of Howar, Balbridie and Eilean Domhnuill.Unstan ware may have evolved into the later grooved ware style,
The rest ,as they say , is history!
For more on History
Please read the following with tongue in cheek.
BUT TO THE REST OF YOU “TRUE BELIEVERS” MAYBE YOU WILL UNDERSTAND BETTER IF I EXPLAIN IT THIS WAY
MY MONOTHEISTIC GOD IS BIGGER THAN YOURS …NA..NA.. NA NA.. NA
MY HOLY TRINITY?
MY BELIEF SYSTEM?
MATTER IS ENERGY ,AND ENERGY CANNOT BE DESTROYED ONLY CONVERTED ,THE LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
THE NAME OF MY GOD?
THE ONE TRUE universal and transcendental GOD,the one Uncreated Creator!
Everyday I am amazed by his/her creations!
Your pathetic TRIBAL GODS and old men in the sky try to DISPOIL MY GODS CREATED WORKS, ………but YOU ARE but NOUGHT IN HIS SIGHT!!
BLOW YOURSELFS UP if you want and take your pathetic myths with you,you created nothing anyway,but THE EARTH WILL NOT DISAPPEAR!! IT WILL just LOOK UGLY for a million years…… THANKS TO YOU, UNBELIEVER AND YOUR GODS WORK!!!
Hopefully SOMETHING MORE INTELLIGENT AND COMPASIONATE will EVOLVE later and prove itself WORTHY OF EXISTANCE ON MY GODS WONDEROUS CREATION!! A million years is nothing to MY GOD!! It would be the DEATH of all of YOURS.
MY PRIESTS re-write OUR BOOKS ,but that is because WE SEEK the ULTIMATE TRUTH!
YOUR PRIESTS re-write YOUR BOOKS to HIDE the ULTIMATE TRUTH!
YOUR BOOK says the Earth is flat and the sun revolves around it, and the sky is held up on 4 pillars.ITS THE WORD OF YOUR GOD
MY BOOK says the Earth is a sphereoid that revolves around the sun, and the sky is light difused through atmosphere. THAT’S THE WORD OF MINE
WHICH ONE DO YOU TRULEY BELIEVE??
The only future YOUR BELIEF has is either its exstinction or humanity’s in an Armegeddon ,your belief system IS THE EMBODIMENT OF EVIL!
TRIBAL GODS ,I RAGE AGAINST YOU(but as you do not exist I’ll just have a cup of tea instead,just as well ,I would feel guilty beating up an old man)
BUT actually…BELIEVE WHAT YOU WILL, JUST BE GOOD, maybe I’ll burn in HELL ,but MY FAITH says I will NOT,variety is the spice of life is it not . BUT if YOUR BELIEFS are used to JUSTIFY THEFT and MURDER and DESTRUCTION, I SPIT ON THEM AND YOU! If you want to HARM MY LOVED ONES with your pathetic gods I’LL FIND YOU….and YOUR GODS, YOUR PRAYERS , NOT EVEN SATAN HIMSE$LF COULD SAVE YOU FROM MY WRATH!!
HIGH PRIEST OF GRAVITY , HOLDER OF THE SACRED LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS , FORCE OF NATURE , DESTROYER OF GODS, CHALLENGER OF THE RULE OF HEAVEN, MASTER OF ALL HE SURVEYS.
MONTHEISTS HEAR MY VOICE AND DISPAIR
ALL OTHERS REJOICE
YOU HAVE NOTHING TO LOSE BUT YOUR CHAINS,YOU HAVE NOTHING TO FEAR BUT FEAR ITSELF
VIOLENCE BREEDS VIOLENCE
EDUCATION BREEDS UNDERSTANDING
WE ARE STAR STUFF, HARVESTING STAR LIGHT
PEACE TO EVERYONE
(Even the tribal card carrying members of the “God’s a Bigot” societies a.k.a. Judaism, Christianity and Islam)
NOW if we open our Scientific hymn books we will sing our PRAISE TO GRAVITY.(sung to Ghostbusters theme)
Have you got a god ? that you need rid of? Who you gonna call?
A fanatical dude ,in your neighbourhood? Who you gonna call?
………………………….I AIN”T AFRAID OF NO GOD?!
AND SO ENDS THIS SERMON
“thought for the day ,to the god squad”
IF THERE IS A GOD IT IS IRRELEVANT IF YOU BELIEVE IN HIM/HER/THEM OR NOT!
WHAT WOULD BE IMPORTANT IS THAT GOD BELIEVES IN YOU AND THE THINGS THAT YOU DO!!!
BTW. I SMILE AT WHAT I SEE IN THE MIRROR EVERY MORNING,I AM AT PEACE WITH MY GOD ,
BUT MAYBE GRAVITY IS A MYTH AND THE EARTH JUST SUCKS!!
God does not scare me its his followers that worry me.
If you feel religious.its your choice, there are plenty of inoffensive religions to choose from but..
MONOTHEISM IS A FORCE OF EVIL. Do not look at what it says ,look at what it does!
“He’s not the messiah ,he’s just a very naughty boy” Monty Python’s Life of Brian
FYI For more info on the above check out these books.
The Bible Fraud (2001)
The Secret in the Bible ( 2 0 0 3 😉
T he Crucifixion of Truth (2005;)
The Twin Deception (2007)