BBC deletes important story on toxic waste dumping in the Ivory Coast after legal threats, 12 Dec 2009

December 14, 2009

While we have the Copehagen Media Muppet show  going on ,PURELY,to make people think that thier government is doing something about environmental destruction and polution. Of course this is nonsense, these governments have been bought and sold by lobby groups. They will do what they always do ,tax the people more ,and spend the taxes on “other things”, and rubber stamp thier lobby groups actions.

Fine example is Global Warming ,a.k.a. Climate Change, as the globe does not seem to be warming much anymore. I remember the 1970’s and the predicted Global Ice Age just around the corner. Just more nonsense.

What about REAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

GM crops ,infecting natural crops. Fertiliser and chemical polution.Chemical waste dumping etc tec ..Oh but I forgot these are the government’s buddies and lobby groups…..i.e. thier (pay)masters or blackmailers.

This file contains a deleted BBC news article on the toxic-waste dumping of commodities giant Trafigura. According to a September 2009 UN report, the dumping drove 108,000 people in the Ivory Coast to seek medical attention.

Trafigura and their lawyers Carter Ruck had been pursuing an ongoing libel case against the BBC over a news story from on the case that aired in May 2009[1].

In the story “Dirty Tricks and Toxic Waste in the Ivory Coast”, the BBC’s Newsnight programme stated: “It is the biggest toxic dumping scandal of the 21st century, the type of environmental vandalism that international treaties are supposed to prevent. Now Newsnight can reveal the truth about the waste that was illegally tipped on Ivory Coast’s biggest city, Abidjan”. The programme alleged that a number of deaths had been caused by the dumping of this toxic waste, which had originated with Trafigura.

Until this week the story was still available on the BBC website.[2]

The link stopped working some time on December 10th or 11th, but at the time of writing the Google cache is still available[3].

Trafigura and Carter Ruck have become notorious for their willingness to use the UK’s repressive media laws to suppress legitimate criticism and comment. A number of other UK media have already been bullied into censoring stories about this case, but until now the BBC had stood firm. Unfortunately it appears that even the UK’s world-renowned public service broadcaster has now been muzzled by a rich corporation seeking to use the law to cover up the truth about its activities.

Dirty tricks and toxic waste in Ivory Coast

By Meirion Jones and Liz MacKean BBC Newsnight

It is the biggest toxic dumping scandal of the 21st century, the type of environmental vandalism that international treaties are supposed to prevent. Now Newsnight can reveal the truth about the waste that was illegally tipped on Ivory Coast’s biggest city, Abidjan. A giant multinational is being sued in London’s High Court by thousands of Africans who claim they were injured as a result.

The truth behind Ivory Coast toxic waste dump

Our investigation took us to Amsterdam where the waste could have been safely disposed of. Instead the company, Trafigura, went for the cheaper option and offloaded it in Abidjan.

Trafigura has always denied that the chemical waste was dangerous, but we have seen an analysis by the Dutch authorities which reveal it to be lethal.

We consulted a leading toxicologist, John Hoskins from the Royal Society of Chemistry. He said it would bring a major city to its knees.

The waste includes tons of phenols which can cause death by contact, tons of hydrogen sulphide, lethal if inhaled in high concentrations, and vast quantities of corrosive caustic soda and mercaptans which John Hoskins describes as “the most odorous compounds ever produced”.

A terrible smell

It happened on 19 August 2006 in the dead of night. A convoy of trucks from a newly-formed company in Abidjan arrived to take the waste away. They illegally dumped the first loads at the huge tip in Aquedo.

Watch Newsnight’s 2007 investigation into claims toxic waste was dumped in Ivory Coast

A powerful stench soon engulfed the area. The tip’s operators were called out and the drivers sent packing. They looked elsewhere to drop the waste, tipping it in at least 18 places across the city and beyond.

The Aquedo tip stretches as far as the eye can see. As scores of waste trucks tip their loads, an army of Abidjanis cluster around, children amongst them, brandishing long metal spikes. They pick through the rubbish, looking for anything that can be sold.

Deaths

We were soon surrounded by people, only too willing to talk about the night the toxic waste was dumped and the terrible smell that made them gag and sicken.
There were women who miscarried, and that was very painful. But still, the worst was that three people, two adults and a girl were killed by the toxic wastes. That was very hard Esaie Modto, head of Djibli village

Just round the corner from the dump, we met Jean Francois Kouadio and his wife, Fidel.

She had been eight months pregnant with their first child when the fumes swamped their home. Fidel gave birth prematurely and the boy, Jean Claude, died within a day.

Their second child Ama Grace was born a year later. She too fell ill.

The doctors said that Ama Grace “was suffering from acute glycaemia caused by the toxic wastes”.

They could do nothing for her and she died.

The medical reports state a “strong presumption” that the deaths of the two children were caused by exposure to the toxic waste and Jean Francois and Fidel now fear they will never become parents.

Polluted water

We also visited the village of Djibi, just outside Abidjan. The waste that was tipped here got into the water supply, killing the fish that fed the village.

A woman whose face is covered in lesions in Abidjan (September 2008) Thousands of people say they were victims of the waste
The head of Djibi, Esaie Modto, told us that every last person here fell ill, two thousand people:

“There were women who miscarried, and that was very painful. But still, the worst was that three people, two adults and a girl were killed by the toxic wastes. That was very hard.”

So what was it that brought such ruin on a country that in 2006 was still struggling to recover from a civil war?

The waste was generated as the result of an oil deal spanning three continents. Trafigura bought a consignment of cheap and dirty heavy oil with a high sulphur content. Instead of putting it through a refinery, Trafigura tried to clean it up, using a do-it-yourself method, so they could sell it on at a massive profit.

They used a ship called the Probo Koala which they stationed off Gibraltar as a rough and ready refinery. Caustic soda and a catalyst were added to the oil which reacted with the sulphur and settled to the bottom of the tank. Trafigura were then able to sell the oil, but left with a toxic sludge at the bottom of the tank.

“Smelly but not dangerous”

The Probo Koala went to Amsterdam where they attempted to unload this sulphurous tar as if it were normal ships’ waste, which would have cost a few thousand euros.

Watch the 2007 Newsnight interview with Eric de Turckheim, co-founder of Trafigura

However the fumes were so bad, the emergency services were called and the Dutch authorities carried out tests. They discovered the waste was highly toxic and told Trafigura that it would cost half a million euros to dispose of safely.

The Probo Koala instead pumped the waste back on board and left port, ending up in West Africa.

Marietta Harjono of Greenpeace Nederland says this has led to a prosecution by the Dutch authorities for “falsification of papers – they deliberately were silent on the toxic nature of the waste”, as well as for illegal import of toxic waste and “illegal export of toxic waste from Europe to Cote d’Ivoire”.

When Newsnight first investigated the toxic dumping scandal in 2007 one of Trafigura’s founders Eric de Turckheim told Jeremy Paxman “these materials were not dangerous for human beings. It was smelly, but not dangerous.”

Newsnight’s new investigation shows this was far from the case. Trafigura continues to deny any wrongdoing.
See also: Updated secret gag on UK Times preventing publication of Minton report into toxic waste dumping, 16 Oct 2009

See also

https://cuthulan.wordpress.com/2009/10/16/internet-victory-over-old-regime-traders-in-death-and-misery-named-and-shamed/

Carter-Ruck Law Firm ,

probably the most incompitant law firm in the world at the momment., as well as immoral!

Trafigura ,

multunational that trades on toxic waste ,death and disease and oil and spends a lot of money to keep this quiet rather than improve thier business practices.

Labour MP Paul Farrelly local hero , or at least a polition that is doing his job.

This MP stood up in parliment and asked some very searching questions on big business and thier business practices , especially in this day and age when the people are being asked to change THIER lifestyles and pay MORE TAX for ENVIRONMENTAL REASONS!!!!


Internet Victory over Old Regime …Traders in Death and Misery named and shamed

October 16, 2009

Hopefully this is a sign of the times, as the People and the Internet ignore Big Brother and SPREAD THE WORD!

The reigns of power are slipping from the hands of government and big business.

Carter-Ruck Law Firm ,

probably the most incompitant law firm in the world at the momment., as well as immoral!

Trafigura ,

multunational that trades on toxic waste ,death and disease and oil and spends a lot of money to keep this quiet rather than improve thier business practices.

Labour MP Paul Farrelly local hero , or at least a polition that is doing his job.

This MP stood up in parliment and asked some very searching questions on big business and thier business practices , especially in this day and age when the people are being asked to change THIER lifestyles and pay MORE TAX for ENVIRONMENTAL REASONS!!!!

THEY ARE STILL GAGGING THE GUARDIAN ,BUT NOT THE INTERNET!!

The Guardian is still forbidden by the terms of the existing injunction, granted by a vacation duty judge, Mr Justice Maddison, to give further information about the Minton report, or its contents. Last month, Trafigura agreed to pay more than £30m in compensation and legal costs to 30,000 inhabitants of Abidjan in Ivory Coast, for “flu-like symptoms” they might have suffered following the dumping.

THAT’S A LOT OF MONEY FOR SOMETHING THEY CLAIM HAD NOTHING TO DO WITH THEM!!

THEY TRIED TO GAG HIM WITH A D-NOTICE , ……..well the people DIDN’T NOTICE!!!! AND WE WON!!!!

CARTER RUCK AND TRAFIGURA ,I HAVE SCRAPPED BETTER THINGS OFF MY SHOES!!!!

Profiteers in death polution and misery YOU SHOULD ALL BE IN JAIL !!!

“Yesterday, I understand, Carter-Ruck quite astonishingly warned of legal action if the Guardian reported my question. In view of the seriousness of this, will you accept representations from me over this matter and consider whether Carter-Ruck’s behaviour constitutes a potential contempt of parliament?”
The Commons question reveals that Trafigura has obtained a hitherto secret injunction, known as a “super-injunction”, to prevent disclosures about toxic oil waste it arranged to be dumped in west Africa in 2006, making thousands of people ill.

THE ARTICLE

Trafigura Drops Bid To Gag Guardian Over MP’s Question

An unprecedented attempt by a British oil trading firm to prevent the Guardian reporting parliamentary proceedings has collapsed following a spontaneous online campaign  to spread the information the paper had been barred from publishing.
Carter-Ruck, the law firm representing Trafigura, was accused of infringing the supremacy of parliament after it insisted that an injunction obtained against the Guardian prevented the paper from reporting a question tabled on Monday by the Labour MP Paul Farrelly.
Farrelly’s question was about the implications for press freedom of an order obtained by Trafigura preventing the Guardian and other media from publishing the contents of a report related to the dumping of toxic waste in Ivory Coast.
In today’s edition, the Guardian was prevented from identifying Farrelly, reporting the nature of his question, where the question could be found, which company had sought the gag, or even which order was constraining its coverage.
But overnight numerous users of the social networking site Twitter posted details of Farrelly’s question and by this morning the full text had been published on two prominent blogs as well as in the magazine Private Eye.
Carter-Ruck withdrew its gagging attempt by lunchtime, shortly before a 2pm high court hearing at which the Guardian was about to challenge its stance, with the backing of other national newspapers.
MPs from all three major parties condemned the firm’s attempt to prevent the reporting of parliamentary proceedings. Farrelly told John Bercow, the Speaker: “Yesterday, I understand, Carter-Ruck quite astonishingly warned of legal action if the Guardian reported my question. In view of the seriousness of this, will you accept representations from me over this matter and consider whether Carter-Ruck’s behaviour constitutes a potential contempt of parliament?”
The Commons question reveals that Trafigura has obtained a hitherto secret injunction, known as a “super-injunction”, to prevent disclosures about toxic oil waste it arranged to be dumped in west Africa in 2006, making thousands of people ill.
Farrelly is asking Jack Straw, the justice secretary, about the implications for press freedom of a high court injunction obtained on 11 September 2009 by Trafigura “on the publication of the Minton report on the alleged dumping of toxic waste in the Ivory Coast, commissioned by Trafigura”.
The Guardian is still forbidden by the terms of the existing injunction, granted by a vacation duty judge, Mr Justice Maddison, to give further information about the Minton report, or its contents. Last month, Trafigura agreed to pay more than £30m in compensation and legal costs to 30,000 inhabitants of Abidjan in Ivory Coast, for “flu-like symptoms” they might have suffered following the dumping. The oil traders continue to deny that the waste could have caused serious or fatal injuries.
The use of “super-injunctions”, under which commercial corporations claim the right to keep secret the fact that they have been to court, has been growing. Anonymity is also increasingly being granted to individual litigants.
Last week, an anonymity order was overturned at the supreme court under which Mohammed al-Ghabra, an alleged al-Qaida financier named in official UN and Treasury publications, was to be known only as G. A further pending supreme court case involving an MI5 officer’s memoirs is currently only known as “A v B”.
Alan Rusbridger, the editor of the Guardian, said yesterday: “I’m very pleased that common sense has prevailed and that Carter-Ruck are now prepared to vary their draconian injunction to allow reporting of parliament. It is time that judges stopped granting super-injunctions which are so absolute and wide-ranging that nothing about them can be reported at all.”
Carter-Ruck, whose partner Adam Tudor has been representing Trafigura, issued a press release conceding: “The order would indeed have prevented the Guardian from reporting on the parliamentary question which had been tabled for later this week.” But the firm said the Guardian’s reporting on the issue had been “highly misleading”.
The firm added: “There is no question of Trafigura seeking to gag the media from reporting parliamentary proceedings, and the parties have now agreed to an amendment to the existing order so as to reflect that.”
The previous night, Carter-Ruck had written to the Guardian saying: “The threatened publication would place the Guardian in contempt of court … please confirm by immediate return that the publications threatened will not take place.”
At Westminster, the Liberal Democrat MP Evan Harris said there was a need to “control the habit of law firms” of obtaining secrecy injunctions, and his colleague David Heath told the Commons a “fundamental principle” was being threatened: that MPs should be able to speak freely and have their words reported freely.
On the Conservative side, David Davis, the former shadow home secretary, criticised the rising use of super-injunctions, in which the fact of the injunction is itself kept secret.
He said courts should not be allowed to grant injunctions forbidding the reporting of parliament.
Bercow said the issue could be raised formally as a matter of privilege, but he understood the injunction had been lifted.
Farrelly told the Guardian afterwards: “The issuing by the courts of so-called super-injunctions is rightly controversial and a matter of growing concern. That is why, using parliamentary privilege, I tabled these questions.

“The practice offends the time-honoured rule against prior restraint, which safeguards freedom of expression in this country.

“It also fails to protect whistleblowers acting in the public interest. The huge legal bills involved in fighting cases, too, have a chilling effect on legitimate investigative journalism.

“So often, the beneficiaries are big corporations. The fact that the press is also barred from reporting the existence of these gagging orders is doubly pernicious.”

October 13, 2009 “The Guardian”

SOMETHING IS ROTTEN IN THE HOUSE OF AFRICA!!!

https://cuthulan.wordpress.com/2009/09/13/somali-pirates-guided-by-london-intelligence-team-report-says/

BUT the first step is realising the problem ,the next step is getting rid of the problem……..

“All government, of course, is against liberty. The whole aim of practical politics is to keep the populace alarmed (and hence clamorous to be led to safety) by menacing it with an endless series of hobgoblins, all of them imaginary. Most people want security in this world, not liberty.”
“The most dangerous man to any government is the man who is able to think things out… without regard to the prevailing superstitions and taboos. Almost inevitably he comes to the conclusion that the government he lives under is dishonest, insane, intolerable. It doesn’t take a majority to make a rebellion; it takes only a few determined leaders and a sound cause.”

SOLUTION?

https://cuthulan.wordpress.com/2009/09/03/libertarian-socialism-is-the-future/


Somali pirates guided by London intelligence team, report says

September 13, 2009

  So what the hell is going on here, is this more government sponcered terror? Another false flag to create an excuse to get “boots on the ground” in East Africa?

Document obtained by Spanish radio station says ‘well-placed informers’ in constant contact by satellite telephone

The Somali pirates attacking shipping in the Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean are directed to their targets by a “consultant” team in London, according to a European military intelligence document obtained by a Spanish radio station. The document, obtained by Cadena SER radio, says the team and the pirates remain in contact by satellite telephone. It says that pirate groups have “well-placed informers” in London who are in regular contact with control centres in Somalia where decisions on which vessels to attack are made. These London-based “consultants” help the pirates select targets, providing information on the ships’ cargoes and courses. In at least one case the pirates have remained in contact with their London informants from the hijacked ship, according to one targeted shipping company. The pirates’ information network extends to Yemen, Dubai and the Suez canal. The intelligence report is understood to have been issued to European navies. “The information that merchant ships sailing through the area volunteer to various international organisations is ending up in the pirates’ hands,” Cadena SER reported the report as saying. This enables the more organised pirate groups to study their targets in advance, even spending several days training teams for specific hijacks. Senior pirates then join the vessel once it has been sailed close to Somalia. Captains of attacked ships have found that pirates know everything from the layout of the vessel to its ports of call. Vessels targeted as a result of this kind of intelligence included the Greek cargo ship Titan, the Turkish merchant ship Karagol and the Spanish trawler Felipe Ruano. In each case, says the document, the pirates had full knowledge of the cargo, nationality and course of the vessel. The national flag of a ship is also taken into account when choosing a target, with British vessels being increasingly avoided, according to the report. It was not clear whether this was because pirates did not want to draw the attention of British police to their information sources in London. European countries have set up Operation Atalanta to co-ordinate their military efforts in the area.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/may/11/somali-pirates-london-intelligence


Barbado’ed: Scotland’s Sugar Slaves (Redlegs) and other White slaves

September 6, 2009

The west coast of Barbados is known as a favorite winter destination for British tourists, ranging from the upmarket Sandy Lane resort to the all-drinks-included package holiday crowd arriving by economy class. Many will come from Scotland, but few will realise that just fourteen miles away on the rocky east side of the island live a community of McCluskies, Sinclairs and Baileys who are not, as might be expected, black Bajans bearing the family names given by slave owners centuries ago, but poor whites eking out a subsistence existence. Known as the Redlegs, they are the direct descendants of the Scots transported to Barbados by Cromwell after the Civil War. Scottish author and broadcaster Chris Dolan went to meet them to discover why they are still here 350 years later, what they know about their roots, and what their prospects are today when they are the poorest community on the island. Chris speaks to leading historians in Barbados and Scotland about how their ancestors were treated when they first arrived. Was their plight as severe as that of the black slaves from Africa? Nearly two centuries after emancipation, this Redleg community has yet to find a role on the island, where it is damned by association with the days of slavery, even though many of its forbears were victims themselves. In recent years, it has begun to come out of its racial isolation; could there yet be a hopeful future for this lost Scottish tribe?

http://www.blinkx.com/video/barbado-ed-scotland-sugar-slaves-the-redlegs/twA2aEeFLSpxd2aDEschsg

Redlegs was a term used to refer to the class of poor whites that lived on colonial Barbados, St. Vincent, Grenada and a few other Caribbean islands. In Belize, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago they are known as “Bakras” (“Back-Row”). Many of these people were English, Irish, or Scottish, and had originally arrived on Barbados in the early to mid 17th century as slaves, indentured servants, or as transported prisoners, notably from Oliver Cromwell‘s wars in Ireland and Scotland and from southwest England following the Monmouth Rebellion. Small groups of Germans and Portuguese were also imported as plantation labourers. Many were described as “white slaves”. According to folk etymology, the name is derived from the effects of the tropical sun on their fair-skinned legs. However, the term “Redlegs” and its variants were in use for Irish soldiers of the same sort as those later transported to Barbados, and the variant “Red-shankes” is recorded by Edmund Spenser in his dialogue on “the Present State of Ireland” as early as the 16th century.

By the 18th century, white slavery was becoming more and more uncommon, and fewer and fewer whites existed on Barbados outside of the sugar plantation. African slaves were trained in all needed trades, so there was no demand for paid white labour. The Redlegs, in turn, were unwilling to work alongside the freed slave population on the plantations. Therefore, most of the white population that chose to stay eked out, at best, a subsistence living. Because of the deplorable conditions under which the Redlegs lived, a campaign was initiated in the mid-19th century to move portions of the population to other islands which would be more economically hospitable. The relocation process succeeded, and a distinct community of Redleg descendants live in the Dorsetshire Hill district on St. Vincent as well as on the islands of Grenada and Bequia.

In addition to Redlegs the term underwent extensive progression in Barbados and the following terms were also used: “Redshanks”, “Poor whites”, “Poor Backra”, “Backra Johnny”, “Ecky-Becky”, “Poor whites from below the hill”,”Edey white mice” or “Beck-e Neck” (Baked-neck). Historically everything besides “poor whites” were used as derogatory insults.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redlegs

THE WORD SLAVE MEANS SLAV. AN EASTERN EUROPEAN!!

ORIGINALLY SLAVES WHERE WHITE SKINNED ,THE SLAVE TRADERS WHERE BLACK, OLIVE OR JEWISH!!
Saqaliba (Arabic: صقالبة, sg. Siqlabi) refers to the Slavs, particularly Slavic slaves and mercenaries in the medieval Arab world, in the Middle East, North Africa, Sicily and Al-Andalus. It is generally thought that the Arabic term is a Byzantine loanword: saqlab, siklab, saqlabi etc. is a corruption of Greek Sklavinoi for “Slavs”. The word was also often used more generally to refer to all slaves from Central and Eastern Europe.
The Persian chronicler Ibn al-Faqih wrote that there were two types of saqaliba: those with swarthy skin and dark hair that live by the sea and those with fair skin and light hair that live farther inland.
Ibrahim ibn Yaqub placed the people of “Saqalib” in the mountainous regions of Central Balkans, west of the Bulgarians and east from the “other Slavs” (Croat and Serb land). The Saqalib had the reputation of being “the most courageous and violent”.
There were several major routes of the trade of Slav slaves into the Muslim world: through Central Asia (Mongols, Tatars, Khazars, etc.); through the Mediterranean (Byzantium); through Central and Western Europe to Al-Andalus and further to North Africa (Morocco, Egypt).
The Volga trade route and other European routes, according to Ibrahim ibn Jakub, were serviced by Radanites, Jewish merchants.
In the Muslim world, Saqaliba served or were forced to serve in a multitude of ways: servants, harem girls, eunuchs, craftsmen, soldiers, and as Caliph’s guards.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saqaliba

Slavery is a system under which people are treated as property and are forced to work.[1] Slaves can be held against their will from the time of their capture, purchase or birth, and deprived of the right to leave, to refuse to work, or to demand compensation. Slavery predates written records, has existed in many cultures[2] and in some historical situations it has been legal for owners to kill slaves.[3]
The number of slaves today remains as high as 12 million[4] to 27 million,[5][6][7] though this is probably the smallest proportion of the world’s population in history.[8] Most are debt slaves, largely in South Asia, who are under debt bondage incurred by lenders, sometimes even for generations.[9] Human trafficking is primarily for prostituting women and children into sex industries.

1.^ Brace, Laura (2004). “8. Slaveries and Property: Freedom and Belonging”. The politics of property: labour, freedom and belonging. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0748615350. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=osZnIiqDd4sC&pg=PA162.
2.^ a b c d e f “Historical survey > Slave-owning societies”. Encyclopædia Britannica.
3.^ “Welcome to Encyclopćdia Britannica’s Guide to Black History”. Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-24164. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
4.^ “Forced labour – Themes”. Ilo.org. http://www.ilo.org/global/Themes/Forced_Labour/lang–en/index.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
5.^ Bales, Kevin (1999). “1”. Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy. University of California Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-520-21797-7.
6.^ By E. Benjamin Skinner Monday, Jan. 18, 2010 (2010-01-18). “sex trafficking in South Africa: World Cup slavery fear”. Time.com. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1952335,00.html. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
7.^ a b “UN Chronicle | Slavery in the Twenty-First Century”. Un.org. http://www.smfcdn.com/assets/pubs/un_chronicle.pdf. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
8.^ Slavery is not dead, just less recognizable.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slave

Evidence of slavery predates written records, and has existed in many cultures.Prehistoric graves from about 8000 BC in Lower Egypt suggest that a Libyan people enslaved a San-like tribe.
Slavery is rare among hunter–gatherer populations, as slavery is a system of social stratification. Mass slavery also requires economic surpluses and a high population density to be viable. Due to these factors, the practice of slavery would have only proliferated after the invention of agriculture during the Neolithic revolution about 11,000 years ago.
The earliest records of slavery can be traced to the Code of Hammurabi (ca. 1760 BC)
 In the West the targets of Viking slavery were primarily English, Irish, and Scottish, while in the East they were mainly Slavs. The Viking slave trade slowly ended in the 11th century, as the Vikings settled in the European territories they once raided, Christianized serfdom, and merged with the local populace. The Normans made slaves of the English gentry after invasion in 1066 and deported them to Spain. They continued taking Welsh Slaves during the Medieval period who were traded in London.
The early medieval slave trade was mainly confined to the South and East: the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim world were the destinations, pagan Central and Eastern Europe, along with the Caucasus and Tartary, were important sources. Viking, Arab, Greek and Jewish merchants (known as Radhanites) were all involved in the slave trade during the Early Middle Ages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery

A brief History of White Slavery

The Barbary Corsairs, sometimes called Ottoman Corsairs or Barbary Pirates, were Muslim pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa from the time of the Crusades (11th century) until the early 19th century. Based in North African ports such as Tunis, Tripoli, Algiers, Salé, and other ports in Morocco, they sailed mainly along the stretch of northern Africa known as the Barbary Coast.[1] Their predation extended throughout the Mediterranean, south along West Africa‘s Atlantic seaboard, and into the North Atlantic as far north as Iceland, and they primarily commandeered western European ships in the western Mediterranean Sea. In addition, they engaged in Razzias, raids on European coastal towns, to capture Christian slaves to sell at slave markets in places such as Algeria and Morocco.[2][3]

Pirates destroyed thousands of French, Spanish, and English ships, and long stretches of coast in Spain and Italy were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants, discouraging settlement until the 19th century. From the 16th to 19th century, pirates captured an estimated 800,000 to 1.25 million Europeans as slaves,[2] mainly from seaside villages in Italy, Spain, and Portugal, but also from France, England, the Netherlands, Ireland and as far away as Iceland and North America. The most famous corsairs were the brothers Hayreddin Barbarossa (“Redbeard“) and Oruç Reis, who took control of Algiers in the early 16th century, beginning four hundred years of Ottoman Empire presence in North Africa and establishing a centre of Mediterranean piracy.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbary_pirates

Slavery during the Early Middle Ages had several distinct sources. The Vikings raided across Europe, though their slave raids were the most destructive in the British Isles and Eastern Europe. While the Vikings kept some slaves for themselves as servants, known as thralls, most people captured by the Vikings would be sold on the Byzantine or Islamic markets. In the West the targets of Viking slavery were primarily English, Irish, and Scottish, while in the East they were mainly Slavs. The Viking slave trade slowly ended in the 1000s, as the Vikings settled in the European territories they once raided, Christianized, and merged with the local populace.

The Islamic World was also a main factor in Medieval European slavery. From the early 700s until the early Modern time period (rough the 18th or 19th centuries) Muslims consistently took European slaves. This slavery began during the Muslim Conquest of Visigothic Spain and Portugal in the 8th century. The Muslim powers of Iberia both raided for slaves and purchased slaves from European merchants, often the Jewish Radhanites, one of the few groups that could easily move between the Christian and Islamic worlds. As the Muslims failed to conquer Europe in the 8th century they took to pirate raids against the shores of Spain, southern Portugal and France, and Italy, that would last roughly from the 9th century until the 12th century, when the Italian city-states of Genoa, Venice, and Pisa, along with the Spanish kingdoms of Aragon and Castile, as well as the Sicilian Normans, began to dominate the Mediterranean. The Middle Ages from 1100 to 1500 saw a continuation of the European slave trade, though with a shift from the Western Mediterranean Islamic nations to the Eastern, as Venice and Genoa, in firm control of the Eastern Mediterranean from the 12th century and the Black Sea from the 13th century sold both Slavic and Baltic slaves, as well as Georgians, Turks, and other ethnic groups of the Black Sea and Caucasus, to the Muslim nations of the Middle East. The sale of European slaves by Europeans slowly ended as the Slavic and Baltic ethnic groups Christianized by the Late Middle Ages. European slaves in the Islamic World would, however, continue into the Modern time period as Muslim pirates, primarily Algerians, with the support of the Ottoman Empire, raided European coasts and shipping from the 16th to the 19th centuries, ending their attacks with the naval decline of the Ottoman Empire in the late 16th and 17th centuries, as well as the European conquest of North Africa throughout the 19th century.

Romans inherited the institution of slavery from the Greeks and the Phoenicians [11]. As the Roman Republic expanded outward, entire populations were enslaved, thus creating an ample supply to work in Rome’s farms and households. The people subjected to Roman slavery came from all over Europe and the Mediterranean. Such oppression by an elite minority eventually led to slave revolts (see Roman Servile Wars); the Third Servile War led by Spartacus was the most famous and severe. Greeks, Berbers, Germans, Britons, Thracians, Gauls (or Celts), Jews, Arabs, and many more were slaves used not only for labor, but also for amusement (e.g. gladiators and sex slaves). If a slave ran away, he was liable to be crucified. By the late Republican era, slavery had become a vital economic pillar in the wealth of Rome. Slavery was so common, and citizenship restricted so firmly (only to native-born adult males and people granted citizenship under special circumstances), that the slaves in Rome far outnumbered the citizens

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery

Here is a new take on the African Slave trade in the New World.

Who Brought the Slaves to America?

http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-8533633099218104720#

Especially when you consider

The Muslim powers of Iberia both raided for slaves and purchased slaves from European merchants, often the Jewish Radhanites, one of the few groups that could easily move between the Christian and Islamic worlds.

It seems Jewish European merchants where selling European slaves to the Muslims! Where and how did they get these slaves?


Polio surge in Nigeria after vaccine virus mutates

September 6, 2009

LONDON – Polio, the dreaded paralyzing disease stamped out in the industrialized world, is spreading in Nigeria. And health officials say in some cases, it’s caused by the vaccine used to fight it. In July, the World Health Organization issued a warning that this vaccine-spread virus might extend beyond Africa. So far, 124 Nigerian children have been paralyzed this year — about twice those afflicted in 2008. The polio problem is just the latest challenge to global health authorities trying to convince wary citizens that vaccines can save them from dreaded disease. For years, myths have abounded about vaccines — that they were the Western world’s plan to sterilize Africans or give them AIDS. The sad polio reality fuels misguided fears and underscores the challenges authorities face using a flawed vaccine. Nigeria and most other poor nations use an oral polio vaccine because it’s cheaper, easier, and protects entire communities.

So when WHO officials discovered a polio outbreak in Nigeria was sparked by the polio vaccine itself, they assumed it would be easier to stop than a natural “wild” virus.

They were wrong.

In 2007, health experts reported that amid Nigeria’s ongoing outbreak of wild polio viruses, 69 children had also been paralyzed in a new outbreak caused by the mutation of a vaccine’s virus.

Back then, WHO said the vaccine-linked outbreak would be swiftly overcome — yet two years later, cases continue to mount. They have since identified polio cases linked to the vaccine dating back as far as 2005.

It is a worrying development for officials who hope to end polio epidemics in India and Africa by the end of this year, after missing several earlier deadlines. “It’s very disturbing,” said Dr. Bruce Aylward, who heads the polio department at the World Health Organization.

This year, the number of polio cases caused by the vaccine has doubled: 124 children have so far been paralyzed, compared to 62 in 2008, out of about 42 million children vaccinated. For every case of paralysis, there are hundreds of other children who don’t develop symptoms, but pass on the disease.

Experts have long believed epidemics unleashed by a vaccine’s mutated virus wouldn’t last since the vaccine only contains a weakened virus strain — but that assumption is coming under pressure. Some experts now say that once viruses from vaccines start circulating they can become just as dangerous as wild viruses.

“The only difference is that this virus was originally in a vaccine vial,” said Olen Kew, a virologist at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The oral polio vaccine used in Nigeria and elsewhere contains a mild version of the live virus. Children who have been vaccinated pass the virus into the water supply through urine or feces. Other children who then play in or drink that water pick up the vaccine’s virus, which gives them some protection against polio.

But in rare instances, as the virus passes through unimmunized children, it can mutate into a strain dangerous enough to ignite new outbreaks, particularly if immunization rates in the rest of the population are low.

Kew said genetic analysis proves mutated viruses from the vaccine have caused at least seven separate outbreaks in Nigeria.

Aside from Nigeria, polio persists in a handful of other countries, including Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Chad, Angola and Sudan.

http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090814/ap_on_re_af/af_med_polio_nigeria

IMHO

Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Chad, Angola and Sudan ,sounds suspiciously like a wish list of US invasion…. but maybe I’m just paranoid.

Vaccinations for killer diseases are a good idea BUT must be done properly and NOT ON THE CHEAP!!! This can cause more damage than help.

Vaccinations for FLU is a very BAD IDEA!

SWINE FLU = PIGS HAVE FLOWN