Abrahamic monotheism is just original fascism
ALL Abrahamic monotheism (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) is an invention to control hearts and minds and can be traced back to a man and a motive.
Cyrus the Great and Aryan monotheistic Zoroastrainism for Judaism.
Originally “Judaism” was a fertility cult (Baal/El, Set/Amen) coverted to Zoraostrianism by Cyrus the Great.He invented a fanatical religious warrior to defend his zoroastrian monotheistic Persian empire.
Constantine the Great invented “christianity” it was Aryan monotheistic sun worship,(Sol Invictus/Mithras)
which got officially converted to messianic Judaism c.787AD. Constantine invented the religious institution.
Othman the Third Caliph for Islam. Originally it was Semitic polythestic moon worship which was converted to nestorian messianic Judaism.
ALL These conversions where done by FORCE!!
Abrahamic monothisms stories are myths taken from ancient Aryan beliefs.Beliefs that can be traced back 18,000 years.
But there are even older beliefs like snake worship beliefs that can be traced back to Africa over 70,000 years ago!!
Abrahamic monotheism is a New Age belief!
That age is the “age of Piceses” which began about 2,000 years ago and there is something very fishy about it!
For secular people this is just confirming your suspiscions
For spiritual people this is a wake up call…YOU ARE WORSHIPPING FALSE GODS
Abrahamic Monotheism Part 1 – The Invention of Judaism
Abrahamic Monotheism Part 2 – The Invention of Christianity
Abrahamic Monotheism Part 3 – The Invention of Islam
THE FOLLOWING POST DOES NOT DISPROVE GOD OR GODS
AND NEITHER IS IT A RANT AGAINST JEWS OR PEOPLE OF FAITH.
IT IS A SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INTO THE ROOTS OF ABRAHAMIC MONOTHEISM ,AND COMPARES THE BIBLICAL CLAIMS WITH THE SCIENTIFIC REALITY USING ORIGINAL TEXTS ,DNA AND ARCHEOLOGY
The span of RECORDED history altogether is roughly 5,000 – 5,500 years, with Sumerian cuneiform being the oldest form of writing discovered so far. This is the beginning of RECORDED history according to the definition used by most historians.It is of course NOT the beginning of history itself, which is written in and on stone and goes back 10’s of thousands of years.
For example see History of the Celtic People.Also “chosen of their tribal gods”,they where in the Holy Land and built temples 10,000 years before the hebrew culture existed.But I would not be so RUDE as to claim MY ancient tribal gods are more important or better than yours , and certainly NOT more important than the people currently living there today!!!)
THEOLOGY WITHOUT FACTS = FANTASY
THE INVENTION OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE
The Invention of the Jewish People (Hebrew: מתי ואיך הומצא העם היהודי?, Matai ve’ech humtza ha’am hayehudi?, literally When and How was the Jewish People Invented?) is a study of the historiography of the Jewish people by Shlomo Sand, Professor of History at Tel Aviv University. It has generated a heated controversy
Sand began his work by looking for research studies about forcible exile of Jews from the area now bordered by modern Israel, and its surrounding regions. He was astonished that he could find no such literature, he says, given that the expulsion of Jews from the region is viewed as a constitutive event in Jewish history. The conclusion he came to from his subsequent investigation is that the expulsion simply didn’t happen, that no one exiled the Jewish people from the region, and that the Diaspora is essentially a modern invention. He accounts for the appearance of millions of Jews around the Mediterranean and elsewhere as something that came about primarily through the religious conversion of local people, saying that Judaism, contrary to popular opinion, was very much a “converting religion” in former times. He holds that mass conversions were first brought about by the Hasmoneans under the influence of Hellenism, and continued until Christianity rose to dominance in the fourth century CE
Sand argues that it is likely that the ancestry of most contemporary Jews stems mainly from outside the ancient Land of Israel and that a “nation-race” of Jews with a common origin never existed. Just as most contemporary Christians and Muslims are the progeny of converted people, not of the first Christians and Muslims, Judaism was originally, like its two cousins, a proselytising religion. Many of the present day world Jewish population are descendants of European, Russian and African groups.
According to Sand, the original Jews living in Israel, contrary to popular belief, were not exiled following the Bar Kokhba revolt. Sand argues that most of the Jews were not exiled by the Romans, and were permitted to remain in the country. Many Jews converted to Islam following the Arab conquest, and were assimilated among the conquerors. He concludes that the progenitors of the Palestinian Arabs were Jews
Sand’s explanation of the birth of the “myth” of a Jewish people as a group with a common, ethnic origin has been summarized as follows: “[a]t a certain stage in the 19th century intellectuals of Jewish origin in Germany, influenced by the folk character of German nationalism, took upon themselves the task of inventing a people “retrospectively,” out of a thirst to create a modern Jewish people. From historian Heinrich Graetz on, Jewish historians began to draw the history of Judaism as the history of a nation that had been a kingdom, became a wandering people and ultimately turned around and went back to its birthplace.
Sand believes that the idea of Jews being obliged to return from exile to the Promised Land was alien to Judaism before the birth of Zionism, and that the holy places were seen as places to long for, not to be lived in. On the contrary, for 2,000 years Jews stayed away from Jerusalem because their religion forbade them from returning until the Messiah came. According to Sand, the ancestry of Central and Eastern European Jews stems heavily from mediæval Turkic Khazars who were converted to Judaism, a theory which was popularized in a book written by Arthur Koestler in 1976
Sand explained during a newspaper interview his reasons for writing the book: “I wrote the book for a double purpose. First, as an Israeli, to democratise the state; to make it a real republic. Second, I wrote the book against Jewish essentialism.”
THE FOLLOWING IS THE EXPLAINATION OF HOW AND WHY THESE MYTHS CAME ABOUT
USING ARCHEOLOGY ,DNA AND ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS..ALL THINGS YOU CAN USE IN A COURT OF LAW.
WE FIND THE TRUTH BEHIND THE EXODUS MYTH AND THE CREATION OF ISRAEL
THE OLDEST CULTURE AND BELIEF SYSTEM ON EARTH
EUROPE 35,000 YEARS AGO AT THE BEGINNING OF THE ICE AGE
THIS ANCIENT BELIEF LIVES ALONGSIDE BEARS CULTS AND SNAKE CULTS
THE RED HORNED GOD/SHAMAN
THIS IS A VERY ANCIENT BELIEF SYSTEM
GOBEKLI TEPE IS DATED TO OVER 12,000 YEARS OLD
THE HORNED BULL/COW SYMBOL
THE EXACT SAME SYMBOL IS FOUND ON THE EGYPTIAN NAMER TABLET
Analysis indicate that it is the oldest religious site yet discovered anywhere.Recent DNA analysis of modern domesticated wheat compared with wild wheat has shown that its DNA is closest in sequence to wild wheat found on Mount Karaca Dağ 20 miles (32 km) away from the site, suggesting that this is where modern wheat was first domesticated.Pillar carvings ignore game on which the society mainly subsisted, like deer, in favor of formidable creatures like lions, snakes, spiders, and scorpions.The reason the complex was carefully backfilled remains unexplained.
TO ME THIS IS A TEMPLE TO THE CONSTELLATIONS
LION,SNAKE,SPIDER AND SCORPION ARE ALL ANCIENT ZODIAC SYMBOLS
AND ONE USE OF THE TEMPLE WOULD BE TO KNOW WHEN TO SOW SEEDS
ANOTHER WOULD BE TO KNOW WHEN TO GET THE TRIBES TO ANNUALLY GATHER TOGETHER
The imposing stratigraphy of Göbekli Tepe attests to many centuries of activity, beginning at least as early as the epipaleolithic period. Structures identified with the succeeding period, Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), have been dated to the 10th millennium BCE
THE MOON GODDESS
COW HORNS REPRESENT THE CRESENT MOON
THE MOON IS IN RYTHMN WITH FEMALE FERTILITY
Shaktism – the worship of the female force that animates the world – is one of the three major sects of Hinduism. In Tibetan Buddhism, the highest advancement any person can achieve is to become like the great female Buddhas (e.g. Arya Tara) who are depicted as being supreme protectors, fearless and filled with compassion for all beings.Originally goddesses are associated with earth, motherhood, fertility, love, and vegetation.
GOBEKLI TEPE WAS PURPOSELY COVERED OVER AND LEFT C8000BC.
JUST WHEN MODERN EUROPE RE-APPEARED FROM BENEATH THE ICE SHEETS
AND TELL ASWAD ALMOST AS OLD WAS ABANDONED AT THE SAME TIME
The latest research has split the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) period into 3; PPNB Ancien from 8700 to 8200 cal BC and the PPNB Moyen from 8200 to 7500 BC. PPNB Récent has been equated with Dunand’s “Néolithique ancien de Byblos”The first PPNB period involved construction of massive earth architecture, layering soil with reeds to construct walls. The inhabitants of Tell Aswad invented the brick on site by modelling earth clods with beds of reeds, which they then formed into raw bricks and eventually dried in later stages. Houses were round from beginning to the end of the settlement, elliptical or polygonal and were partly buried or laid. The orientation of the openings is most often to the East.
ROUND HOUSES ARE THE SIGN OF CELTIC/VEDIC ARYAN PEOPLE
IN THESE COMMUNITIES WE SEE THE SAME HORNED SHAMEN PRIESTS AND PRIESTESSES
Ain Mallaha was a Natufian settlement built and settled circa 10,000–8,000 BCE. The site is located in Northern Israel.The inhabitants are known to have eaten gazelle,fallow deer, wild boar, red and roe deer, hare, tortoise, reptiles, and fish.Tools were available for making use of cereals: flint-bladed sickles for harvesting, and mortars, grinding stones, and storage pits.The round houses have a diameter between 3 and 6 meters, they contain a central round or subrectangular fireplaceThe first two phases were comprised of massive stone-built structures with smaller ones in the third phase. The phases occurred from 12,000 to 9600 BCE.Hundreds of Natufian graves have been excavated in Israel, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon.In 2008, the grave of a Natufian ‘priestess’ was discovered (in most media reports referred to as a shaman or witch doctor ).
8000BC THE DELUGE BEGINS.ICE AGE MELTING CAUSES GLOBAL FLOODS
THE WATER LEVEL RISES 130 METRES
During the most recent ice age (at its maximum about 20,000 years ago) the world’s sea level was about 130 m lower than today, due to the large amount of sea water that had evaporated and been deposited as snow and ice, mostly in the Laurentide ice sheet
WE ARE STILL LIVING IN THE FLOOD
NON SEMITIC AYRANS BRING CIVILISATION AND THIER BELIEFS TO MESOPOTAMIA C5500BC
Although the earliest forms of writing in the region do not go back much further than c. 3500 BCE, modern historians have suggested that Sumer was first permanently settled between c. 5500 and 4000 BCE by a non-Semitic people who spoke the Sumerian language (pointing to the names of cities, rivers, basic occupations, etc. as evidence).These conjectured, prehistoric people are now called “proto-Euphrateans” or “Ubaidians”,and are theorized to have evolved from the Samarra culture of northern Mesopotamia (Assyria).The Ubaidians were the first civilizing force in Sumer, draining the marshes for agriculture, developing trade, and establishing industries, including weaving, leatherwork, metalwork, masonry, and pottery.
“Sumer (ancient region, Iraq)”. Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-03-29.
Kleniewski, Nancy; Thomas, Alexander R (2010-03-26). “Cities, Change, and Conflict: A Political Economy of Urban Life”. ISBN 978-0-495-81222-7.
Maisels, Charles Keith (1993). “The Near East: Archaeology in the “Cradle of Civilization””. ISBN 978-0-415-04742-5.
Maisels, Charles Keith (2001). “Early Civilizations of the Old World: The Formative Histories of Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, India and China”. ISBN 978-0-415-10976-5.
Shaw, Ian; Jameson, Robert (2002). “A dictionary of archaeology”. ISBN 978-0-631-23583-5.]
THE INDUS VALLEY ,THE VEDAS AND THE VEDIC BELIEF SYSTEM c4000BC-1700BC
THIS BELIEF SYSTEM GIVES US HINDUISM IN INDIA,BUDDHISM IN ASIA AND DRUIDISM IN EUROPE.
IT IS THE ROOT OF MOST MODERN LANGUAGES AND BELIEFS TODAY
It is one of the oldest extant texts in any Indo-European language.The Rigvedic hymns are dedicated to various deities, chief of whom are Indra, a heroic god praised for having slain his enemy Vrtra; Agni,the sacrificial fire(Zoroastrianism); and Soma, the sacred potion or the plant it is made from. Equally prominent gods are the Adityas or Asura(Ashur) gods Mitra(Mithras)–Varuna and Ushas(Jesus)(the dawn). Also invoked are Savitr,Vishnu(Anu/Amen), Rudra(Isa), Pushan, Brihaspati or Brahmanaspati, as well as deified natural phenomena such as Dyaus Pita(Zeus/Jupiter) (the shining sky, Father Heaven).The vedas also have a similar creation myth from chaotic water.Danu the mother goddess is found in Vedic and Celtic Druidic lore.The seperation of these peoples is described in the Vedas.The Celts called themselves the children of Danu.The nature of these links tells of a beleif system much older than 4000BC.
WE SEE A DRUIDIC VEDIC SPLIT IN ANCIENT TIMES
THE DRUIDIC VERSION STILL WORSHIPS THE GODDESS AND HAS FEMALE AND MALE DRUIDIC PRIESTESSES AND PRIESTS AND DANU IS A GOOD MOTHER GODDESS
IN THE VEDIC VERSION THE GODDESSES HAVE BECOME MALE GODS AND THE BRAHIMS ARE ALL MALE AND DANU IS THE MOTHER GODDESS OF CHAOS
THE INDO-EUROPEAN STRUGGLE WITH THE SNAKE
POSSIBLY REPRESENTING FEMALE SOCIO-RELIGIOUS POWER
Dragon or Serpent
One common myth which can be found among almost all Indo-European mythologies is a battle ending with the slaying of a serpent, usually a dragon of some sort (Watkins 1995).
Thor vs. Jörmungandr, Sigurd vs. Fafnir and Beowulf vs. the dragon in Germanic mythology;
Zeus vs. Typhon, Kronos vs. Ophion, Apollo vs. Python, Heracles vs. the Hydra and Ladon, Perseus vs. Ceto, and Bellerophon vs. the Chimera in Greek mythology;
Indra vs. Vrtra in the Rigveda;
Krishna vs. Kāliyā in the Bhagavata Purana;
Θraētaona, and later Kərəsāspa, vs. Aži Dahāka in Zoroastrianism and Persian mythology;
Perun vs. Veles, Dobrynya Nikitich vs. Zmey in Slavic mythology;
Fat-Frumos vs. Zmeu in Folklore of Romania
Tarhunt vs. Illuyanka of Hittite mythology;
There are also analogous stories in other neighbouring mythologies: Anu or Marduk vs. Tiamat in Mesopotamian mythology; Ra vs. Apep in Egyptian mythology; Baal or El vs. Lotan or Yam-Nahar in Levantine mythology; Yahweh or Gabriel vs. Leviathan or Rahab or Tannin in Jewish mythology; Michael the Archangel and, Christ vs. Satan (in the form of a seven-headed dragon), Virgin Mary crushing a serpent in Roman Catholic iconography (see Book of Revelation 12), Saint George and the Dragon in Christian mythology. The myth symbolized a clash between forces of order and chaos (represented by the serpent).
THE ANCIENT DEMONISATION OF ELDER DEITIES(GODDESSES)
“Pandemonium” is Jaan Puhvel’s word for the mutual demonization that occurred when the Younger-Avesta demonized the daevas, and the post-Rigvedic texts demonized the asuras. Neither demonization occurs in the oldest texts: in the Rigveda, there is not yet any hard-and-fast distinction between asuras and dēvas, and even in the later Vedas, the two groups (though thematically in opposition) cooperate at certain times.In the Old Avestan texts the daevas are to be rejected for being misguided by the “lie”, but they are still gods, and not demons.
Mythe et Épopée I, II, III, by G. Dumézil, Gallimard, 1995.
Kuiper, F.B.J. (1983). Irwin, J., ed. Ancient Indian Cosmology. Delhi: Vikas..
Herrenschmidt, Clarisse; Kellens, Jean (1993). “*Daiva”. Encyclopaedia Iranica 6. Cosa Mesa: Mazda. p. 601.]
THE FIRST EGYPTIAN HEBREW GODDESS 2700BC
Ba‘alat Gebal was generally identified with the pan-Semitic goddess ‘Ashtart (Astarte).The temple of Ba‘alat Gebal in Byblos was built around 2700 BC. Dedications from Egyptians begin appearing from the second to the 6th Egyptian dynasties. Two of these inscriptions equate Ba‘alat Gebal with the Egyptian goddess Hathor.Close contacts and trade between Egypt and Byblos exist at this time and Byblos is probably an Egyptian trade outpost.
The Jewish religion historically had elements of polytheism, especially the worship of goddesses and a cult of the mother goddess.The book “Hebrew Goddess” supports the theory through the interpretation of archaeological and textual sources as evidence for veneration of feminine beings. Hebrew goddesses identified in the book include Asherah, Anath, Astarte, Ashima, the cherubim in Solomon’s Temple, the Matronit (Shekhina), and the personified “Shabbat Bride”.
The later editions of the book were expanded to include recent archaeological discoveries and the rituals of unification (Yichudim) which are to unite God with his Shekinah.
The identification of the pillar figurines with Asherah in this book was the first time they had been so identified.
Patai, Raphael, The Hebrew Goddess, 1967 (ISBN 0-8143-2271-9)
Thomas L. Thompson, Salma Khadra Jayyusi, eds., Jerusalem in Ancient History and Tradition T.& T.Clark Ltd; illustrated edition (1 April 2004) ISBN 978-0-567-08360-9 p. 139.
Gilgamesh was the son of Lugalbanda and the fifth king of Uruk ruling circa 2700 BC, according to the Sumerian king list. He became the central character in the Epic of Gilgamesh,Gilgamesh is credited with the building of the legendary walls of Uruk.
THE FIRST RECORDED HEBREWS ARE WANDERING TRIBES IN SUMERIA c2400BC
In the earliest Sumerian sources, beginning about 2400 BC, the land of the Amorites (“the Mar.tu land”) is associated with the West, including Syria and Canaan, although their ultimate origin may have been Arabia. They appear as nomadic people in the Mesopotamian sources, The Amorite language was presumably a northwest Semitic dialect.Many of these names are similar to later Biblical Hebrew names.Amorites seem to have worshipped the moon-god Sin, and Amurru. Amurru is sometimes described as a ‘shepherd’, and as a son of the sky-god Anu. He is sometimes called bêlu šadi or bêl šadê, ‘lord of the mountain’; dúr-hur-sag-gá sikil-a-ke, ‘He who dwells on the pure mountain’;’the god of my father’.
Sargon of Akkad Possibly of humble illegitimate Semitic origin,but lived a Sumarian cultural life. He rises to power and kingship “my father I knew not ,my father loved the hills”
Sargon of Akkad c. 2270–2215 BCE claimed to have destroyed these walls(of Uruk) to prove his military power.
The earliest mention of semitic Habiru(hebrew) is found in Sumerian documents from the reign of Shulgi of Ur (around 2150 BC) describe a class of “unclothed people, who travel in dead silence, who destroy everything, whose menfolk go where they will — they establish their tents and their camps — they spend their time in the countryside without observing the decrees of my king”.
THEY CAUSE THE DOWNFALL OF THE THIRD DYNASTY OF UR c2004BC
Amorite tribes infiltrated Mesopotamia, precipitating the downfall of the Neo-Sumerian Third Dynasty of Ur,
Approximate extension of the empire of the Third Dynasty of Ur (2112-2004 BC according to the middle chronology), with the center/periphery organization of Shulgi’s reign (2093-2047 BC).The Third Dynasty of Ur refers simultaneously to a 21st to 20th century BC Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur
Mesopotamia / Sumeria
UR-NAMMU AND THE THIRD DYNASTY OF UR 2112-2004BC
The Third Dynasty of Ur arose some time after the fall of the Akkad Dynasty. The period between the last powerful king of the Akkad Dynasty, Shar-Kali-Sharri, and the first king of Ur III, Ur-Nammu, is not well documented.Following Utu-Hengal’s reign, Ur-Nammu (originally a general) founded the dynasty of Ur-III, but the precise events surrounding his rise are unclear.It is possible that Ur-Nammu was originally his governor. There are two stelae discovered in Ur that include this detail in an inscription about Ur-Nammu’s life.Ur-Nammu rose to prominence as a warrior-king when he crushed the ruler of Lagash in battle, killing the king himself. After this battle, Ur-Nammu seems to have earned the title ‘king of Sumer and Agade.Ur’s dominance over the Neo-Sumerian Empire was consolidated with the famous Code of Ur-Nammu, probably the first such law-code for Mesopotamia since that of Urukagina of Lagash centuries earlier.
Many significant changes occurred in the empire under Shulgi’s reign. He took steps to centralize and standardize the procedures of the empire. He is credited with standardizing administrative processes, archival documentation, the tax system, and the national calendar. He established a standing army of Ur. Shulgi was deified during his lifetime, an honor usually reserved for dead kings.
NOTICE IN THIS GENEALOGY OF SUMERO-AKKADIAN GODS IS BEGUN WITH NAMMU AND ANU
THESE ARE THE DRUIDIC GODDESSES DOMMU AND DANU THAT BEGIN CREATION FROM CHAOTIC WATERS
THESE SEMITIC PEOPLE ADOPT SUMERIAN INDO-EUROPEAN CULTURE AND MYTHS C2000-C1600BC
BABYLON, THE CITY OF THE AMORITES AND THEIR GOD AMURRU
The Amorites (/ˈæməˌraɪts/; Sumerian 𒈥𒌅 MAR.TU; Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm; Egyptian Amar; Hebrew אמורי ʼĔmōrī; Ancient Greek: Ἀμορραῖοι) were an ancient Semitic-speaking people from ancient Syria who also occupied large parts of southern Mesopotamia from the 21st century BC to the end of the 17th century BC, where they established several prominent city states in existing locations, notably Babylon which was raised from a small administrative town to an independent state and major city. The term Amurru in Akkadian and Sumerian texts refers to them, as well as to their principal deity.
Beginning about 2400 BC, the land of the Amorites (“the Mar.tu land”) is associated not with Mesopotamia but with the lands to the west of the Euphrates, including Canaan.
THE AMORITES COME FROM CANAAN
Known Amorites wrote in a dialect of Akkadian found on tablets at Mari dating from 1800–1750 BC. Since the language shows northwest Semitic forms, words and constructions, the Amorite language is believed to be a northwest branch of the Canaanite languages, whose other members were; Hebrew, Phoenician, Edomite, Moabite, Ammonite, Sutean, Punic/Carthaginian and Amalekite.
AND ARE UNCIVILISED WANDERING TRIBES
In the earliest Sumerian texts, all western lands beyond the Euphrates, including modern Syria and Canaan, were known as “the land of the MAR.TU (Amorites)”. This term appears in Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, which describes it in the time of Enmerkar as one of the regions inhabited by speakers of a different language. Another text known as Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird describes how, fifty years into Enmerkar’s reign, the Martu people arose in Sumer and Akkad, (southern Mesopotamia) necessitating the building of a wall to protect Uruk.
There are also sparse mentions in tablets from the East Semitic speaking kingdom of Ebla, dating from 2200 BC to the destruction of the city ca. 2250 BC: from the perspective of the east Semitic speaking Eblaites, the Amorites were a rural group.
In the last days of the Neo-Sumerian Empire, immigrating Amorites had become such a force that kings such as Shu-Sin were obliged to construct a 170 miles (270 km) long wall from the Tigris to the Euphrates to hold them off.These Amorites appear as nomadic clans ruled by fierce tribal chiefs, who forced themselves into lands they needed to graze their herds. Some of the Akkadian literature of this era speaks disparagingly of the Amorites, and implies that the Akkadian and Sumerian speakers of Mesopotamia viewed their nomadic and primitive way of life with disgust and contempt, for example:
The MAR.TU who know no grain… The MAR.TU who know no house nor town, the boors of the mountains… The MAR.TU who digs up truffles… who does not bend his knees (to cultivate the land), who eats raw meat, who has no house during his lifetime, who is not buried after death…
They have prepared wheat and gú-nunuz (grain) as a confection, but an Amorite will eat it without even recognizing what it contains!
THE AMORITE BARBARIANS STORM THE GATES
As the centralized structure of the Neo-Sumerian Empire slowly collapsed, the component regions, such as Akkadian speaking Assyria in the north, and the city-states of the south (such as Isin, Larsa and Eshnunna) began to reassert their former independence, and areas in southern Mesopotamia where Amorites resided were no exception.
Elsewhere, the armies of Elam in southern Ancient Iran were attacking and weakening the empire, making it vulnerable.
THE AMORITES SIEZE POWER IN UR AND BABYLON RISES
Many Amorite chieftains in southern Mesopotamia aggressively took advantage of the failing empire to seize power for themselves. There was not an Amorite invasion of southern Mesopotamia as such, but Amorites did ascend to power in many locations, especially during the reign of the last king of the Neo Sumerian Epire, Ibbi-Sin. Leaders with Amorite names assumed power in various places, usurping native Akkadian speaking rulers, including in Isin, Eshnunna and Larsa. Babylon, hitherto a small, politically and military unimportant town was raised to the status of a minor independent city state under Sumuabum in 1894 BC.
THE AMORITES ARE EXPELLED FROM MESOPOTAMIA BY THE LOCALS C1740AD
This era ended in northern Mesopotamia with the defeat and expulsion of the Amorites and Amorite dominated Babylonians from Assyria by Puzur-Sin and king Adasi between 1740 and 1735 BC, in the far south by the rise of the native Sealand Dynasty circa 1730 BC. The Amorites clung on in a once more small and weak Babylon until the Hittite sack of Babylon (c. 1595 BC) which ended the Amorite presence, and brought new ethnic groups
Encyclopedia Britannica online. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
Giorgio Bucellati, “Ebla and the Amorites”, Eblaitica 3 (1992):83-104.
William H. Stiebing Jr. Ancient Near Eastern History And Culture Longman: New York, 2003: 79
E. Chiera, Sumerian Epics and Myths, Chicago, 1934, Nos.58 and 112;
E. Chiera, Sumerian Texts of Varied Contents, Chicago, 1934, No.3.;
Alfred Haldar, Who Were the Amorites (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1971), p. 7
Nave’s Topical Bible: Amorites, Nave, Orville J., Retrieved:2013-03-14]
The rise of the Amorite kingdoms in Mesopotamia brought about deep and lasting repercussions in its political, social and economic structure.The division into kingdoms replaced the Sumerian city-state.The era of the Amorite kingdoms, ca. 2000–1600 BC, This era ended with the Hittite sack of Babylon (c. 1595 BC) The religious, ethical, and artistic directions in which Mesopotamia had been developing since earliest times, were not greatly impacted by the Amorites’ hegemony. They continued to worship the Sumerian gods, and the older Sumerian myths and epic tales were piously copied, translated, or adapted, generally with only minor alterations
THE BIBLICAL LEGENDS OF UR
THEY ARRIVE IN CANAAN WITH THE EXPELLED AMORITES
THE TREE OF KNOWLEDGE AND THE SNAKE IN THE GARDEN OF EDEN
A man with horns and a woman with the snake sit by the tree of knowledge.
THE TOWER OF BABEL
The ziggurat of Ur was a temple of Nanna, the moon deity in Sumerian mythology, and has two stages constructed from brick: in the lower stage the bricks are joined together with bitumen, in the upper stage they are joined with mortar. The temple was built in 2100 B.C. during the reign of Ur-Nammu.
THE CONFUSION OF TONGUES
ENMERKAR AND THE LORD OF ARATTA
THE BUILDING OF THE TOWER OF BABEL AND THE CONFUSION OF TONGUES
Because it gives a Sumerian account of the “confusion of tongues”, and also involves Enmerkar constructing ziggurats at Eridu and Uruk, it has, since the time of Samuel Kramer,been compared with the Tower of Babel narrative in the Book of Genesis.
Near the beginning of the account, the following background is provided: “In those days of yore, when the destinies were determined, the great princes allowed Unug Kulaba’s E-ana to lift its head high. Plenty, and carp floods and the rain which brings forth dappled barley were then increased in Unug Kulaba. Before the land of Dilmun yet existed, the E-ana of Unug Kulaba was well founded.”
E-ana was a ziggurat in Uruk built in honour of the goddess Inanna, the “lady of all the lands”–(E-ana is ‘house of An’, or ‘Temple of An’).
Enmerkar, thus “chosen by Inanna in her holy heart from the bright mountain”, then asks Inanna to let him subject Aratta and make the people of Aratta deliver a tribute of precious metals and gemstones, for constructing the lofty Abzu ziggurat of Enki at Eridu, as well as for embellishing her own E-ana sanctuary at Uruk. Inanna accordingly advises Enmerkar to dispatch a herald.
He is furthermore to recite the “Incantation of Nudimmud”, a hymn imploring Enki to restore (or in some translations, to disrupt) the linguistic unity of the inhabited regions, named as Shubur, Hamazi, Sumer, Uri-ki (the region around Akkad), and the Martu land:
“On that day when there is no snake, when there is no scorpion, when there is no hyena, when there is no lion, when there is neither dog nor wolf, when there is thus neither fear nor trembling, man has no rival! At such a time, may the lands of Shubur and Hamazi, the many-tongued, and Sumer, the great mountain of the me of magnificence, and Akkad, the land possessing all that is befitting, and the Martu land, resting in security — the whole universe, the well-guarded people — may they all address Enlil together in a single language! For at that time, for the ambitious lords, for the ambitious princes, for the ambitious kings, Enki, for the ambitious lords, for the ambitious princes, for the ambitious kings, for the ambitious lords, for the ambitious princes, for the ambitious kings — Enki, the lord of abundance and of steadfast decisions, the wise and knowing lord of the Land, the expert of the gods, chosen for wisdom, the lord of Eridug, shall change the speech in their mouths, as many as he had placed there, and so the speech of mankind is truly one.”
Samuel Noah Kramer, The “Babel of Tongues”: A Sumerian Version, Journal of the American Oriental Society (1968).]
THE 10 COMMANDMENTS
The Code of Ur-Nammu is the oldest known tablet containing a law code surviving today. It was written in the Sumerian language ca. 2100-2050 BC.
“…After An and Enlil had turned over the Kingship of Ur to Nanna, at that time did Ur-Nammu, son born of Ninsun, for his beloved mother who bore him, in accordance with his principles of equity and truth… Then did Ur-Nammu the mighty warrior, king of Ur, king of Sumer and Akkad, by the might of Nanna, lord of the city, and in accordance with the true word of Utu, establish equity in the land; he banished malediction, violence and strife, and set the monthly Temple expenses at 90 gur of barley, 30 sheep, and 30 sila of butter. He fashioned the bronze sila-measure, standardized the one-mina weight, and standardized the stone weight of a shekel of silver in relation to one mina… The orphan was not delivered up to the rich man; the widow was not delivered up to the mighty man; the man of one shekel was not delivered up to the man of one mina.”
1. If a man commits a murder, that man must be killed.
2. If a man commits a robbery, he will be killed.
3. If a man commits a kidnapping, he is to be imprisoned and pay 15 shekels of silver.
4. If a slave marries a slave, and that slave is set free, he does not leave the household.
5. If a slave marries a native (i.e. free) person, he/she is to hand the firstborn son over to his owner.
6. If a man violates the right of another and deflowers the virgin wife of a young man, they shall kill that male.
7. If the wife of a man followed after another man and he slept with her, they shall slay that woman, but that male shall be set free.
8. If a man proceeded by force, and deflowered the virgin female slave of another man, that man must pay five shekels of silver. (5)
9. If a man divorces his first-time wife, he shall pay her one mina of silver. (6)
10. If it is a (former) widow whom he divorces, he shall pay her half a mina of silver. (7)
ENUMA ELISH THE CREATION MYTH
In both Enuma Elish and Genesis, creation is an act of divine speech—the Enuma Elish describes pre-creation as a time “when above, the heavens had not been named, and below the earth had not been called by name”, while in Genesis each act of divine creation is introduced with the formula: “And God said, let there be…”. The sequence of creation is identical: light, firmament, dry land, luminaries, and man. In both Enuma Elish and Genesis the primordial world is formless and empty (the tohu wa bohu of Genesis 1:2), the only existing thing the watery abyss which exists prior to creation (Tiamat in the Enuma Elish, tehom, the “deep”, a linguistic cognate of tiamat, in Genesis 1:2). In both, the firmament, conceived as a solid inverted bowl, is created in the midst of the primeval waters to separate the heavens from the earth (Genesis 1:6–7, Enuma Elish 4:137–40). Day and night precede the creation of the luminous bodies (Gen. 1:5, 8, 13, and 14ff.; Enuma Elish 1:38), whose function is to yield light and regulate time (Gen. 1:14; Enuma Elish 5:12–13). In Enuma Elish, the gods consult before creating man (Enuma Elish 6:4), while Genesis has: “Let us make man in our own image…” (Genesis 1:26) – and in both, the creation of man is followed by divine rest. “Thus, it appears that the so-called Priestly Source account echoes this earlier Mesopotamian story of creation.”
THE ORIGINAL FLOOD
According to Sumerian mythology, Enki also assisted humanity to survive the Deluge designed to kill them. In the Legend of Atrahasis, Enlil, the king of the gods, sets out to eliminate humanity, whose noise of them mating is offensive to his ears. He successively sends drought, famine, and plague to eliminate humanity, but Enki thwarts his half-brother’s plans by teaching Atrahasis irrigation, granaries and medicine. Humans again proliferate a fourth time. Enraged Enlil, convenes a Council of Deities and gets them to promise not to tell humankind that he plans their total annihilation. Enki, does not tell Atrahasis, but tells of Enlil’s plan to the walls of Atrahasis’ (a.k.a. Noah) reed hut, thus covertly rescuing the man Atrahasis, or Ziusudra by either instructing him to build some kind of a boat for his family, or by bringing him into the heavens in a magic boat. After the seven day Deluge, the flood hero, Utnapishtim, Atrahasis, or Ziusudra frees a swallow, a raven, and a dove in an effort to find if the flood waters have receded. On the boat landing, a sacrifice is organized to the gods.Enlil is angry his will has been thwarted yet again, and Enki is named as the culprit. As the god of what we would call ecology, Enki explains that Enlil is unfair to punish the guiltless Atrahasis for the sins of his fellows, and secures a promise that the gods will not eliminate humankind if they practice birth control and live within the means of the natural world. The threat is made, however, that if humans do not honor their side of the covenant the gods will be free to wreak havoc once again….the animals disembark and Zi-ud-sura prostrates himself before An (sky-god) and Enlil (chief of the gods), who give him eternal life and take him to dwell in Dilmun for “preserving the animals and the seed of mankind”. The remainder of the poem is lost…… This is apparently the oldest surviving Middle Eastern Deluge myths.
LEGENDS ENTER THE MYTHOS
SARGON OF AKKAD THE KING FOUND IN A BASKET FLOATING ON A RIVER
Akkadian the earliest attested Semitic language, it used the cuneiform writing system derived ultimately from ancient Sumerian, an unrelated language isolate.
Sargon “the king is legitimate” emperor famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th and 23rd centuries BC.He became a prominent member of the royal court of Kish, ultimately overthrowing its king before embarking on the conquest of Mesopotamia.Possibly of humble Semitic origin he rises to power and kingship.
“My mother was a changeling (?), my father I knew not. The brothers of my father loved the hills. My city is Azurpiranu (the wilderness herb fields), which is situated on the banks of the Euphrates. My changeling mother conceived me, in secret she bore me. She set me in a basket of rushes, with bitumen she sealed my lid. She cast me into the river which rose not over me. The river bore me up and carried me to Akki, the drawer of water. Akki, the drawer of water, took me as his son and reared me. Akki the drawer of water, appointed me as his gardener. While I was gardener Ishtar granted me her love, and for four and (fifty?) … years I exercised kingship.”
THE AMORITE/AMURRU CONQUEST OF SUMERIA
Amurru and Martu are names given in Akkadian and Sumerian texts to the god of the Amorite/Amurru people, often forming part of personal names. He is sometimes called Ilu Amurru (DMAR.TU). He was the patron god of the Mesopotamian city of Ninab, whose exact location is unknown.
A tradition appears in a Sumerian poem in pastoral style, which relates how the god Martu came to marry Adg̃ar-kidug the daughter of the god Numushda of the city of Inab. It contains a speech expressing urbanite Sumerian disgust at uncivilized, nomadic Amurru life which Adg̃ar-kidug ignores, responding only: “I will marry Martu!”.
It has been suggested by L. R. Bailey (1968) and Jean Ouelette (1969), that this Bêl Šadê might be the same as the Biblical ’Ēl Šaddāi who is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the “Priestly source” of narrative, according to the documentary hypothesis. Bêl Šadê could have been the fertility-god ‘Ba’al’, possibly adopted by the Canaanites.
AMURRU BECOMES BEL RABIM/MARDUK IN MESOPOTAMIA
BEL BECOMES BAAL IN CANAAN
Bailey, L. R. (1968). “Israelite ’Ēl šadday and Amorite Bêl šadê”, Journal of Biblical Literature 87, 434–38.
Cross, Frank Moore (1973). Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic, pp. 10, 57–58. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-09176-0.
Jordan, Michael. Encyclopedia of Gods, Kyle Cathie Limited, 2002
Ouellette, Jean (1969). “More on ’Ēl Šadday and Bêl Šadê”, Journal of Biblical Literature 88, 470f.
ETSCL: Narratives featuring deities: Other deities, including “The Marriage of Martu”]
THE GODS MARDUK(BEL RABIM) AND ASHUR
MARDUK CHALLENGES THE “ASHUR” SHINING GODS AND GODESSESS FOR THE TITLE OF HEAD GOD
IT IS THE MOON GODDESS SIN THAT IS HEAD DEITY BEFORE MARDUKS ARRIVAL
LIKE SET ,MARDUK CONQUERS THE CHAOS MONSTER
LIKE SET ,MARDUK IS A HORNED GOD
UNLIKE SET, MARDUK WINS THE BATTLE FOR KINGSHIP
Chaos_Monster_and_”Strength of the Sun” God Marduk
According to The Encyclopedia of Religion, the name Marduk was probably pronounced Marutuk. The etymology of the name Marduk is conjectured as derived from amar-Utu (“bull calf of the sun god Utu”).The origin of Marduk’s name may reflect an earlier genealogy, or have had cultural ties to the ancient city of Sippar (whose god was Utu, the sun god), dating back to the third millennium BCE.He was later associated with water, vegetation, judgment, and magic.In the perfected system of astrology, the planet Jupiter was associated with Marduk by the Hammurabi period.
He was also regarded as the son of Ea(Sumerian Enki) and Damkina and the heir of Anu(Druidic-Danu,Vedic-Vishnu,Egyptian-Amen).There are particularly two gods—Ea and Enlil—(the Sumerian Osiris and Set) whose powers and attributes pass over to Marduk. In the city of Babylon, he resided in the temple Esagila.(Esa-gila)
Marduk and his dragon Mušḫuššu, from a Babylonian cylinder seal.Marduk was depicted as a human, often with his symbol the snake-dragon.Similar to Set with his Set-staff “serpent-animal” that represents the “chaos”.Called the “was septre”,it symbolised kingly power.Under his reign humans were created to bear the burdens of life so the gods could be at leisure.
THE TWO LEFT HANDS
THIS SHOW A GREAT CHANGE IN RELIGIOUS PRACTICES
LEFT HAND AND RIGHT HAND PATHS ARE ANCIENT RELIGIOUS CONCEPTS
The terms Left-Hand Path and Right-Hand Path refer to a dichotomy between two opposing spiritual approaches.The terms’ origins among Indian Tantra, the Right-Hand Path, or RHP, is seen as a definition for those magical groups which follow specific ethical codes and adopt social convention, while the Left-Hand Path adopts the opposite attitude, espousing the breaking of taboo and the abandoning of set morality. Some contemporary occultists have stressed that both paths can be followed by a magical practitioner, as essentially they have the same goals.In ancient religious symbolism the holding of objects in left or right hand can be of great significance and even showing a figure with two left or right hands is a common theme.
IN ANCIENT VEDIC THE LEFT HAND WAS USED TO EVOKE THE RAGE OF GODDESSES
BY THE FOLLOWERS OF SHIVA(ISA)
Shaivism is the oldest worship of hinduism.Its a theology which elevates “Rudra” to the status of supreme being, the Lord (Sanskrit: Īśa) who is transcendent yet also has cosmological functions.Vamachara is a Sanskrit term meaning “left-handed attainment” and is particularly associated with the pancha-makara or the “Five Ms”, also known as the pancha-tattva. In literal terms they are: Madya (wine), Mamsa (meat), Matsya (fish), Mudra (cereal), and Maithuna (sexual intercourse).
The Kāpālika tradition which reveres the God Shiva as the Supreme Being ,was a non-Puranic, tantric form of Shaivism in India.The Kāpālikas thus flaunted impurity rules and went against Vedic injunctions.The aim was power through evoking deities, especially goddesses.Hindu kapalika ascetics soon evolved into an extreme outcaste sect of the ‘left-hand’ tantric path (Skt. vamamarg) of shakti or goddess worship.These attributes consisted of; bone ornaments, an animal skin loincloth, marks of human ash, a skull-cup, damaru(2 headed drum), flaying knife, thighbone trumpet, and the skull-topped tantric staff or khatvanga.
Flood, Gavin. 2003. The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Malden: Blackwell. pg. 212
Bhattacharya, N. N. History of the Tantric Religion (1999)
Beer, Robert (2003). The handbook of Tibetan Buddhist symbols. Serindia Publications.
IN SUMERIAN MESOPOTAMIA WE SEE THE MOON GODDESS SIN WAS SUPREME DEITY
IT IS POSSIBLE AN EXTREME LEFT HAND PATH EVENT HAS TAKEN PLACE IN MESOPOTAMIA WITH THE ARRIVAL OF MARDUK
The only serious rival to Marduk after ca. 1750 BCE was the god Aššur (Ashur) (who had been the supreme deity in the northern Mesopotamian state of Assyria since the 25th century BC) which was the dominant power in the region between the 14th to the late 7th century BC.In the south, Marduk reigned supreme. He is normally referred to as Bel “Lord”, also bel rabim “great lord”, bêl bêlim “lord of lords”, ab-kal ilâni bêl terêti “leader of the gods”, aklu bêl terieti “the wise, lord of oracles”,muballit mîte “reviver of the dead”, etc.
Helmer Ringgren, (1974) Religions of The Ancient Near East, Translated by John Sturdy, The Westminster Press, p. 66.
The Encyclopedia of Religion – Macmillan Library Reference USA – Vol. 9 – Page 201
C. Scott Littleton (2005). Gods, Goddesses and Mythology, Volume 6. Marshall Cavendish. p. 829.]
Ashur (also, Assur, Aššur; written A-šur, also Aš-šùr) is an East Semitic god, and the head of the Assyrian pantheon in Mesopotamian religion, worshipped mainly in the northern half of Mesopotamia, and parts of north east Syria and south east Asia Minor which constituted old Assyria. He had a solar iconography.
Aššur was a deified form of the city of Assur (pronounced Ashur), which dates from the mid 3rd millennium BC and was the capital of the Old Assyrian kingdom and regarded as the Assyrian equivalent of Enlil, the chief god of Nippur, which was the most important god of the southern pantheon from the early 3rd millennium BC until Hammurabi founded an empire based in Babylon in the mid-18th century BC,after which Marduk replaced Enlil as the chief god in the south.
Scholars have claimed that Ashur was represented as the solar disc that appears frequently in Assyrian iconography. Many Assyrian kings had names that included the name Ashur, including, above all, Ashur-uballit I, Ashurnasirpal, Esarhaddon (Ashur-aha-iddina), and Ashurbanipal. Epithets include bêlu rabû “great lord”, ab ilâni “father of gods”, šadû rabû “great mountain”, and il aššurî “god of Ashur”.
Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, “Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible”, pp.108-9
Donald A. Mackenzie Myths of Babylonia and Assyria (1915), chapter 15: “Ashur the National God of Assyria”]
AYRAN(VEDIC/DRUIDIC)ELITES RULE THE NORTH LEVANT 2100BC
A ruling Indo-Aryan presence in the Middle East from before 1600 BC and quite likely from before 2100 BC is shown in the the peacock motifs found.Because of the association of Indo-Aryan with horsemanship and the Mitanni aristocracy, it is presumed that, after superimposing themselves as rulers on a native Hurrian-speaking population about the 15th-16th centuries BC, Indo-Aryan charioteers were absorbed into the local population and adopted the Hurrian language.They also brought thier gods and beliefs and became the ruling elite.
In a treaty with the Hittites, the king of Mitanni, after swearing by a series of Hurrian gods, swears by the gods Mitrašil, Uruvanaššil, Indara, and Našatianna, who correspond to the Vedic gods Mitra, Varu?a, Indra, and Nasatya (Asvin). Contemporary equestrian terminology, as recorded in a horse-training manual whose author is identified as “Kikkuli the Mitannian,” contains Indo-Aryan loanwords. The personal names and gods of the Mitanni aristocracy also bear significant traces of Indo-Aryan.
p. 126, History of British Folklore, Richard Mercer Dorson, 1999, ISBN 9780415204774
THESE SEMITIC BEL RABIM/MARDUK WORSHIPING HABIRU CAUSED THE DOWNFALL OF UR
AND ARE EXPELLED BY THE LOCALS
HEADING WEST AND BACK TO AMURRU ,THEY APPEAR BACK IN CANAAN
THEN ABRAHAM APPEARS IN CANNAN c1800BC
According to Genesis, Abraham was brought by God from Mesopotamia to the land of Canaan. There Abraham entered into a covenant: in exchange for sole recognition of YAHWEH as supreme universal deity and authority, Abraham will be blessed with innumerable progeny.According to Jewish tradition (based on the Anno Mundi era), Abraham lived AM 1948–2123 (1812 BCE to 1637 BCE). Christian traditional dates are about 2000 BCE to 1825 BCE
THESE DEFEATED ,EXPELLED AND WANDERING AMORITES MAKE A NEW PACT WITH THE GODS
AMURRU IS NO LONGER THE CHIEF DEITY
A PACT IS MADE BUT WHICH GOD WAS THIS??………. IT WAS BAAL
THE FEMALE FERTILITY MOON COW GODDESS
BECOMES A MALE FERTILITY BULL HORNED GOD
Ba’al (pronounced: [ba?al]; Hebrew: ??? (ordinarily spelled Baal in English) is a Northwest Semitic title and honorific meaning “master” or “lord” that is used for various gods who were patrons of cities in the Levant,a god of the rain, thunder, fertility and agriculture, and the lord of Heaven. Since only priests were allowed to utter his divine name Hadad, Ba’al was used commonly.
In the Bronze Age (3600-1200 BC), Hadad (or Haddad or Adad) was especially likely to be called Baal
In the Canaanite pantheon as attested in Ugaritic sources, Hadad was the son of El, who had once been the primary god of the Canaanite pantheon. El and Baʿal are often associated with the bull in Ugaritic texts, as a symbol both of strength and fertility
Prior to the discovery of the Ugaritic texts it was supposed that ‘the Baals’ referred to distinct and local Cannanite deities. However, according to John Day, in Yahweh and the Gods and Goddesses of Canaan, these texts have revealed that these are simply local manifestations of one great, cosmic deity named Hadad
TO MAKE A PACT WITH A PATRON GOD WAS NORMAL AT THIS TIME,… ESPECIALLY FOR SUMERIANS
By the late 4th millennium BC, Sumer was divided into about a dozen independent city-states, whose limits were defined by canals and boundary stones. Each was centered on a temple dedicated to the particular patron god or goddess of the city
BEL(MARDUK) IS THE PATRON GOD OF BABYLON
THE ONLY AMORITE GOD AND AMORITE CITY STILL STANDING
BEL IS BAAL IN CANAAN
THE PACT IS THE RE-ACTION TO LOOSING KINGLY POWER AND BECOMING A WANDERING TRIBE
A PACT WITH BAAL/BEL RABIM/MARDUK THE GOD OF BABYLON
THIS PACT IS ACTUALLY THE AMORITE REFUGEES BECOMING PATRIARCHAL MALE FERTILITY BAAL/BEL/SET WORSHIPERS
ANCIENT FEMALE GODDESSES BECOME MALE GODS FOR THESE WANDERING BANDITS,OUTLAWS AND MERCENARIES
WITH NORTH CANAAN/AMURRU RULED BY THE MITANNI AND THE PROTO-HITTITES THESE WANDERERS BECOME MITANNI INFLUENCED MERCENARIES OR EVEN RULED BY A MITANNI ELITE AND MOVE SOUTH INTO EGYPT
Habiru or Apiru or ˁpr.w (Egyptian) was the name given by various Sumerian, Egyptian, Akkadian, Hittite, Mitanni, and Ugaritic sources (dated, roughly, between 1800 BC and 1100 BC) to a group of people living as nomadic invaders in areas of the Fertile Crescent from Northeastern Mesopotamia and Iran to the borders of Egypt in Canaan. Depending on the source and epoch, these Habiru are variously described as nomadic or semi-nomadic, rebels, outlaws, raiders, mercenaries, and bowmen, servants, slaves, migrant laborers, etc.
As more texts were uncovered throughout the Near East, it became clear that the Habiru were mentioned in contexts ranging from unemployed agricultural workers and vagrants, to mounted mercenary bowmen. The context differed depending upon where the references were found.
Though found throughout most of the Fertile Crescent, the arc of civilization “extending from the Tigris-Euphrates river basins over to the Mediterranean littoral and down through the Nile Valley during the Second Millennium, the principal area of historical interest is in their engagement with Egypt.”
THE NEXT ARE THE EGYPTIANS.
WITH THE EXPULSION OF THE AMORITES FROM MESOPOTAMIA c1735BC
THESE BAAL WORSHIPPING CANNANITES INVADE THE NORTH OF EGYPT c1720BC
THIS CAUSES THE SECOND PERIOD OF DISUNITY IN EGYPT.
THESE HYKSOS/HABIRU ALSO WORSHIP “SET” DUE TO HIS ASSOCIATION WITH BAAL
Important Canaanite populations first appeared in Egypt towards the end of the 12th Dynasty c. 1800 BC, and either around that time or c. 1720 BC, formed an independent realm in the eastern Nile Delta
Around 1720-1710 BCE, Egypt began to be invaded by a people “of obscure race”, the Hyksos. These Hyksos melted easily into Egyptian society at first; eventually they became very powerful, and finally, in a coup, they came to rule the whole of Northern Egypt, imposing one of their people as the legitimate Pharaoh.
Although most Hyksos names seem Semitic, the Hyksos also included Hurrians, who, while speaking an isolated language, were under the rule and influence of Indo-Europeans, and their chief deity, their native storm god, became associated with the Egyptian storm and desert god, Seth
The Turin Canon king list affirms there were six Hyksos rulers, but only four of them are known from archaeological or textual records: Sakir-Har, Khyan, Apophis and Khamudi. Khyan and Apophis are by far the best attested kings of this dynasty whereas Sakir-Har is attested by only a single door jamb from Avaris which bears his royal titulary. Khamudi is named as the last Hyksos king in a fragment from the Turin Canon.
During the Hyksos rule of Upper Egypt, they established their capital in the city of Avaris in the Delta, and the legitimate line of Pharaohs had to move to Thebes (now Luxor) in the South, ruling only over Lower Egypt.
A second period of disunity heralded the arrival of the first foreign ruling dynasty in Egypt, that of the Semitic Hyksos. The Hyksos invaders took over much of Lower Egypt around 1650 BC and founded a new capital at Avaris.The Hyksos kingdom was centered in the eastern Nile Delta and Middle Egypt and was limited in size, never extending south into Upper Egypt, which was under control by Theban-based rulers.Hyksos used Egyptian titles associated with traditional Egyptian kingship, and took Egyptian god Seth to represent their own titulary deity.BUT the native Egyptians continued to view the Hyksos as non-Egyptian “invaders.” They were driven out by an Upper Egyptian force led by Ahmose I, who founded the Eighteenth Dynasty and relocated the capital from Memphis to Thebes.His reign is usually dated to about 1550–1525 BC.The Hyksos at their capital Avaris worshiped and venerated Seth in the Second Intermediate Period (1650-1550 BCE)due to his association with the thunder god Baal.
A group of people wearing coats of many colors using red, purple and blue dye and labled Hyksos entering egypt c 1900 BC from the tomb of a 12th dynasty king Khnumhotep II at beni hasan.
The hyksos people are shown wearing the cloaks of many colors associated with the mercenary Mitanni bowmen and cavalry (ha ibrw) of Northern Canaan, Aram, Kadesh, Sidon and Tyre. Modern scholarship usually assumes that the Hyksos were likely Semites who came from the Levant (ie. Syria or Canaan). Apophis is refered to as a “Chieftain of Retjenu (i.e. Canaan)” in a stela which implies a Canaanite background for this Hyksos king: this is the strongest evidence for a Canaanite background for the Hyksos. Khyan’s name “has generally been interpreted as Amorite “Hayanu”
THE AMORITE BABYLONIAN REFUGEES TAKE OVER NORTH EGYPT C1650
The Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt was the first Hyksos dynasty, ruled from Avaris, without control of the entire land. The Hyksos preferred to stay in northern Egypt since they infiltrated from the north-east. The names and order of kings is uncertain. The Turin King list indicates that there were six Hyksos kings
Seuserenre Khyan, Khian or Khayan was the fourth king of the Hyksos Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt c1610-1580 BC. His royal name Seuserenre translates as “The one whom Re has caused to be strong” this would refer to Set,but he also held the title “ruler of the foreign land”(heqa-khaset)this too refers to Set/Baal.The later title is the typical designation of the Hyksos rulers.This shows they also see themselves as rulers of Canaan,land of fertility gods.This is a virile strong Set.
Hyksos King Khyan the lion of Judah
Khyan is one of the better attested kings from the Hyksos period, known from many seals and seal impressions.The remains of a palace were recently excavated at Avaris. Seal impressions of Khyan were found there, indicating that this was his palace.A sphinx with his name was bought on the art market at Bagdad and might demonstrate diplomatic contacts to Babylon ,and Bel Rabim/Marduk (Baal) rules the city of Babylon.This would also suggest an Amorite background for the Hyksos.A stela set up in Avaris contains the nomen and prenomen of Khayan and a now lost dedication (presumably to Seth, Lord of Avaris).below which are inscribed the title and name of the Eldest King’s Son Yanassi.”
Which suggests dedication to the Amorite goddess Inanna, the “lady of all the lands”–(E-ana is ‘house of An’, or ‘Temple of An’) and a Canaanite/Amorite polytheistic fertility cult.
M. Bietak: A Hyksos Palace at Avaris, In: Egyptian Archaeology 38 Spring 2011, S. 38-41]
PATRIARCHAL MALE FERTILITY ARRIVES IN EGYPT
THE FEMALE PROTECTOR LIONESS GODDESS
BECOMES THE MALE PROTECTOR LION GOD
War Goddess Durga riding her lion.
.THE ORIGINAL LION GODDESS
The Lion : Mount of Goddess Durga
Shaktism, the cult of Mother Goddess and Shakti, the female divinity in Indian religion symbolises form, energy or manifestation of the human spirit in all its rich and exuberant variety. Shakti, in scientific terms energy or power, is the one without which no leaf can stir in the world, no work can be done without it.
The Goddess has been worshipped in India from prehistoric times, for strong evidence of a cult of the mother has been unearthed at the pre-vedic civilization of the Indus valley.
According to John Marshall Shakti Cult in India was originated out of the Mother Goddess and was closely associated with the cult of Siva.
Goddess Durga gradually became the supreme object of adoration among the followers of Shaktism.It is interesting to note that the very origin of her such incarnation (as Durga) is mainly due to her celestial mount(vehicle or vahana)lion. This lion is usually assorted with her in our literature, art sculpture,etc.
A FEMALE PROTECTOR/FERTILITY CULT BECOMES THE HERO OF THE SUN
THE BATTLE OF THE LION VERSES THE BULL
According to this text, after being completely defeated by Mahisasura, the gods, headed by Brahma,approached Visnu and prayed for the destruction of the demon.Thereupon all the gods including Brahma, Visnu and Siva emitted flames of anger which solidified into the effulgent form of a goddess (Durga) with three eyes and ten arms, each of which bore a weapon given by the mighty gods. During this time the Himavat offered a white lion to goddess Durga as her vahana.
The golden skinned hairy lion is an archetypal symbol for the golden rayed sun,the lord of the day, whose appearance kills the god of the night. Night, terminating the day in the evening, is equally well represented by the bull, whose horns connect it with the cresent of the moon.
In Mesopotamia, Ishtar the goddess of war, has always been associated with the lion.
AS IN SUMERIA THE FEMALE COW GODDESS SIN IS USURPED BY THE BULL GOD MARDUK(BEL RABIM)
ISHTAR BECOMES MARDUKS CONCORT
IN CANAAN ISHTAR WAS ASHERAH
IN CANAAN THE FEMALE ISHTAR/ASHERAH/BAALAT IS USURPED BY THE MALE GOD BAAL
ASHERAH BECOMES BAALS CONCORT
IN EGYPT ASHERAH IS ISIS AND BAAL IS SET
IN EGYPT THE HYKSOS REPLACE THE COW GODDESS HATHOR AND BAST THE FEMALE LIONESS PROTECTOR GODDESS AND THE SUN WORSHIP OF RA/OSIRIS/ISIS/HORUS
SET BECOMES THE HEAD GOD
MALE FERTILITY AND THE STRENGTH OF THE SUN IN EGYPT WAS SET(BAAL)
BUT IN EGYPT SET IS SEEN AS A CONSORT OF ASHERAH AND NOT ISIS
HE IS SEEN AS THE RULER OF FOREIGN LANDS(CANAAN)
Scarab Bearing Name Of Apophis
The Hyksos King Apophis is recorded as worshiping Set in a monolatric way: “[He] chose for his Lord the god Seth. He didn’t worship any other deity in the whole land except Seth.”
THE HOLY CITY OF THE HEBREWS/HYKSOS
AND THE ROOT OF THE WORD AVARICE
During the early Hyksos period, members of lower social classes built their houses around their master’s house.The size of the houses of Tell el-Dab’a indicates the affluence of the inhabitants.In the north-east periphery area, the houses were very small, reflecting poorer classes.In contrast, in the eastern area of Tell el-Dab’a, the remains of large houses with stairs leading to upper floors were discovered, indicating that the more wealthy members of the society lived there.
Towards the end of the Hyksos period, between 1600 and 1570 BCE,the Hyksos built a thick enclosure wall around the city for defense.
CANAANITE SERVANT AND DONKEY SACRIFICES
The tomb styles and methods used to bury the dead in Tell el-Dab’a were Canaanite.Servant and donkey burials are recognized as remarkable burial practices of Tell el-Dab’a.The servant and donkey burials were practiced between 1680 and 1660 BCE. They were most popular during the period of Asiatic immigration at the beginning of the Hyksos reign.
The servants were not buried in the same manner as the tomb owners: the servants were buried at a different orientation in the tomb in order to show their position in the hierarchy of Tell el-Dab’a.They were buried across the tomb entrance, facing the door.This is interpreted as the servants waiting for the instructions of the tomb masters, which would be a component of the ideal life in the afterlife.Three servant burials have been found at Tell el-Dab’a. The servants appear to have been buried at the same time as the tomb owners during a servant sacrifice.
HYKSOS CANAANITE TEMPLES ARE BLUE AND WHITE AND USED FOR HUMAN SACRIFICE
Excavations at Tell el-Dab’a(Avaris) have uncovered temples that date to the Hyksos period. The temples exhibit Egyptian and Canaanite styles.The most noteworthy temple is Temple I.It is in the Egyptian style and dates to between 1680 and 1660 BCE.It contains three sanctuaries and in its courtyard, there is evidence of an altar upon which sacrifices may have been made.The outside walls were made of mud-brick that was whitewashed. Traces of blue paint have been found on the walls.
Jill Kamil, Labib Habachi: The Life and legacy of an Egyptologist. American University in Cairo Press, 2007 p.77 ISBN 9774160614
Booth, Charlotte (2005). The Hyksos Period in Egypt. Princes Risborough: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 0-7478-0638-1.]
Khamudi is listed on the Turin canon, column 10, line 28 (Gardiner entry 10.20) as the last Hyksos king. Beyond this, only two scarab seals are firmly attributed to him, both from Jericho.
HELIOPOLIS CITY OF THE SUN AND THE SACRED APIS BULL
HOLDS OUT FOR A 100 YEARS AGAINST THE HYKSOS LION RULE
We see Bast, the Egyptian goddess of warfare in Lower Egypt, and defender of Ra and the Nile River delta region, stop being represented as a lion and turns into a cat.
AHMOSE I COMES TO ITS RESCUE
Manfred Bietak points to a year 11 of an unknown king on the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus. Bietak and many egyptologists believe that this year 11 belongs to Khamudi since the text of the papyrus refers to Ahmose I, founder of the Egyptian New Kingdom as “He of the South.”As Thomas Schneider writes:
“Another reign length can be inferred from the note on the verso of the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus whereby in the 11th regnal year of the ruling king, Heliopolis has been conquered, and “he of the South” has attacked and taken Sile. Following Heliopolis capture, many monuments and statues of the ancient capital and were dismantled, looted or damaged by the Hyksos kings, who later carried them to adorn their new capital at Avaris.Since “he of the South” must denote the Theban ruler Ahmose, the regnal year 11 can only be assigned to the successor of the Hyksos king Apepi: Khamudi. The Hyksos capital Avaris will have fallen to Ahmose not much later”.
It is generally believed that Ahmose I defeated the Hyksos king by his 18th or 19th regnal year. This is suggested by “a graffito in the quarry at Tura whereby ‘oxen from Canaan’ were used at the opening of the quarry in Ahmose’s regnal year 22.”Since the cattle could only have been brought after Ahmose’s 3 to 6 years long siege of the South Canaanite town of Sharuhen,the last Hyksos stronghold in the Negev Desert,which followed after the fall of Avaris,this means the reign of Khamudi must have terminated by Year 18 or 19 of Ahmose’s 25 year reign at the very latest
THE HYKSOS WORSHIPPED SET!!
THEY RULED BETWEEN THE 2 RIVERS ,
FROM AVARIS AND THE NILE TO BABYLON AND THE EUPHRATES
AND BROUGHT MALE PATRIARCHY AND DISASTER TO EGYPT
BUT BABYLON FALLS TO THE HITTITES c1595 AND THEN AVARIS FALLS TO THE EGYPTIANS c1550
THE EXODUS TO CANAAN .
THERE WHERE 2 EXODUS EVENTS
THE MILITARY EXPULSION OF THE HYKSOS WHICH LED TO SEMITIC ENSLAVEMENT
AND THE LATER EXPULSION OF THE GOD SET INTO CANAAN
WHICH LED TOO THE FLEEING/MIGRATING OF THE SET WORSHIPPING HYKSOS SLAVES AND OTHER SET WORSHIPPERS INTO CANAAN
BUT NO BIBLICAL EXODUS
BUT THIS EXODUS DID LEAD TO THE CREATION OF A SMALL POLYTHESTIC BAAL WORSHIPPING KINGDOM OF ISRAEL
EXODUS I WAS THE HYKSOS EXPULSION BY AHMOSE I IN c1550BC.
IN THIS IMAGE WE SEE ITS THE HYKSOS ARMY THAT WAS DROWNED DURING THIS CONFLICT
Hyksos Ahmose I battle
Just about the time of the eruption of the Santorini Island volcano.
Thus causing the plagues etc and weakening the Hyksos hold on north Egypt.Towards the end of the Seventeenth dynasty, Ahmose I, the founder of the Eighteenth dynasty, captured Avaris just before the Hyksos were finally expelled from Egypt, after a water-borne siege. The Hyksos capital was razed to the ground in the aftermath of the Egyptian triumph
Close-up of a drawing of axe blade depicting Ahmose I striking down a Hyksos Warrior, part of the burial equipment of Queen Ahhotep
AHMOSE I TOOK HYKSOS SLAVES AND CHASED THE HYKSOS ARMY TO GAZA AND DESTROYED IT
“Then Avaris was despoiled. Then I carried off spoil from there: one man, three women, a total of four persons. Then his majesty gave them to me to be slaves.”
After the fall of Avaris, the fleeing Hyksos were pursued by the Egyptian army across northern Sinai and into southern Canaan The first pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, Ahmose I, finally expelled the Hyksos from their last holdout at Sharuhen in Gaza by the 16th year of his reign.Modern historians identify the expulsion of the Hyksos with the Exodus. Significant in this identification is the fact that some Hyksos pharaohs had names familiar from Israelite traditions, such as Jacobaam of the 16th dynasty.
Josephus identifies the Israelite Exodus with the first exodus mentioned by Manetho, when some 480,000 Hyksos “shepherd kings” (also referred to as just as ‘shepherds’, as ‘kings’ and as ‘captive shepherds’ in his discussion of Manetho) left Egypt for Jerusalem.The mention of “Hyksos” identifies this first exodus with the Hyksos period (16th century BC).
HERE IS A DOCUMENTRY EXPLAINING EXODUS 1
The Exodus Decoded – Hyksos & Israelites – COMPLETE DOCU
The exodus Decoded part 1
The exodus Decoded part 2
The exodus Decoded part 3
The exodus Decoded part 4
PONITS OF INTEREST IN THIS DOCUEMTRY
This documentry follows the biblical description and puts it against the archeology.
The weakness in the documentry is the fact he is trying to follow the bible version of only 1 exodus,when in fact there where 2. The expulsion exodus and the later fleeing of the slaves.
Please note the amount of official obstruction involed in the making of this documentry.
Also please note that it is the Egyptian Stela of pharoah Ahmose I, that refers to god in a monotheistic term and NOT the polytheistic Set worshipping Hyksos pharoahs of Avairs.
In this the documentry goes for the Santorini volcano happening after the fall of the Hyksos and thier enslavement. It makes a good case, but he has to juggle dates to make the exodus fit. This is because there where 2 exoduses not 1.
The Hyksos are definately polytheistsic.
In the mines of Avairs we find The habiru slaves calls on “EL” to save them. El is a polytheistic god and father of Baal/Set.Avairs was dedicated to Set during the Hyksos reign, who had made Avairs thier capital.
ʾĒl (written aleph-lamed, i.e. אל, 𐤀𐤋, 𐎛𐎍 etc.) is the Northwest Semitic word for “deity”, cognate to Akkadian ilum.
In the Canaanite religion, or Levantine religion as a whole, Eli or Il was the supreme god, the father of humankind and all creatures and the husband of the goddess Asherah as recorded in the clay tablets of Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra, Syria).
The word El was found at the top of a list of gods as the Ancient of gods or the Father of all gods, in the ruins of the royal archive of the Ebla civilization, in the archaeological site of Tell Mardikh in Syria dated to 2300 BC. The bull was symbolic to El and his son Ba’al Hadad(the Egyptian god Set), and they both wore bull horns on their headdress(They both where horned fertility gods)
THE PHAROAH AHMOSES CHASES THE PRINCE OF THE DESERT OVER THE REED SEA ,YAM SUF
The Red/Reed Sea(Yam Suf) ,in the Egyptian pharoahs stela version it does not mention a mass destruction of the Egyptian army nor did the Pharoah Ahmose die at Yam Suf.It seems he died many years later. The pharoah Ahmose went on for 18 years chasing down the hyksos and finally finished them off in Gaza.
The Ahmose pharoah stela at Yum Suf refers to a “Prince of the desert” as the leader(Set is the Lord of the desert, and a Hyksos pharoah maybe considered a Prince) ,and his people as “the evil ones”(Set is concidered an evil god by Egyptian Ra/Horus sun worshippers).
NOTE THE TABERNACLE WITH ITS HORNS THAT NEED BLOODED
Note the Tebernacle with its smaller house of god and its scarificial alter with HORNS that needs blooded.This is the exact same layout and location as a temple of Set. A temple of Set was a smaller sacred holy shrine within an enclosure that houses the holy of holies ,located in the desert at/or/and the foot of a mountain.
THIS IS DEFINATELY WHERE SOME EXODUS MYTHS COME FROM
BUT IT MIGHT BE SEEN MORE AS A MASSACRE AND A MILITARY CAMPAIGN THAN AN EXODUS
WHAT WE DO KNOW IS THAT HYKSOS WHERE TAKEN AS SLAVES AND WOULD OF THEN BEEN PUT TO WORK BUILDING AHMOSES NEW EGYPT
HERE WE HAVE THE ENSLAVEMENT OF SEMITIC PEOPLE IN EGYPT
WE ALSO SEE THIER GOD ,SET (BAAL) DEMONISED IN EGYPTIAN SOCIETY AT THIS TIME
AND A RELIGIOUS STRUGGLE FOR CONTROL OF EGYPT TAKES PLACE ,SET VERSES RA ,AND MALE FERTILITY VERSES SUN WORSHIP
THE ENSLAVED ROYAL HYKSOS LOOSING THEIR ROYAL LINEAGE WOULD PROBABLY BE PUT INTO THE PRIESTHOOD
SOME WOULD GO TO KARNACK AND THE HIGH PRIESTS OF AMEN THE KING OF GODS FOR SET WORSHIPERS
SOME WOULD GO TO HELIOPOLIS TO BE CLOSE TO AVARIS AND THE ENSLAVED HYKSOS PEOPLE IN THE EAST NILE DELTA.
AND SOME WOULD JOIN THE ROYAL HAREM
THE SCENE IS SET FOR EXODUS II
AHMOSE I c1539–1514BC
Ahmose resumed large construction projects like those before the second intermediate period. In the south of the country he began constructing temples mostly built of brick, one of them in the Nubian town of Buhen. In Upper Egypt he made additions to the existing temple of Amun at Karnak and to the temple of Montu at Armant. According to an inscription at Tura, he used white limestone to build a temple to Ptah and the southern harem of Amun, but did not finish either project
two temples constructed by Ahmose’s queen, Ahmose-Nefertary. One of these structures also bears bricks stamped with the name of Chief Treasurer Neferperet, the official responsible for re-opening the stone quarries at el-Ma’asara (Tura) in Ahmose’s year 22. A third, larger temple (Temple C) is similar to the pyramid temple in form and scale, but its stamped bricks and details of decoration reinforce that it was a cult place for Ahmose-Nefertary
THUS HYKSOS/HEBREW KNOWLEDGE OF EGYPTIANS USING BRICKS TO BUILD
36.Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988. ISBN 90-04-12989-8.
37.^ a b Quarry Inauguration, accessed July 28, 2006.http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/texts/quarry_inauguration.htm
THE HYKSOS MIS-RULE HAS LASTING EFFECTS ON EGYPTIAN CULTURE
THE AFTER EFFECTS OF THE HYKSOS
THE TITLE PHAROAH IS ONLY MADE AFTER THE HYKSOS EXPULSION
Pharaoh, meaning “Great House”, originally referred to the king’s palace, but during the reign of Thutmose III (ca. 1479–1425 BCE) in the New Kingdom, after the foreign rule of the Hyksos during the Second Intermediate Period, became a form of address for the person who was king and Son of god Ra. “The Egyptian sun god Ra, considered the father of all pharaohs, was said to have created himself from a pyramid-shaped mound of earth before creating all other gods.” (Donald B. Redford, Ph.D., Penn State)
AMEN-RA IS CREATED. AMEN BECOMES A SUN GOD
After the rebellion of Thebes against the Hyksos and with the rule of Ahmose I, Amun acquired national importance, expressed in his fusion with the Sun god, Ra, as Amun-Ra.
Amun-Ra retained chief importance in the Egyptian pantheon throughout the New Kingdom (with the exception of the “Atenist heresy” under Akhenaten). Amun-Ra in this period (16th to 11th centuries BC) held the position of transcendental, self-created creator deity “par excellence”, he was the champion of the poor or troubled and central to personal piety. His position as King of Gods developed to the point of virtual monotheism where other gods became manifestations of him. With Osiris, Amun-Ra is the most widely recorded of the Egyptian gods. As the chief deity of the Egyptian Empire, Amun-Ra also came to be worshipped outside of Egypt, in Ancient Libya and Nubia, and as Zeus Ammon came to be identified with Zeus in Ancient Greece.
WITH RA NOW THE SOCIAL POLITICAL RELIGIOUS POWER IN EGYPT ,THE GOD SET GETS A NEW JOB DESCRIPTION
HERO OF RA
With RA taking political power, Amen joins with RA to become ,Amen-RA ,and with Horus as Ra’s heir on Earth, Set, previously the chief god, for Lower Egypt (during the Hyksos rule), required an appropriate role as well, and so was identified as Ra’s main hero, who fought Apep each night, during Ra’s journey (as sun god) across the underworld
- Set Battles Apep the snake ,defending Ra’s solar boat
THE ROOTS OF THE 2ND EXODUS BEGIN IN c.1250
AND CULMINATES IN THE EXPULSION OF THE GOD SET
THE BIBLICAL EXODUS IS BASED ON THE POLITICAL POWER STRUGGLE BETWEEN SET AND RA FOR PHAROANIC AND RELIGIOUS CONTROL OF EGYPT
IT WAS PROBABLY STARTED BY RAMOSES II FORCING THE ENSLAVED HYKSOS/HEBREWS TO BUILD A CITY OF RA ,PI-RAMESSES,
ON THE RUINS OF THE HYKSOS/HEBREW CITY OF SET, AVAIRS!!
THE CONSTRUCTION OF PI-RAMSES WAS ON THE RUINS OF AVAIRS.
THE ABANDONED HYKSOS CAPITAL DEDICATED TO SET
THIS IS WHY RAMOSES GETS SUCH A BAD PRESS IN THE BIBLE
Avaris was a major administrative capital and royal summer residence in the 12th and 13th dynasties of Egypt, and subsequently the main capital of the Hyksos dynasties of Egypt.The Hyksos at their capital Avaris worshiped and venerated Seth. The town itself appears to have been mainly abandoned after the Hyksos expulsion but seems to have been reoccupied by the Nineteenth dynasty, at which time Avaris was incorporated into the new settlement of Pi-Ramesses as that city’s southern quarters THEN Ramesses II transferred his government and official residence north to Pi-Ramesses from Thebes
HE ALSO MAY HAVE REFUSED TO LET THE HABIRU WORSHIP SET ,AS THE HYKSOS RULE HAD DEMONISED SET IN THE EYES OF EGYPTIANS
ACCORDING TO THE BIBLE/TORAH PHAROAH FORBIDS THE HYKSOS/HA IBRW TO WORSHIP SET
Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and told him that the Lord God of Israel(SETH) wanted Pharaoh to permit the Israelites(Hyksos/habiru) to celebrate a feast in the wilderness(desert)
BUT RAMOSES II STILL GOT HIS ROYAL CITY OF RA BUILT, SO NO BIG PROBLEM FOR RAMOSES II
WHO WOULD PROBABLY BE GLAD TO SEE THE SET WORSHIPPING HABIRU GO!
….THUS NO PHARONIC DESERT CHACE AND NO EGYPTIAN RECORD OF ANY MASS EXODUS
IN FACT THERE IS NO EGYPTIAN EVIDENCE OF ANY KIND OF EXODUS OR MIGRATION OUT OF EGYPT DURING THIS PERIOD
SO THE REAL SECOND EXODUS MUST OF HAPPENED LATER ,AFTER RAMOSES II
Although the Book of Genesis and Book of Exodus describe a period of Hebrew servitude in ancient Egypt, more than a century of archaeological research has discovered nothing which could support its narrative elements— the four centuries sojourn in Egypt, the escape of well over a million Israelites from the Delta, or the three months journey through the wilderness to Sinai.
The Egyptian records themselves have no mention of anything recorded in Exodus, the wilderness of the southern Sinai peninsula shows no traces of a mass-migration such as Exodus describes, and virtually all the place-names mentioned, including Goshen (the area within Egypt where the Israelites supposedly lived), the store-cities of Pithom and Rameses, the site of the crossing of the Red Sea (or, more commonly among modern Biblical scholars, the Sea of Reeds), and even Mt Sinai itself, have resisted identification
James Weinstein, “Exodus and the Archaeological Reality”, in Exodus: The Egyptian Evidence, ed. Ernest S. Frerichs and Leonard H. Lesko (Eisenbrauns, 1997), p.87
John Van Seters, “The Geography of the Exodus”, in The Land I Will Show You: Essays on the History and Archaeology of the Ancient Near East in Honour of J. Maxwell Miller, ed. J.]
Pithom is one of the cities which, according to Exodus 1:11, was built for the Pharaoh of the oppression by the forced labor of the Israelites. The other city was Pi-Ramses; and the Septuagint adds a third, “On, which is Heliopolis.
THE BIBLICAL STORIES OF PI-RAMOSES AND PITHOM AND ON ARE FALSE
OR DISTRORTED MEMORIES RE-WRITTEN IN LATER YEARS
AND GIVEN A MONOTHEISTIC GOD REPLACING SET/AMEN POLYTHEISM
BUT THE ENSLAVED HYKSOS WHERE DEFINATELY PUT TO WORK IN THE QUARRIES
The biblical Book of Exodus mentions “Ramesses” as one of the cities on whose construction the Israelites were forced to labour (Exodus 1:11). Understandably, this Ramesses was identified by an early generation of biblical archaeologists with the Pi-Ramesses of Ramesses II.
Feet of Ramses II statue at Pi-Ramesses
The existence of the city as Egypt’s capital as late as the 10th century makes problematic the reference to Ramesses in the Exodus story as a memory of the era of Ramesses II; and indeed, the shortened form “Ramesses”, in place of the original Pi-Ramesses, is first found in 1st millennium texts.
The Bible describes Ramesses as a “store-city”(Not a Royal Capital). The exact meaning of the Hebrew phrase is not certain, but some have suggested that it refers to supply depots on or near the frontier. This would be an appropriate description for Pithom (Tel al-Maskhuta) in the 6th century BCE, but not for the royal capital in the time of Ramesses, when the nearest frontier was far off in the north of Syria. Only after the original royal function of Pi-Ramesses had been forgotten could the ruins have been re-interpreted as a fortress on Egypt’s frontier. Long after the time of any Ramesses!
John Van Seters, “The Geography of the Exodus”, in John Andrew Dearman, Matt Patrick Graham, (eds), “The land that I will show you: essays on the history and archaeology of the Ancient Near East in honour of J. Maxwell Miller” (Sheffield Academic Press, 2001), pp.264–6
Pithom, Egyptian Per-Atum or Per Tum (“Estate of Atum”), probably modern Tall al-Maskhūṭah, ancient Egyptian city located near Ismailia in Al-Ismāʿīliyyah muḥāfaẓah (governorate) and mentioned in the Bible (Exodus 1:11) as one of the treasure houses built for the pharaoh by the Hebrews prior to the Exodus. Although Pithom has been identified as Tall al-Maskhūṭah, excavations at the site have revealed that, aside from an unfortified outpost of the Hyksos period (see ancient Egypt: The Second Intermediate period), the earliest layers do not predate the 7th century bce
AS FOR HELIOPOLIS ,IT HAD BEEN STANDING LONG BEFORE THE HYKSOS HAD EVEN ENTERED EGYPT
Obelisk of Sesostris I, 12th Dynasty, Middle Kingdom in Heliopolis
Heliopolis (/hiliˈɒpɵlʌs/; Ancient Greek: Ἡλιούπολις, “City of the Sun” or “City of Helios”; Egyptian: ỉwnw; Arabic: عين شمس, Ain Shams, “Eye of the Sun”) was one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, the capital of the 13th Lower Egyptian nome that was located five miles (8 km) east of the Nile to the north of the apex of the Nile Delta. Heliopolis has been occupied since the Predynastic Period, with extensive building campaigns during the Old and Middle Kingdoms.
The major cult centre of Ra was Heliopolis (called Iunu, “Place of Pillars”, in Egyptian)
At the time of the New Kingdom, the worship of Ra had became more complicated and grander. The walls of tombs were dedicated to extremely detailed texts that depicted Ra’s journey through the underworld. Ra was said to carry the prayers and blessings of the living with the souls of the dead on the sun boat.
Many acts of worship included hymns, prayers, and spells to help Ra and the sun boat overcome Apep.
Today it is mostly destroyed; its temples and other buildings were used for the construction of medieval Cairo.
The site of Heliopolis has now been brought for the most part under cultivation and suburbanization, but some ancient city walls of crude brick can be seen in the fields, a few granite blocks bearing the name of Ramesses II remain, and the position of the great Temple of Re-Atum is marked by the Al-Masalla obelisk.
THE THEOLOGICAL ROOT OF THE EXODUS AND MODERN ABRAHAMIC MONOTHEISM
IS THE SOCIO/RELIGIOUS POWER STRUGGLE IN EGYPT
BETWEEN SET VS OSIRIS/HORUS AND AMEN VS RA
MALE FERTILITY CULT VS SUN WORSHIPPING CULT
RAMOSES VERSUS SETMOSES , MY GOD VERSES YOUR GOD
AND THE ROOT OF MOST BIBLICAL STORIES
MOSES WAS A HIGH PRIEST OF SET AND POSSIBLY A HYKSOS PRINCE OF EGYPT BY BIRTH.
WE KNOW FROM EGYPTIAN RECORDS HE HELD AN IMPORTANT RANK IN NORTHERN EGYPT AND IS DESCRIBED AS A RENEGADE PRIEST OF HELIOPOLIS(JUST LIKE CHANCELLOR BAY)
AND HE DEFINATELY HAD STRONG CONNECTIONS WITH THE AMEN/SET MALE FERTILITY FACTION IN EGYPT AT THIS TIME.
Mose’s REAL name was probably “Sethmoses” or “Setmoses” with a ban on speaking the god’s name,he would be called MOSES ,e.g. Thut-MOSE, “Chosen of Thoth,” Ra-MOSE, “Chosen of Ra” if they could not mention thier god’s name.Thus RA-MOSES vs SET-MOSES ,my god vs your god. In the Nineteenth dynasty, Horus(Pharoah) had had many battles with Set, not only to avenge his father(Osiris), but to choose the rightful ruler of Egypt .
These battles give us themes like, the resurrection, a challenge of authority in heaven, the trinity of Osiris Isis Horus, the immaculet conception, the holy ghost(Ra) the father (Osiris) and the son on Earth(Horus),Cain and Abel
THE BIRTH OF ISRAEL ,THE SET BECOMES THE HORUS OF CANAAN
What we see in the Hebrew writing is just the SETH becoming the HORUS for CANAAN.
Adam made love to his wife again, and she gave birth to a son and named him Seth(Horus),saying, “God(Amen) has granted me another child in place of Abel(Osiris), since Cain(Set) killed him.”
According to Genesis 4:25, Seth(Horus) was born after the slaying of Abel by Cain,(Osiris by Set) and Eve(Isis) believed God(Amen/Ra) had appointed him as “replacement” for Abel(Osiris) “because Cain(Set) killed him.” etc.. etc..
What we are seeing here is Canaan (Cain) and Baal (Abel) and the rightful ruler Seth
In the Egyptian original version it is Set (the founder god) and Osiris (his body represents Egypt) and the rightful ruler Horus(the Pharoah)
MODERN JUDAISM IS BASED ON MONOTHEISTIC SET WORSHIP(MALE FERTILITY CULT)
SET(SETH) WORSHIP IN EGYPT AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE HYKSOS/HA IBRW
JUDAISM AND SET WORSHIP
JUDAISM CONTAINS THE FAMILIAR PAGAN ELEMENTS OF AMEN(-RA) ,SET WORSHIP
The conception of God in Judaism is strictly monotheistic. God is an absolute one indivisible incomparable being who is the ultimate cause of all existence.Jewish tradition teaches that the true aspect of God is incomprehensible and unknowable,(AMEN) and that it is only God’s revealed aspect(RA) that brought the universe into existence, and interacts with mankind and the world(SET). In Judaism, the one God of Israel is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who is the guide of the world, delivered Israel from slavery in Egypt, and gave the Ten Commandments at Mount Sinai as described in the Torah.
AMEN,THE ESSENTIAL BUT HIDDEN ASPECT OF GOD
For the SET worshipping Hyksos Pharoahs of Egypt,who would later become the Israelities , AMEN , was the Head god/Supreme Being , does this ring any bells?
The word amen is a declaration of affirmation found in the Hebrew Bible and New Testament. Its use in Judaism dates back to its earliest texts.
Amen, meaning “so be it”, is of Hebrew origin.
Amun(AMEN), reconstructed Egyptian Yamanu (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen or Yamun, Greek ?µµ?? Ammon, and ?µµ?? Hammon)
Whilst remaining hypostatic, Amun represented the essential and hidden, whilst in Ra he represented revealed divinity. As the creator deity “par excellence”,he was the champion of the poor and central to personal piety. Amun was self created, without mother and father, and during the New Kingdom he became the greatest expression of transcendental deity in Egyptian theology . His position as King of Gods developed to the point of virtual monotheism where other gods became manifestations of him. With Osiris, Amun-Ra is the most widely recorded of the Egyptian gods
THE SUPREME BEING ….THE NETER NETERU
It is important to understand that the High Gods and Goddesses as well as the Egyptian Trinities originated from the same transcendental Supreme Being which was without name or form, but was referred to as Neter Neteru (Neter of Neters – Supreme Being above all gods and goddesses) and Neb-er-tcher.
THE GOD SET (SETH)
SET was the god of the desert, evil, and chaos. Set was viewed as immensely powerful. Set carried the epithet, “His Majesty”, shared only with Ra.Another Egyptian title he shared was called “Djeudje”.A possible root of the Jewish title and certainly the root of the name of the land of Judah.
The exact translation of Set is unknown for certain, but is usually considered to be either (one who) dazzles or pillar of stability, one connected to the desert, and the other more to the institution of monarchy.The Hyksos at their capital Avaris worshiped and venerated Seth in the Second Intermediate Period (1650-1550 BCE)due his association with the thunder god Baal.
FOR CANAANITES SET REPRESENTED POWER AND FERTILITY,LIKE THE “HORNED GOD” BAAL
FOR EGYPTIANS SET WAS AN ANCIENT GOD AND THE FOUNDER OF EGYPT
Set was one of the earliest deities, with a strong following in Upper Egypt. Originally highly regarded throughout Kemet as the god of the desert, a political faction inspired an initial disparaging of Set’s name and reputation. Kemet(Egypt) was originally split into two kingdoms: Upper ruled by Horus (and later Ra), Lower by Set. Set’s followers resisted a unification of the Upper and Lower kingdoms of Egypt by the followers of Horus/Ra (and later with the followers of Osiris and Isis). This political split was echoed in the Osiris & Isis myth, and subsequent battle with Horus. The followers of Horus thus denigrated Set as chaotic and evil.Set was further demonized immediately after the Hyksos Period, the evidence from the Nineteenth Dynasty proves that this is a more complex picture.
THE EXPULSION OF SET (SETH)
By the 22nd Dynasty, Set was equated with his old enemy, Apep, and his images on temples were replaced with those of Sobek or Thoth.
THE REDHEADED CHOSEN ONES OF SET(SETH)
Its noted that the Ramessides (the family of Ramses II), were devoted to Seth, with several bearing the name Seti, which means “beloved of Seth”. She concluded that the Ramessides believed themselves to be divine descendants of Seth, with their red hair as proof of their lineage; they may even have used this peculiar physical feature to propel themselves out of obscurity, and onto the throne of the Pharaohs. Desroches-Noblecourt also speculated that Ramesses II may well have been descended from a long line of redheads. [Balout, et al. (1985) 388-391.]
Her speculations have been proved correct: Dr. Joann Fletcher, a consultant to the British Bioanthropology Foundation, has proved that Seti I (the father of Ramesses II), had red hair. [Parks (2000).] It has also been demonstrated that the mummy of Pharaoh Siptah (a great-grandson of Ramesses II), has red hair. [Partridge (1994) 169.]
“After having achieved this immense work, an important scientific conclusion remains to be drawn: the anthropological study and the microscopic analysis of hair, carried out by four laboratories: Judiciary Medecine (Professor Ceccaldi), Société L’Oréal, Atomic Energy Commission, and Institut Textile de France showed that Ramses II was a ’leucoderm’, that is a fair-skinned man, near to the Prehistoric and Antiquity Mediterraneans, or briefly, of the Berber of Africa.” Balout, et al. (1985) 383.
REDHEADS ARE THE CHOSEN ONES OF SET…..KING DAVID IS CLAIMED TO HAVE BEEN A REDHEAD
In ancient Egypt, the god Seth was said to have been red-haired, and redheads were claimed to have worshipped the god devoutly. [Wainwright (1938) 31, 33, 53.]
How white were the Israelites? Facial reconstruction may be surprising
By Ofri Ilani, Haaretz Correspondent
It is said in the tanach that King David had a ruddy complexion and was a redhead.
It is interesting to note the link to the North African Berbers: some Berber tribes, such as the Riffians of the Atlas Mountains, have incidences of blondism reaching almost 60%, and they have a percentage of red-haired people which is comparable to that of the Irish. [Coon & Hunt (1966) 116-117.]
Recent genetic findings suggest that the people now known as Gaelic speaking Celts (including Irish, Welsh, Scots, Basques and Berbers) are a remnant of a group of people who also left Spain between 18,000 and 12,000 years ago
Set was said to be the son either of Nut and Geb or of Nut and Ra, and the brother of Isis, Osiris and Nephthys. Nephthys was sometimes given as his consort, although he is more commonly associated with the foreign, Semitic goddesses Astarte and Anat. Set was also identified by the Egyptians with the Hittite (proto-Celtic Aryans) deity Teshub, who was a storm god like Set.
CIRCUMSITION WAS A SACRIFICE TO A MALE FERTILITY GOD
GODS LIKE SET AND BAAL AND EL,ALL HORNED GODS
SET WAS THE “HORNED GOD” OF ANCIENT EGYPT
“One night while Moses was in camp, Jehovah was about to kill him.
But Zipporah [his wife] circumcised her son with a flint knife … So Jehovah did not harm Moses.
Zipporah said, ‘You are a bridegroom of blood’.”
– Exodus 4.24-26.
Set was most likely a version of the Aryan fertility god. The horned god of the forsets.That is why the “desert” animal of Set animal is a mystery. Circumsition was a pagan ferility right to the male fertility god, the horned god. As woman show thier fertility by bleeding from thier genitals , so a sacrifice to the male fertility god was blood from the male genitals.This would seem reasonable as the penis is clearly inhabited by powers that produce life.
Indeed, evidence of a connection with harvests is also found in Nicaragua, where blood from the operations is mixed with maize to be eaten during the ceremony
Others believe that circumcision arose as a mark of defilement or slavery.The Phoenicians, and later the Jews who were largely enslaved, adopted and ritualized circumcision. In time, circumcision was incorporated into Judaic religious practice and viewed as an outward sign of a covenant between God and man (Genesis XVI, Fig. 2).
THE JEWISH TEMPLE LAYOUT
Egyptian Temple Plan
Set was worshipped in the relatively large metropolitan (yet provincial) locale of Sepermeru, especially during the Rammeside Period. There, Seth was honored with an important temple called the “House of Seth, Lord of Sepermeru.” One of the epithets of this town was “gateway to the desert,”
At Sepermeru, Set’s temple-enclosure included a small secondary shrine called “The House of Seth, Powerful-Is-His-Mighty-Arm,”.The meaning of the town’s name (“near to the desert”) signifies its status as a frontier community (cf. H. te Velde, Seth: God of Confusion, p. 118, n.2) and was thus a suitable cult center for the god Seth.
The Temples dedicated to Seth, the God of Evil, Chaos, Desert & Storms, were believed to be the dwelling place of this famous Egyptian God
The temple of Seth would consist of heavy gates which accessed a massive hall with great stone columns, rooms, or chambers, were lit by candles and incense would be burnt to purify the air of the Temple,to create an atmosphere of deepening mystery until the priests reached the chapel and the shrine which contained the Naos. The Naos was the stone tabernacle inside the shrine which housed the great Statue of Seth, the God of Evil, Chaos, Desert & Storms.
Only the Pharaoh and the Priests of Seth were allowed inside the temple and the priests would undergo ritual purification in a deep stone pool before they entered the Inner Sanctum of the Temple.
The power of Seth’s cult in the mighty (yet outlying) city of Avaris from the Second Intermediate Period through the Ramesside Period cannot be denied. There he reigned supreme as a deity both at odds and in league with threatening foreign powers, and in this case, his chief consort-goddesses were the Phoenicians/Canaanite Anat and Astarte, with Nephthys merely one of the harem
Set’s religious and administrative prominence in Nome XIX(19th Dynasty) was duly shifted south to Oxyrhynchus after this time (cf. te Velde, Seth: God of Confusion, p. 139). We know, however, that Seth continued to be the object of veneration in cult centers on the outskirts of Egypt well into Roman times, especially at Dakhlah Oasis, Kellis, Mut, Kharga, and Deir el- Haggar (cf. te velde, van Dijk, Essays, p. 236). It may be that Seth’s cult survived in some form at Sepermeru, long after Sepermeru’s decline as a religious center.
THIS IS THE SAME GROUNDPLAN AS THE JEWISH TEMPLE
Set was also believed to have white skin and red hair,red animals and even people with red hair were thought to be his followers. These animals were sometimes sacrificed, while the link between Set and red-heads – usually foreigners – gave him godhood over foreign lands
THE HEBREWS SACRIFICED RED ANIMALS TO GOD
According to Numbers 19:2: “Speak unto the children of Israel, that they bring thee a red heifer without spot, wherein is no blemish, and upon which never came yoke” — in other words, the animal must not have hairs of any other color, it must be in perfect health, and it must never have been used to perform work.
The existence of a red heifer that conforms with all of the rigid requirements imposed by halakha is a biological anomaly. The animal must be entirely of one color, and there are a series of tests listed by the rabbis to ensure this, for instance, the hair of the cow must be absolutely straight (to ensure that the cow had not previously been yoked, as this is a disqualifier). According to Jewish tradition, only nine Red Heifers were actually slaughtered in the period extending from Moses to the destruction of the Second Temple. Mishnah Parah recounts eight, stating that Moses prepared the first, Ezra the second, Simon the Just and Yochanan the High Priest prepared two each, and Eliechonnai ben Hakkot and Hanameel the Egyptian prepared one each. (Mishna Parah 3:4)
The absolute rarity of the animal, combined with the mystical ritual in which it is used, have given the Red Heifer special status in Jewish tradition. It is cited as the prime example of a chok, or biblical law for which there is no apparent logic, and is therefore of absolute Divine origin. Because the state of ritual purity obtained through the ashes of a Red Heifer is a necessary prerequisite for participating in any Temple service, efforts have been made in modern times by Jews wanting to rebuild the Temple to locate a red heifer and recreate the ritual.
The Temple Institute, an organization dedicated to preparing the reconstruction of a Third Temple in Jerusalem, has been attempting to identify Red Heifer candidates consistent with the requirements of Numbers 19:1-22 and Mishnah Tractate Parah
THE JEWISH ROD OF GOD
THE STAFF OF SET OR THE “SET STAFF”
SET holds a scepter of was (Set-Staff) in his left hand. Called The Was sceptre (“of power”) the scepters represent the Set-animal and the Was sceptre’ -was a symbol of power and dominion -and in later use, as a symbol of control over the force of chaos (Set)
God had Moses practice transforming his rod into a serpent and inflicting and healing leprosy.
At the battle with Amalek, he[Aaron] is chosen with Hur to support the hand of Moses that held the “rod of God” (Exodus 17:9)…
…aka The SET STAFF or “staff of was” which was the symbol of authority for a High priest of SET
“Was scepters” were used as symbols of power or dominion, and were associated with the gods such as Set or Anubis
“Was scepters” were depicted as being carried by gods, pharaohs, and priests.
The Was (ws) is also the Egyptian hieroglyphic character that stands for a word meaning power
The ‘was’-sceptre is also the symbol of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome, the nome of Thebes (called ‘Waset’ in Egyptian).
In the culture of the Israelites, the rod would be a natural symbol of authority,
Aaron’s rod refers to any of the staffs carried by Moses’ brother, Aaron, in the Old Testament of the bible
God commanded Moses to raise his rod over the Red Sea when it was to be parted (Exodus 14:16) and in prayer over Israel in battle (Exodus 17:9); Moses brings forth water from a stone using his rod (Exodus 17, Numbers 20:11).
God had Moses practice transforming his rod into a serpent and inflicting and healing leprosy
ARK OF THE COVENANT
In the Battle of Jericho, the Ark was carried round the city once a day for seven days, preceded by the armed men and seven priests sounding seven trumpets of rams’ horns (Josh. 6:4-15)
The Anubis chest
The Chest of Anubis, from Tutankhamen tomb; a gold box with carrying poles surmounted by the figure of a diety, Anubis.
KV62 is the tomb of Tutankhamun in the Valley of the Kings (Egypt), which became famous for the wealth of treasure it contained
Anubis (pron.: /əˈnuːbəs/ or /əˈnjuːbəs/; Ancient Greek: Ἄνουβις) is the Greek name for a (presumably) jackal-headed god associated with mummification and the afterlife in ancient Egyptian religion.Anubis dictated the fate of souls. In this manner, he was a Lord of the Underworld He is the son of Nephthys and Set according to the Egyptian mythology, Osiris’ brother and the god of the desert and darkness. According to the Akkadian transcription in the Amarna letters, Anubis’ name was vocalized in Egyptian as Anapa. The oldest known mention of Anubis is in the Old Kingdom pyramid texts, where he is associated with the burial of the pharaoh. At this time, Anubis was the most important god of the dead but he was replaced during the Middle Kingdom by Osiris.
He takes names in connection with his funerary role, such as He who is upon his mountain,which underscores his importance as a protector of the deceased and their tombs, and the title He who is in the place of embalming
This is a pyramidion – top of a Pyramid. The Hieroglyphs above ANUBIS correctly read:
ANEBES VARTI = “The Gates of Heaven” The Hieroglyphs around ANUBIS correctly read ARAJINA SHKIP-RITA = “The Box (Coffin) of Orion” ARON HABERIT
When the Myth of Osiris and Isis emerged, it was said that when Osiris had been killed by Set, Osiris’ organs were given to Anubis as a gift.
The Greeks associated Set with Typhon, the largest monster ever born. Typhon was the son of the Earth and Tartarus (the place of torture in Hades), and thoroughly evil. Both were storm gods associated with the colour red and with pigs (whose meat was considered to be unclean by many cultures including the Egyptians).
JACOBS LADDER THE LADDER OF SET
“Homage to thee, O divine Ladder! Homage to thee O Ladder of Set! Stand thou upright, O divine Ladder! Stand thou upright, O Ladder of Set! Stand thou upright, O Ladder of Horus, whereby Osiris came forth into heaven.”
— Pyramid Texts,
JACOB(A HYKSOS SET WORSHIPING PHARONIC NAME) SUPPLANTS THE “CHOSEN DIVINE RED RULER”
His original name Ya’akov is sometimes explained as having meant “supplanter”.
In Egyptian mythology, Set is portrayed as the usurper of his own brother Osiris.
Genesis 25:29-34 tells the account of Esau selling his birthright to Jacob. This passage states that Esau, returning famished from the fields, begged Jacob to give him some of the stew that Jacob had just made. (Esau referred to the dish as “that same red pottage”, giving rise to his nickname, Hebrew: אדום (`Edom, meaning “Red”).) Jacob offered to give Esau a bowl of stew in exchange for his birthright, to which Esau agreed.
NOW JACOB IS RENAMED ISRAEL “WRESTLES GOD”
Jacob is renamed Israel by God (Genesis 32:28-29 and 35:10). Etymologically, the name “Israel” comes from the Hebrew words לִשְׂרות (lisrot, “wrestle”) and אֵל (El, “God”)
THE BIRTH OF THE CONCEPT OF ISRAEL
AN EGYPTIAN STORY OF WRESTLING GODS AND DIVINE BIRTHRIGHT STRUGGLES
THE STORY OF SET ,A STRONG/FIGHTING GOD
ALSO EDOM MEANS RED THE COLOUR OF SET AND JUDAH IS “DJEUTJE” IT MEANS LORD THE TITLE OF SET
ALL FOUND IN CANAAN THE LAND OF SET(THE GOD YOU CANNOT MENTION IN CANAAN)
THE TRAPPINGS OF SET WORSHIP IN EGYPT
Setu I funeral scene. With Amen the ram(Khumn) ,Set and the rod of god(top right),and the Ark of the Covenant(with Anubis),a sacificial ram. Also a horned(divine knowledge) blue priest accompaning the corpse/mummy on its way to the afterlife.
YOU CAN SEE IN THIS IMAGE
THIS IS A MALE PATRIARCHAL RELIGIOUS CEREMONY(NO FEMALES)
THE ARK OF THE COVENANT(TOP MIDDLE)
SET AND THE ROD OF GOD(TOP RIGHT)
AMEN AS THE RAM GOD KHUMN(AND INVISIBLE)(BOTTOM RIGHT)
A SACRIFICIAL RAM(TOP MIDDLE)
A FEMALE AND A MALE HUMAN SACRIFICE IN CHAINS PROBABLY THE SLAVE SERVANTS(BEHIND THE RAM)
A SNAKE AS A ROD(BOTTOM LEFT)
A BLUE HORNED PRIEST WITH DIVINE KNOWLEDGE SHOWING A CORPSE/MUMMY/SPIRIT ON ITS WAY TO THE AFTERLIFE(BOTTOM MIDDLE)
THE PRIEST IS WEARING A RED CLOAK(LEVITE)
THE GODDESS HATHOR (EGYPTIAN) AND NOT THE GODDESS MUT(ASIATIC)
(blue is an ancient colour of divinity ,found from ancient Vedic India and its blue gods ,to ancient Celtic Britain and its painted blue inhabitants.Also the horned god features greatly in both.)
SETI I IS RULING FROM THEBES WITH HOREMHEBS EGYPTIAN AMEN-RA/SET PRIESTS
FOR THE EGYPTIAN MILITARY FUNERAL OF PHARAOH SETI I
SET IS HERO OF RA, HATHOR THE EYE OF RA
HATHOR GODDES OF FERTILITY AND FOREIGN LANDS AND EYE OF RA
Hathor (/ˈhæθɔr/ or /ˈhæθər/;Egyptian: ḥwt-ḥr and from Greek: Άθωρ, “mansion of Horus”.Hathor was worshiped by Royalty and common people alike in whose tombs she is depicted as “Mistress of the West” welcoming the dead into the next life.In other roles she was a goddess of music, dance, foreign lands and fertility who helped women in childbirth.
The cult of Hathor predates the historic period, and the roots of devotion to her are therefore difficult to trace, though it may be a development of predynastic cults which venerated fertility, and nature in general, represented by cows.
Hathor is commonly depicted as a cow goddess with horns in which is set a sun disk with Uraeus.Hathor may be the cow goddess who is depicted from an early date on the Narmer Palette and on a stone urn dating from the 1st dynasty that suggests a role as sky-goddess and a relationship to Horus who, as a sun god, is “housed” in her.
THE HYKSOS JUST WORSHIP SET
AND THE THEBEN TRIAD(THE 3 IN 1 UNCREATED GODS) AMEN MUT KHONSU
FOR THE ASIATIC HYKSOS HATHOR THE COW BECOMES THE LION GODESS MUT
Lower and upper Egypt both already had patron deities–Wadjet and Nekhbet–respectively, indeed they also had lioness protector deities–Bast and Sekhmet–respectively. When Thebes rose to greater prominence, Mut absorbed these warrior goddesses as some of her aspects. First, Mut became Mut-Wadjet-Bast, then Mut-Sekhmet-Bast (Wadjet having merged into Bast), then Mut also assimilated Menhit, who was also a lioness goddess, becoming Mut-Sekhmet-Bast-Menhit, and finally becoming Mut-Nekhbet.In that phase, Mut and Amun had a son, Khonsu, another moon deity.After the expulsion of the Hyksos and the demonisation and later expulsion of Set.The authority of Thebes waned and Amun was assimilated into Ra. Mut, the doting mother, was assimilated into Hathor, the cow-goddess and mother of Horus who had become identified as Ra’s wife.
POLYTHEISTIC TRINITIES OF GODS
A theme common to modern Abrahamic monotheism today. We see this in the Christian trinity and the Jewish understanding of god as “aspects of god” ,the incomprehesible aspect ,the revealed aspect and the interacting aspect.
There were several forms of the Trinity in Ancient Egyptian religion depending on the geographic locality where the teaching was espoused. These included:
Amun-Mut-Khons, Ptah-Sekhmet-Nefertem, Horus-Hathor-Harsomtus (Horus the Younger), Khnum-Anukis-Satis, Ptah-Seker-Ausar (Osiris). However, the most popular Trinity throughout all of Ancient Egypt was that of Osiris-Isis-Horus
AND THUS…. IS-RA-EL –
As stated in your religious texts……..the “sons of God” who appear in Genesis 6:2 are identified as the children of Seth(Set)(…and “Amen Ra” was depicted as the Bull ,sound familiar?hint Golden idols), and the “daughters of men” as women descended from Cain, who successfully tempt most of the Sethites to come down from their mountain and join the Cainites in the valley below, under the instigation of Genun son of Lamech.
MOSES IS CHOSEN OF SET
Ramoses = chosen of Ra
“”Moses = chosen of “Set”,a god the uninitiated cannot mention.
MOSES SISTER IS MIRIAM ,BELOVED OF AMEN
Miriam (Hebrew: מִרְיָם, Modern Miryam Tiberian Miryām ; Arabic: مريم (Maryam); see Miriam (given name)) was the sister of Moses and Aaron, and the daughter of Amram and Yocheved. She appears first in the Book of Exodus in the Hebrew Bible.
Mery-netjeru = Beloved of the Gods
Mery-amen (Miriam) = Beloved of Amen
(Set)Moses coming down from the monutain ,horned and with the 10 commandments.
As a priest of Set/Baal a male fertility god, being horned shows you are enlightened with divine wisdom.
The 10 commandments are the symbol of Amen,the Crown of Amen
THE SUPREME DIETY
amun (amen) in karnak
THE THEBBES INFLUENECE
AMEN THE SUPREME DIETY
THE BIBLICAL CITY OF AMUN
Thebes was known in the Egyptian language from the end of the New Kingdom as niwt-imn, “The City of Amun.” This found its way into the Hebrew Bible as נא אמון (nōʼ ʼāmôn) (Nahum 3:8),”City of Amon” referring to the Egyptian deity Amon-Ra
Amun-Ra. In the Hymn to Amun-Ra he is described as “Lord of truth, father of the gods, maker of men, creator of all animals, Lord of things that are, creator of the staff of life.”
The Crown of Amen
Amen is usually depicted as a man wearing a headdress with two tall plumes rising from a short crown. As Amen-Ra, thesun disk is added between the plumes, showing his connection to the sun.Horus is also seen wearing the headdress of Amen. It is said that also other gods are unaware of his true form, as they were created later than him and by him. His invisibility carries connotations with the wind, or breeze,and which is seen in the depictions where he carries two high plumes on top of his head, plumes being a sign for wind or air. — The Creation Myths, Akhet
AMEN THE GOLDEN CALF
“And all the people brake off the golden earrings which were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron. And he received them at their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool, after he had made it a molten calf: and they said, These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.” – Exodus 32:3,4
Egyptian King Kneeling Before the Apis Bull
“bull of his mother”
Amen’s growth to that of a national god mirrored the growth of Thebes in importance. This growth was accelerated when Amenemhet I took control of the thrown at Thebes, and founded the 12th Dynasty. However, the apex of his worship probably occurred during the New Kingdom onward at Thebes, where the important Opet festival was dedicated to Amun. During the Opet festival, the statue of Amun was conveyed by boat from the temple of Karnak to Luxor in order to celebrate Amun’s marriage to Mut in his aspect of Ka-mut-ef (literally, “bull of his mother”). In this capacity, Amun was recognized for his procreative function
APIS, a sacred bull worshipped at Memphis from the earliest period, having probably been introduced into the religious system as early as the 2nd dynasty by the king Kaiechos, who instituted the worship of Apis and the bull Mnevis.
There was a succession of sacrifices under the 19th dynasty, commencing with Seti or Sethos I., besides three which died in the 16th, 26th, and 30th years of Rameses II., and three others, the dates of whose deaths are unknown. Under the 20th dynasty there was an Apis which died in the 26th year of Rameses III
Amen’s name in hieroglyphs was Hapi, and meant “the hidden,” as he had to be discovered amidst the cattle, which was done by certain diacritical marks.
Amun-Re grew so important spiritually and politically by the time of the New Kingdom that Egypt became something of a Theocracy. At the apex of his worship, Egyptian religion approached monotheism. The other gods became mere symbols of his power, or manifestations of Amun-Re. In essence, he became the one and only supreme deity.
WE SEE AMEN CHANGE FROM THE BULL OF HIS MOTHER ,TO THE RAM OF GOD
THIS IS DUE TO SUN WORSHIP AND THE PROCESSION OF THE EQUINOXES
THIS SHOWS HOW OLD AMEN WORSHIP IS.
IT AT THIS TIME WE SEE THE HYKSOS ARRIVAL IN KARNACK
THE HYKSOS WORSHIP THE LION AND THE RAM AND OPPOSE THE BULL/COW
THEY BRING PATRIARCHAL MALE FERTILITY TO KARNACK
AMEN BECOMES THE MALE FERTILITY RAM LORD
AND AN EGYPTIAN SUN VERSES HYKSOS MALE FERTILITY POWER STRUGGLE STARTS IN KARNACK
An astrological age is a time period which astrology postulates parallel major changes in the development of Earth’s inhabitants, particularly relating to culture, society and politics. There are twelve astrological ages corresponding to the twelve zodiacal signs in western astrology. At the completion of one cycle of twelve astrological ages, the cycle repeats itself. Astrological ages occur because of a phenomenon known as the precession of the equinoxes. One complete period of this precession is called a Great Year or Platonic Year of about 25,920 years
THE BIRTH OF EGYPT AND BULL SYMBOLISM
The Age of Taurus (The Taurean Age)
Symbol for Taurus:
The zodiacal signs:
the vernal equinox (northern hemisphere) is occurring in Taurus;
Neil Mann interpretation: began in ca. 4300 BC and ended in ca. 2150 BC.
Constellation boundary year:
Shephard Simpson interpretation: began ca. 4525 BC to ca. 1875 BC
Overview “The Age of Earth, Agriculture and the Bull”
Historical similarities Bull worshiping cults began to form in Assyria, Egypt, and Crete which relates to Taurus symbolizing the bull.
THIS CHANGES TO RAM SYMBOLISM C.2150
Amen becomes the Ram of god
The Age of Aries (The Arian Age)
Symbol for Aries:
Neil Mann interpretation: began in ca. 2150 BC and ended in ca. 1 AD.
Constellation boundary year:
Shephard Simpson interpretation: began ca. 1875 BC to ca. 100 AD
Overview “The Age of War, Fire and the Ram”
Historical similarities Aries represents a Fire symbol as well as bold actions, a lot of these behaviors can be seen during any age. However, the themes emphasised during this age relate to courage, initiative, war & adventure. Nations during this age such as the expanding empires of China, Persia, Greece and Rome, are often cited as examples of the archetypes of Aries in action. Also the Aries constellation shows a ram running. This could correspond with the sacrifice of Abraham’s Ram
TODAY WE ARE IN THE END OF THE AGE OF PISCES , THE FISH!
The Age of Pisces (The Piscean Age)
Symbol of Pisces:
The Age of Pisces is technically the current age and some astrologers believe it will remain so for approximately another 600 years. At that time, the vernal equinox point will no longer be facing Pisces, but moved into the constellation of Aquarius, thus beginning the Age of Aquarius. However, there are many astrologers who believe that the Age of Aquarius has already arrived or will arrive soon.
Neil Mann interpretation: began in ca. CE 1 and ends in ca. CE 2150.
Heindel-Rosicrucian interpretation: began in ca. CE 498 and ends in ca.CE 2654
Mayan: ended 21 December 2012
Constellation boundary year:
Shephard Simpson interpretation: began ca. 100/90 BCE and ends ca. BCE 2680.
“The Age of Monotheism, Spirituality, and the Fish”
The Age of Pisces is characterized by the Christian age. The fish is thought to have been chosen as a symbol for Chritianity by the early Christians.
FOR SOME 21ST DECEMBER 2012 MARKED THE BEGINNING OF THE AGE OF AQUARIUS
OR WELCOME TO THE EGYPTIAN NEW AGE OF THE PHEONIX
Mayan Calendar / Egyptian Cycle of the Phoenix begins AD 21 December 2012.
Overview “The Age of Freedom, Technology (especially space travel and electricity), and the Water Bearer”
THE PRIESTS OF AMUN
THE POLITICAL PUPPET MASTERS OF EGYPT DEDICATED TO SET/AMEN POLYTHEISM
THERE IS AN EGYPTIAN AND A HYKSOS/CANAANITE FACTION IN KARNACK
THE NEWLY CREATED EGYPTIAN AMEN-RA VERSES THE OLD AMEN AND THE CANAANITE MALE FERTILITY AMEN(MIN)
THEY ARE ALSO IN A POLITICAL/RELIGIOUS POWER STRUGGLE WITH PHAROAH AND SUN WORSHIPPERS
…SOME SUN WORSHIPPERS SHOWS SIGNS OF MONOTHEISM
While not regarded as a dynasty, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were nevertheless of such power and influence that they were effectively the rulers of Upper Egypt from 1080 to c.943 BC,The Amun priests owned two-thirds of all the temple lands in Egypt and 90 percent of her ships plus many other resources.Consequently, the Amun priests were as powerful as Pharaoh, if not more so.
ALL HIGH PRIESTS OF AMEN ARE PATRIARCHAL
NO HIGH PRIESTESS IN KARNACK
REBELLIOUS PHAROAHS AND QUEENS OF THE SUN
…AND THE BIRTH OF MONOTHEISM IN EGYPT
Its was the sun worshipping RA/Horus Pharoahs that left Thebes and built thier own power bases. Akenaten failed ,but Ramoses succeeded ,in the bible he built 3 cities all dedicated to the sun,RA ,Atum and Helios.In reality he only built the city to RA,which was built on the ruins of Avairs ,the Hyksos city of Set,and as lot of temples to the sun.It would seem this is why he is still vilified today by the Abrahamic monotheists
THE PRIESTS OF AMEN IMPOSE A PATRIARCHAL MALE DOMINATED RELIGIOUS THEOCRACY
WHILE RA WORSHIPPING SUN WORSHIPPERS STILL BELIEVE IN THE EQUALITY OF THE SEXES
THE PRIESTS OF AMEN ALSO SELL RELIGIOUS PRIVILEGES TO AID IN THE AFTERLIFE AND JUDGEMENT DAY
POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS CHANGES HAPPEN AFTER THE HYKSOS EXPULSION
AMEN-RA IS CREATED AFTER THE HYKSOS EXPULSION
AND SO IS THE TITLE PHAROAH…A KING DEDICATED TO THE SUN
THE SUN WORSHIPERS ARE STAMPING THEIR POWER ON THE THRONE AND THE RELIGION
After the rebellion of Thebes against the Hyksos and with the rule of Ahmose I, Amun acquired national importance, expressed in his fusion with the Sun god, Ra, as Amun-Ra.
Amun-Ra retained chief importance in the Egyptian pantheon throughout the New Kingdom (with the exception of the “Atenist heresy” under Akhenaten). Amun-Ra in this period (16th to 11th centuries BC) held the position of transcendental, self-created creator deity “par excellence”, he was the champion of the poor or troubled and central to personal piety. His position as King of Gods developed to the point of virtual monotheism where other gods became manifestations of him. With Osiris, Amun-Ra is the most widely recorded of the Egyptian gods. As the chief deity of the Egyptian Empire, Amun-Ra also came to be worshipped outside of Egypt, in Ancient Libya and Nubia, and as Zeus Ammon came to be identified with Zeus in Ancient Greece.
Amun rose to the position of tutelary deity of Thebes after the end of the First Intermediate Period, under the 11th dynasty. As the patron of Thebes, his spouse was Mut. In Thebes, Amun as father, Mut as mother and the Moon god Khonsu formed a divine family or “Theban Triad”.
Michael Brennan Dick, Born in heaven, made on earth: the making of the cult image in the ancient Near East, Eisenbrauns, 1999 ISBN 1575060248, p. 184 (fn. 80)
Vincent Arieh Tobin, Oxford Guide: The Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology, Edited by Donald B. Redford, p. 20, Berkley books, ISBN 0-425-19096-X
THE EGYPTIAN POLITICAL RELIGIOUS POWER STRUGGLE
A POWER STRUGGLE BETWEEN RA/HORUS WORSHIPPERS AND AMEN/SET WORSHIPPERS
Horus and Set
THERE HAD ALWAYS BEEN A POWER STRUGGLE IN EGYPT BETWEEN MALE FERTILITY WORSHIPPERS ,WHO WORSHIPPED SET/ AMEN,AND SUN WORSHIPPERS THAT WORSHIPPED RA OSIRIS ISIS HORUS
WE SEE THE HYKSOS PATRIARCHAL MALE FERTILITY WORSHIP MOVE INTO AMEN WORSHIP
THIS STRUGGLE PEAKED IN THE 19TH AND 20TH DYNASTIES 1292–1069 BC
Amen/Set worship came via Aryan male fertility cults(Set=the horned god , Amen=Anu the Supreme Being) . Redheads where the “chosen ones” of Set(David was a redhead). Red animals where sacrificed to Set(the judaic Red Heffer). The Set staff was the symbol of power(The rod of Aaron) circumcistion was a sacrifice to a male fertility god.
SYMBOLS OF THE STAFF, HORNS ,AMEN CROWN ,HORNED DOG, HIPPO ,PIG/BOAR ,CAT FISH ,CROCODILE
Ra/Horus was sun and goddess worship and the symbols of the sun and the ankh
The hawk headed Horus was thier avenging child.Symbols the hawk and the eye,
SYMBOLS THE EYE ,THE ANKH ,THE HAWK ,THE SUN ,
This can be seen in the Egyptian myths of Osiris vs Set, with Set winning and then falling to the avenging Horus.
In one myth, when Set and Horus were fighting for the throne after Osiris’s death, Set gouged out Horus’s left eye.
AS SET IS A VERSION OF THE ARYAN “HORNED GOD”(MALE FERTILITY) ,ORIGINALLY A FOREST ANIMAL.
IT HAS NO EQUIVALENT IN A DESERT EGYPT!!
SET WORSHIP IS SO OLD IT IS A PROMINENT FORCE IN THE BIRTH OF EGYPT!
In art, Set is mostly depicted as a fabulous creature, referred to by Egyptologists as the Set animal or Typhonic beast. The Typhon has a curved snout, square ears, forked tail, and canine body; sometimes, Set is depicted as a human with only the head of the Set animal. It does not resemble any known creature, although it could be seen as a composite of an aardvark, a donkey, a jackal, or a fennec
The earliest representations of what may be the Set animal comes from a tomb dating to the Naqada I phase of the predynastic period (3790 BC–3500 BC), though this identification is uncertain. If these are ruled out, then the earliest Set-animal appears on a mace head of the Scorpion King, a protodynastic ruler. The head and the forked tail of the Set animal are clearly present
Regardless, once the two lands were united, Set and Horus were often shown together crowning the new pharaohs, as a symbol of their power over both Lower and Upper Egypt. Queens of the 1st Dynasty bore the title “She Who Sees Horus and Set.” The Pyramid Texts present the pharaoh as a fusion of the two deities. Evidently, pharaohs believed that they balanced and reconciled competing cosmic principles. Eventually the dual-god Horus-Set appeared, combining features of both deities (as was common in Egyptian theology, the most familiar example being Amun-Ra).
THE EGYPTIAN GOD SET
God of storms, the desert, and chaos
Set (also spelled Seth, Setesh, Sutekh, Setekh or Suty) was a god of the desert, storms, and foreigners in ancient Egyptian religion. In later myths he was also the god of darkness, and chaos. In Ancient Greek, the god’s name is given as Σήθ (Seth).
In Egyptian mythology, Set is portrayed as the usurper that killed and mutilated his own brother Osiris. Osiris’ wife Isis reassembled Osiris’ corpse and embalmed him. Osiris’ son Horus, sought revenge upon Set, and the myths describe their conflicts. The death of Osiris and the battle between Horus and Set is a popular theme in Egyptian mythology.
THE STORY OF SET AND OSIRIS
A STORY OF RESURRECTING GODS
IMMACULATE CONCEPTIONS ,SONS OF GOD ,BODIES IN BASKETS FLOATING ON RIVERS,
AND USURPING RULE IN HEAVEN
the legend of set and osiris
Egyptian politics at this time began with a battle between Ra/Osiris/Horus worshippers and Amen/Set worshippers for power of the unified Upper and Lower Egypt.
In the mythology of Heliopolis, Set was born of the sky goddess Nut and the earth god Geb. Set’s twin sister and wife was Nepthys. Nut and Geb also produced another set of twins who became husband and wife: the divine Osiris and Isis, whose son was Horus. The myth of Set’s conflict with Horus, Osiris, and Isis appears in many Egyptian sources, including the Pyramid Texts, the Coffin Texts, the Shabaka Stone, inscriptions on the walls of the temple of Horus at Edfu, and various papyrus sources. The Chester Beatty Papyrus No. 1 contains the legend known as The Contention of Horus and Set. Classical authors also recorded the story, notably Plutarch’s De Iside et Osiride.
Isis with Horus the child
These myths generally portray Osiris as a wise lord, king, and bringer of civilization, happily married to his sister, Isis. Set was envious of his brother, and he killed and dismembered Osiris. Isis reassembled Osiris’ corpse and embalmed him. As the archetypal mummy, Osiris reigned over the afterworld as a king among deserving spirits of the dead. Osiris’ son Horus was conceived by Isis with Osiris’ corpse. Horus naturally became the enemy of Set, and the myths describe their conflicts. Some Egyptologists have reconstructed these as Set poking out Horus’s left eye, and Horus retaliating by castrating Set. However the references to an eye and testicles appear more indirect, referring to the evil Set sexually abusing the young Horus, who protects himself by deflecting the seed of Set, which can be construed as the theft of Set’s virile power.
FOR EGYPTIANS THIS GIVES US THE EYE OF HORUS SYMBOL
AND MARKS THE END OF SET IN EGYPT AS A MALE FERTILITY GOD
AND POSSIBLY THE END OF PHARONIC LINEAGE ,
IT ALSO LAYS GROUDWORK FOR LATER BIBLICAL STORIES .LIKE THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION ,THE RESURRECTION, THE CHILD GOD ,CAIN AND ABEL, THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER IN HEAVEN ,AND SATAN
It has also been suggested that the myth may reflect historical events. According to the Shabaka Stone, Geb divided Egypt into two halves, giving Upper Egypt (the desert south) to Set and Lower Egypt (the region of the delta in the north) to Horus, in order to end their feud. However, according to the stone, in a later judgment Geb gave all Egypt to Horus. Interpreting this myth as a historical record would lead one to believe that Lower Egypt (Horus’ land) conquered Upper Egypt (Set’s land); but, in fact Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt. So the myth cannot be simply interpreted
The pyramid form was associated with the sun god Re, who had been overshadowed by Amun in importance. One of the meanings of Amun’s name was the hidden one, which meant that it was now theologically permissible to hide the Pharaoh’s tomb by fully separating the mortuary template from the actual burial place. This provided the added advantage that the resting place of the pharaoh could be kept hidden from necropolis robbers. All subsequent pharaohs of the New Kingdom would be buried in rock-cut shaft tombs in the Valley of the Kings
This political split was echoed in the Osiris & Isis myth, and subsequent battle with Horus. The followers of Horus thus denigrated Set as chaotic and evil
Shaw, Ian. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-815034-2.
H. te Velde, Seth, God of Confusion: A Study of His Role in Egyptian Mythology and Religion, Probleme der Ägyptologie, 6, G. E. van Baaren-Pape, transl. (W. Helck. Leiden: Brill 1967), pp. 32-41.]
BASED IN SOUTHERN(UPPER)EGYPT WITH ITS THEBBAN CAPITAL AMEN/AMUN AND SET WOULD HOLD INFLUENCE OVER EGYPT.
WE SEE EGYPTIANS WORSHIP SET DIFFERENTLY FROM THE HYKSOS
IN THE BEGINNING EGYPTIANS SEE SET AS THE GUARDIAN OF POLYTHEISTIC BELIEFS AGAINST “THE CHAOS”
ORIGINALLY SET WORSHIPPERS PROBABLY DID HOLD SWAY. THAT WAS WHY THE CAPITAL WAS IN THEBES FOR SO LONG
BUT THE CHANGE IN SOCIO-POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS POWER AND INFLUENCE MAKES SENSE WHEN YOU REALISE THAT THE HYKSOS RULE PUT THE EGYPTIAN PEOPLE OFF WORSHIPING SET!!
AND POWER MOVES NORTH TO THE SUN WORSHIPING PHARAOHS
SET WORSHIP IS ABANDONED AND AMEN IS MERGED WITH RA
THE ARCHEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE
SET FOUNDER OF EGYPT
Scorpion, or Selk, also King Scorpion or Scorpion II refers to the second of two kings so-named of Upper Egypt during the Protodynastic Period.
SCORPIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH SET
THE SCORPION KING CARRIES A MACE WITH A SET ANIMAL SYMBOL c4000BC
The earliest known representation of Set comes from a tomb dating to the Naqada I phase of the Predynastic Period (circa 4000 BC–3500 BC), and the Set-animal is even found on a mace-head of the Scorpion King, a Protodynastic ruler.
Narmer(Angry Catfish) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period (c. 31st century BC). Probably the successor to the Protodynastic pharaohs Scorpion and/or Ka, some consider him the unifier of Egypt and founder of the First Dynasty, therefore the first pharaoh of unified Egypt.
THE CATFISH IS ASSOCIATED WITH SET
IN EGYPTIAN MYTH IT WAS A CATFISH THAT ATE OSIRIS’S PENIS AFTER SET HAD KILLED AND CHOPPED HIM UP!!
IS THIS SCENE ON THE NARMER PALETTE
NARMER AS SET(ANGRY CATFISH) SLAYING THE NORTHERN KING AS OSIRIS(ENDING HIS LINEAGE) AND THE ORIGIN OF THE SET HORUS MYTH? c3100BC
- Narmer Palette
THE PALETTE IS TOPPED WITH HORNED GODS, THE PALETTE CLAIMS NARMER AS THE ANGRY CATFISH
IT SHOWS HIM WEARING THE CROWN OF UPPER AND LOWER EGYPT
The red crown of Lower Egypt – the Deshret crown – dates back to pre-dynastic times. A red crown has been found on a pottery shard from Naqada, and later, king Narmer is shown wearing the red crown on both the Narmer macehead and the Narmer palette.
The white crown of Upper Egypt – the Hedjet crown – is shown on the Qustul incense burner which dates to the pre-dynastic period. Later, King Scorpion was depicted wearing the white crown, as was Narmer.
The combination of red and white crown into the double crown – or Pschent crown – is first documented in the middle of the first dynasty. The earliest depiction may date to the reign of Djet, and is otherwise surely attested during the reign of Den
During the Old Kingdom, Horus and Set were generally viewed as twin supporters and defenders of the god Ra, head of the Egyptian pantheon; and they were often depicted anointing the king, as the divine source of his authority.
Both the Second Dynasty kings Peribsen and Khasekhemwy, whose serekhs depict the set animal, identified themselves as divine manifestations of Set on earth
Seth attained particular prominence in the late Second Dynasty, temporarily replacing, then joining, Horus as the god atop the royal serekh. When the name Peribsen, who was the penultimate king of the Second Dynasty, was written in a serekh, it was surmounted, not by the usual Horus falcon, but by the Seth animal, a hound or jackal-like creature with a wide, straight tail. Peribsen thus made a visual statement that he was the earthly embodiment of Seth. The importance of Seth in the reign of Peribsen was also reflected in a sealing of the king from Abydos. It referred to a god named ‘the golden one’ or, perhaps more likely, ‘he of Nubt (Naqada)’, the usual epithet of Seth in historic times.
Was (“power”) scepters represent the Set-animal. Was scepters were carried by gods, pharaohs, and priests, as a symbol of power, and in later use, control over the force of chaos (Set). The head and forked tail of the Set-animal are clearly present. Was scepters are often depicted in paintings, drawings, and carvings of gods, and remnants of real was scepters have been found constructed of faience or wood.
Gay Robins, The Art of Ancient Egypt (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000), p. 33.
Kathryn A. Bard, “The Emergence of the Egyptian State (c. 3200-2686 BC)”, in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Ian Shaw (New York: Oxford University Press Incorporated, 2000), p. 86.
Toby A.H. Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt (New York: Routledge, 2000), p. 295.]
THE SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD
Set in the Second Intermediate and Ramesside Periods c1550-1069BC
The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time.
During the Second Intermediate Period, a group of Asiatic foreign chiefs known as the Hyksos (literally, “rulers of foreign lands”) gained the rulership of Egypt, and ruled the Nile Delta, from Avaris. They chose Set, originally Upper Egypt’s chief god, the god of foreigners and the god they found most similar to their own chief god, as their patron, and so Set became worshiped as the chief god once again.The Hyksos at their capital Avaris worshiped and venerated Seth in the Second Intermediate Period (1650-1550 BCE)due to his association with the thunder god Baal.
The Hyksos King Apophis is recorded as worshiping Set in a monolatric way: “[He] chose for his Lord the god Seth. He didn’t worship any other deity in the whole land except Seth.” Jan Assmann argues that because the Ancient Egyptians could never conceive of a “lonely” god lacking personality, Seth the desert god, who was worshiped exclusively, represented a manifestation of evil.
The Hyksos had Canaanite names, as seen in those with names of Semitic deities such as Anath or Ba’al.Apophis is refered to as a “Chieftain of Retjenu (i.e. Canaan)” in a stela which implies a Canaanite background for this Hyksos king: this is the strongest evidence for a Canaanite background for the Hyksos. Khyan’s name “has generally been interpreted as Amorite “Hayanu”Seuserenre Khyan, Khian or Khayan was reportedly the fourth king of the Hyksos Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt who ruled approximately c.1610-1580 BC a stela set up in Avaris contains the nomen and prenomen of Khayan and a now lost dedication (presumably to Seth, Lord of Avaris)
THE EXPULSION OF THE HYKSOS STARTS A GOLDEN AGE FOR EGYPT
IT ALSO MARKS THE DECLINE AND LATER EXPULSION OF SET WORSHIP IN EGYPT
IN THE HYKSOS EXPULSION TO GAZA ,EXODUS 1, THE HYKSOS BRING EGYPTIAN CULTURE WITH THEM
THIS WOULD INCLUDE EGYPTIAN SET WORSHIP
IN CANAAN, SET WAS WORSHIPED AS BAAL
The first pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, Ahmose I, finally expelled the Hyksos from their last holdout at Sharuhen in Gaza by the 16th year of his reign.Scholars have taken the increasing use of scarabs and the adoption of some Egyptian forms of art by the Fifteenth Dynasty Hyksos kings and their wide distribution as an indication of their becoming progressively Egyptianized.The Hyksos used Egyptian titles associated with traditional Egyptian kingship, and took the Egyptian god Seth to represent their own titulary deity
WITH THE HYKSOS GONE FROM POWER
THE RISE OF THE 18TH DYNASTY AND A GOLDEN AGE FOR EGYPT c1550-1296BC
AND THE TWO FACES OF SET IN EGYPT
THE EGYPTIAN MASTER OF CHAOS BECOMES A DEMONIC EVIL FOREIGNER (AKA HYKSOS)
The god Set (aka Seth) has been much of a puzzlement to Egyptologists. If we go with the attitude of later Egyptians, we find Set blamed for every misfortune that can befall humanity. However, if we go with the attitude of earlier times, in particular the Ramesside period, when Egypt was at its peak in prosperity, we find a completely different picture. For we find a god who was very much adored.
Egypt: Set (Seth), God of Storms, Slayer of Apep, Equal to and Rival of Horus
Red animals and even people with red hair were thought to be his followers. These animals were sometimes sacrificed, while the link between Set and red-heads – usually foreigners – gave him godhood over foreign lands.Set was also a god of overseas trade of oils, wood and metals from over the sea and through desert routes. He was given lordship over western Asia because of this.
As Set was a god of the desert and probably symbolized the destructive heat of the afternoon sun, and thus was thought to be infertile.The hieroglyph for Set was used in words such as ‘turmoil’, ‘confusion’, ‘illness’, ‘storm’ and ‘rage’
When Ahmose I overthrew the Hyksos and expelled them from Egypt, Egyptian attitudes towards Asiatic foreigners became xenophobic, and royal propaganda discredited the period of Hyksos rule.But even with Avairs in ruins , the Set cult at Avaris flourished, and the Egyptian garrison of Ahmose stationed there became part of the priesthood of Set.
Set was further demonized immediately after the Hyksos Period.The evidence from the Nineteenth Dynasty proves that this is a more complex picture
THE 19TH DYNASTY c1292 to 1187BC
THE CROWNING OF RAMOSES II BY SET AND HORUS
IT IS HORUS THAT WEARS BOTH THE RED AND WHITE CROWN
Seth and Horus adoring RamssesII
The founder of the nineteenth dynasty, Ramesses I came from a military family from Avaris with strong ties to the priesthood of Set. Several of the Ramesside kings were named for Set, most notably Seti I (literally, “man of Set”) and Setnakht (literally, “Set is strong”). In addition, one of the garrisons of Ramesses II held Set as its patron deity, and Ramesses II erected the so-called Four Hundred Years’ Stele at Pi-Ramesses, commemorating the 400 year anniversary of the Set cult in the Delta.
THE HORUS-SET OF THE RAMOSES
In the Old and Middle Kingdoms there are depictions of these two gods together either leading the prisoners of the pharaoh or binding the plants of Upper and Lower Egypt together (as does the twin Hapi gods) to symbolize the union of Upper and Lower Egypt. He was regarded as an equal to the hawk god. This was Horus the Elder, a god of the day sky while Set was seen as a god of the night sky. When these two gods were linked, the two were said to be Horus-Set, a man with two heads – one of the hawk of Horus, the other of the Set animal.
His majesty was like Seth, great-of-strength, like Sekhmet in the moment of her rage.
The Account of the Battle of Qedesh, the Ramesseum
SET IS REPLACED BY RA/HORUS AS THE SOCIO-RELIGIOUS POLITICAL POWER
Set also became associated with foreign gods during the New Kingdom, particularly in the Delta. Set was also identified by the Egyptians with the Hittite deity Teshub, who was a storm gods like Set.
There were at least two more subsidiary shrines in Sepermeru in Dynasties XIX and XX: a sanctuary called the “House of Seth, Powerful-is-His-Mighty-Arm,” and a cult-place called “The Sunshade of Re-Horakhte” (P. Wilbour, A45,11 and S29 and 169). Like the Nephthys temple, these smaller shrines were considered affiliations or dependencies “within the House” (or primary temple enclosure) of Seth, who was supreme “Lord” of the town.
HORUS-SET BECOMES THE EGYPTIAN HORUS THE AVENGER
AND THE UNNATURAL BISEXUAL FOREIGN SET FROM THE LAND OF CANAAN
Set was given the two foreign goddesses Anat and Astarte (war goddesses from the Syria-Palestine area and daughters of Ra) as wives in compensation for Ma´at’s (or Neith’s) ruling that Horus should rule Egypt.
However, he had no children, despite being married to the goddess of childbirth and a Cannanite fertility goddess as well as Nephthys and Neith.Not only was he infertile, but one of his testicles had been torn off by Horus when Set tore out Horus’ eye. Set only ate lettuce, which was sacred to the fertility god Min(Amen as a male fertility god) because it secreted a white, milky substance that the Egyptians linked to semen and he was considered to have odd sexual habits.His bisexuality ,he assaulted Horus sexually starting with the come-on line “How lovely your backside is!” and his pursuit of Isis,his infertility and his connection with foreigners were reasons why Set could never have been a ruler of Egypt instead of Osiris, despite originally being a lord of Upper Egypt.
SET BELIEF IS DEMONISED BY THE 20TH DYNASTY
Sepermeru is perhaps of most interest to modern Egyptologists because of its status as one of the chief ancient Egyptian cult centers of Seth, along with the cities of Ombos, Nagada, and Avaris . It is thought that the cult of Seth waned considerably after Dynasty XX, due to the increasing “demonization” of this deity and his association with territories and priorities increasingly considered foreign to the general interests of Egypt.
THE EGYPTIAN HORUS THE ELDER AND HORUS THE AVENGER MERGE
AND THE FOREIGN EVIL SET IS EXPELLED FROM EGYPT INTO CANAAN
It is likely that the cult of Horus overtook the cult of Set in ancient times, and started to remove his positive sides to give the god Horus more status. The two gods, Horus the Elder and Horus the son of Osiris and Isis were confused, so Set changed from being an equal to his brother, Horus the Elder, to the enemy of Isis’s son. It was only after the Hyksos took Set as their main god, after the Egyptians god rid of the foreigners, he stopped symbolizing Lower Egypt and his name was erased and his statues destroyed.
Horus spears Set, who appears in the form of a hippopotamus, as Isis looks on
20TH DYNASTY c.1187 to 1064BC
SET IS “EXCORSICED” FROM EGYPT
Throughout history Seth’s reputation grew steadily worse, until he became Seth, the abominable. In the Book of victory over Seth the god is expelled from Egypt. Magic is invoked against him, his effigy is burned, and he is delivered to the Devourer. Even his mother Nut is driven to repudiate her son:
“Is there a mother who consumes her child?
Is there a woman who draws her knife against him who emerged from her?”
against that wretched Seth and his following,
(against him) who was not mild, who grasped in evil
(against him) who created evil against the body cleaver,
who was hard hearted against the benefactor,
who brought about unequalled crimes.”
THE BOOK OF VICTORY OVER SETH
The book of the victory over Seth
Ritual for causing the downfall of Seth and his followers which is performed in the temple of Osiris,
Instruction for the ritual performance
One shall bring a figure of Seth of red wax on the chest of which is engraved his name, as follows: Seth the abominable.
Furthermore draw him (Seth) on a new sheet of papyrus with fresh ink, or (bring a figure made of) acacia wood or HmA-wood.
Tie (the figure of Seth) with a sinew of a red cow; speak words over it.
[Spit on it] four times; speak words over it.
Stamp on it with the left foot, speak words over it.
Hit it with the spear; speak words over it.
Cut it with the knife; speak words over it.
Put it in the fire; speak words over it.
When it is in the fire spit on it again many times; speak words over it.
THE CAMPAIGN IS SUCCESSFUL
Originally Set and Horus fought and neither party could win because it was believed that they would continue to fight until the end of time when Ma’at was destroyed and the waters of Nun (chaos) engulfed the world. However, once Set had been recast as an evil entity, the story changed to record that Horus had won their battle, and thus good had triumphed over evil. Some historians have argued that the battle between Set and Horus was a mythological representation of the struggle to unite Egypt under one ruler. According to this theory, the followers of Horus were successful and so Set was pushed into the background and expelled from Egypt.
Seth is driven out of Egypt
They are expelling (you, who) is of evil disposition
and throw you in your badness into the land of the Asiatics.
Egypt, loyal to Horus, organized your slaughter;
your grief is repeated. They deliver you to the Devourer.
SET IS EXILED TO THE DESERT AND THE LAND OF CANAAN c.1000BC
The final history of Seth the Egyptian god claims that in a final act of vengeance, Horus is said to have exiled Seth to the desert for eternity. Other tales instead content that this decision was left up the ancient Egyptian gods and while there was some indecision among them; particularly in the case of Re, they finally chose to send Seth into exile.
BY THE 20ST DYNASTY C.1155 SET HAS LOST ALL POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS POWER IN EGYPT
BY THE 22ND DYNASTY C.942BC ALL REFERENCES TO SET ON TEMPLES HAD BEEN REPLACED
HORUS NOW RULES EGYPT AND SET NOW RULES CANAAN
By the 22nd Dynasty, Set was equated with his old enemy, Apep, and his images on temples were replaced with those of Sobek or Thoth. a late inscription in the Ptolemaic temple of Horus at Edfu makes reference to “Seth of Sepermeru,” albeit with an insulting caveat that the god’s canals in this district had become “dried-up and useless” (cf. P. Wilson, A Ptolemaic Lexikon, p. 827).Most modern popular misconceptions of Set come from Plutarch’s secondary source interpretations of Set (via the writings of Herodotus et al.), long after Set’s demonization (circa 100 A.D., Roman Period in Egypt).
“Of God and Gods”, Jan Assmann, p47-48, University of Wisconsin Press, 2008, ISBN 0-299-22550-X
Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt, p.193. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988.
Redford, Donald B. History and Chronology of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt: Seven Studies, pp.46–49. University of Toronto Press, 1967.
Booth, Charlotte. The Hyksos Period in Egypt. p.15-18. Shire Egyptology. 2005. ISBN 0-7478-0638-1]
FOR THE SEMITES SET REMAINS A FERTILITY GOD AS WELL AS A STORM GOD ,BUT NOW WITH HIS OLD CANNANITE TITLE
WITH THE HYKSOS EXPELLED TO CANAAN ,MALE FERTILITY SET/AMEN WORSHIP TAKES ON A CANAANITE FLAVOUR
ANCIENT CANNANITE POLYTHEISTIC EL/BA’AL WORSHIP,A MALE FERTILITY CULT TAKE ON EGYPTIAN TITLES
THE CULT OF SET IN EGYPT IS FORGOTTEN AND DIES ,EVEN HIS SON ANUBIS IS FORGOTTEN AND REPLACED WITH OSIRIS AS LORD OF THE DEAD.
AMEN BECAME A MAJOR INFLUENCIAL DEITY COMBINED WITH RA “AMEN-RA” AND OSIRIS AND ISIS WAS THE OTHER MAJOR BELIEF IN LATER EGYPT
SET WORSHIP HAD JUST BEEN FORGOTTEN AND ABANDONED…THANKS TO THE HYKSOS. NOT THE BEST START FOR THE PEOPLE OF THE “NEW GOD”
OTHER EVIDENCE OF SET WORSHIPPERS LEAVING EGYPT
Apion (20s BC – c. 45 AD), Graeco-Egyptian grammarian, sophist and commentator on Homer, was born at the Siwa Oasis, and flourished in the first half of the 1st century AD, identifies a second exodus mentioned by Manetho when a renegade Egyptian priest called Osarseph led 80,000 “lepers” to rebel against Egypt at the end of the 19th Dynasty (12th century). Then Apion additionally combines these with the Biblical Exodus, even alleges that this heretic priest changed his name to Moses.
NOT ONLY DO THEY MENTION THE BAAL/SET EXPULSION
BUT ALSO THE DAUGHTERS OF DANAOS(THE CELTS)
The story of the Hyksos was known to the Greeks, who attempted to identify it within their own mythology with the expulsion from Egypt of Belos (Baal? and the daughters of Danaos, associated with the origin of the Argive dynasty.(The argonauts)
E.g. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca ,2.1.4.
Karl Kerenyi, The Heroes of the Greeks 1959 (1974:30): “Belos, whose name reproduces the Phoenician Ba’al, ‘Lord'”.)]
THE CELTIC EXODUS
THE CELTS ,IT SEEMS, LEFT EGYPT AT THE SAME TIME
BUT THEY HEADED WEST
It is probably at this time the Celtic Exodus takes place.
The Gaels, it is claimed in the “book of conquests” are the descendants of the Scythian prince Fénius Farsaid, one of seventy-two chieftains who built the Tower of Babel. His grandson Goídel Glas, whose mother is Scota(where Scotland gets its name), daughter of a Pharaoh of Egypt, creates the Irish language(gaelic) from the original seventy-two languages that arose at the time of the dispersal of the nations. His descendants, the Gaels, undergo a series of trials and tribulations. They flourish in Egypt at the time of Moses and leave during the Exodus
Set being an Aryan male fertility god the Redheaded Celtic/Berbers probably worshipped Set as well. But thier Exodus to Ireland lasted 440 years.
Archeology and DNA suggests these very real Celtiberians arrived in Ireland c.500- 1000BC ,having left from Spain .Thier DNA is still found in African Berbers today.So the exodus from Egypt would of been between 900 and 1440BC ,about the time that Set was being denegrated in Egypt.
A BRIEF NOTE ON EGYPTIAN MONOTHEISM
AND THE BEGINNING OF EXODUS II
EGYPTIAN MONOTHEISTIC SUN WORSHIP
Pharaoh Akhenaten (center) and his family adoring the Aten, with characteristic rays seen emanating from the solar disk. The next figure leftmost is Meritaten, the daughter of Akhenaten, adorned in a double- feather crown.
The introduction of Atenism under Akhenaton constructed a “monotheist” worship of Aten in direct competition with that of Amun. Praises of Amun on stelae are strikingly similar in language to those later used, in particular the Hymn to the Aten:
“When thou crossest the sky, all faces behold thee, but when thou departest, thou are hidden from their faces … When thou settest in the western mountain, then they sleep in the manner of death … The fashioner of that which the soil produces, … a mother of profit to gods and men; a patient craftsmen, greatly wearying himself as their maker..valiant herdsman, driving his cattle, their refuge and the making of their living..The sole Lord, who reaches the end of the lands every day, as one who sees them that tread thereon … Every land chatters at his rising every day, in order to praise him.”
John A. Wilson, “The Burden of Egypt”, p. 211, University of Chicago Press, 1951, 4th imp 1963, Republished as “The Culture of Ancient Egypt”,]
AKENATEN c1351–1334BC IS EGYPTIAN AND THE “ATEN” IS AN ASPECT OF RA HORUS,ITS REGELIA IS BIG HATS AND AN ANKH.
HE MOVED HIS POWER BASE AWAY FROM THE HIGH PRIESTS OF AMUN IN THEBES AND LOST THE POWER STRUGGLE.
Akhenaten (often also spelled Echnaton, Akhnaton, or rarely Ikhnaton) (In English,his royal name Amenhotep meaning Effective spirit of Aten, first known as Amenhotep IV (sometimes read as Amenophis IV and meaning Amun is Satisfied) before the first year of his reign), was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, who died 1336 BC or 1334 BC. He is especially noted for attempting to compel the Egyptian population in the monotheistic worship of Aten
Aten (or Aton) was the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of Ra. He became the deity of the monotheistic — in fact, monistic — religion of Amenhotep IV, who took the name Akhenaten.The full title of Akhenaten’s god was The Rahorus who rejoices in the horizon, in his/her Name of the Light which is seen in the sun disc.
MONOTHEISM WAS AN EGYPTIAN SUN WORSHIP INVENTION.
RAMOSES II WAS POSSIBLY AN “AKENATEN” THAT BEAT THEBES,AS HE ALSO MOVED HIS POWER BASE AWAY FROM THEBES TO PI-RAMESSES AND ACCORDING TO THE BIBLE/TORAH, BUILT 3 CITIES ALL DEDICATED TO THE SUN, 1 RA , 2 ATUM AND 3 HELIOS.
RAMOSES WAS DEDICATED TO RA AND AS PHAROAH PERSONIFIED HORUS!
“ATEN” WAS THE “RA HORUS”.RAMOSES WEARS A BIG HAT AND CARRIES AN ANKH ,THE REGELIA OF ATEN AND RA/HORUS SUN WORSHIP.
E. A. Wallis Budge (1857–1934) claims that Ra was the one god of Egyptian monotheism, of which all other deities were aspects, manifestations, phases, or forms.
He asserted that Hymn to Ra (c. 1370s BC) was written to stress the pantheistic nature of Ra to combat encroaching polytheism. In this homage several deities are described not as beings in their own right, but as certain forms of Ra. For example:
“Praise be unto thee, O Ra, thou exalted Power, who dost enter into the habitations of Ament, behold [thy] body is Atum.”
“Praise be unto thee, O Ra, thou exalted Power, who dost enter into the hidden palace of Anubis, behold [thy] body is Khepera
THE SUN WORSHIPPING CONCEPT OF MAAT
Maat or ma’at (thought to have been pronounced *[muʔ.ʕat]), also spelled māt or mayet, was the ancient Egyptian concept of truth, balance, order, law, morality, and justice. Maat was also personified as a goddess regulating the stars, seasons, and the actions of both mortals and the deities, who set the order of the universe from chaos at the moment of creation
The earliest surviving records indicating Maat is the norm for nature and society, in this world and the next, were recorded during the Old Kingdom, the earliest substantial surviving examples being found in the Pyramid Texts of Unas (ca. 2375 BCE and 2345 BCE).
Later, as a goddess in other traditions of the Egyptian pantheon, where most goddesses were paired with a male aspect, her masculine counterpart was Thoth and their attributes are the same. After the rise of Ra they were depicted together in the Solar Barque.
After her role in creation and continuously preventing the universe from returning to chaos, her primary role in Egyptian mythology dealt with the weighing of souls that took place in the underworld, Duat. Her feather was the measure that determined whether the souls (considered to reside in the heart) of the departed would reach the paradise of afterlife successfully.
Pharaohs are often depicted with the emblems of Maat to emphasise their role in upholding the laws of the Creator
The earliest evidence for a dedicated temple is in the New Kingdom (c. 1569 to 1081 BCE) era, despite the great importance placed on Maat. Amenhotep III commissioned a temple in the Karnak complex, whilst textual evidence indicates that other temples of Maat were located in Memphis and at Deir el-Medina
The doctrine of Maat is represented in the declarations to Rekhti-merti-f-ent-Maat and the 42 Negative Confessions listed in the Papyrus of Ani.
42 Negative Confessions (Papyrus of Ani)
I have not committed sin.
I have not committed robbery with violence.
I have not stolen.
I have not slain men and women.
I have not stolen grain.
I have not purloined offerings.
I have not stolen the property of the god.
I have not uttered lies.
I have not carried away food.
I have not uttered curses.
I have not committed adultery, I have not lain with men.
I have made none to weep.
I have not eaten the heart [i.e I have not grieved uselessly, or felt remorse].
I have not attacked any man.
I am not a man of deceit.
I have not stolen cultivated land.
I have not been an eavesdropper.
I have slandered [no man].
I have not been angry without just cause.
I have not debauched the wife of any man.
I have not debauched the wife of [any] man. (repeats the previous affirmation but addressed to a different god).
I have not polluted myself.
I have terrorised none.
I have not transgressed [the Law].
I have not been wroth.
I have not shut my ears to the words of truth.
I have not blasphemed.
I am not a man of violence.
I am not a stirrer up of strife (or a disturber of the peace).
I have not acted (or judged) with undue haste.
I have not pried into matters.
I have not multiplied my words in speaking.
I have wronged none, I have done no evil.
I have not worked witchcraft against the King (or blasphemed against the King).
I have never stopped [the flow of] water.
I have never raised my voice (spoken arrogantly, or in anger).
I have not cursed (or blasphemed) God.
I have not acted with evil rage.
I have not stolen the bread of the gods.
I have not carried away the khenfu cakes from the Spirits of the dead.
I have not snatched away the bread of the child, nor treated with contempt the god of my city.
I have not slain the cattle belonging to the god.
The Book of the Dead. Gramercy. 1995-01-23. pp. 576–582. ISBN 978-0-517-12283-9.
Information taken from phonetic symbols for Maat, and explanations on how to pronounce based upon modern reals, revealed in (Collier and Manley pp. 2–4, 154)
Siegfried Morenz (1973). Egyptian Religion: Siegried Morenz. p. 273. ISBN 978-0-8014-8029-4.
Budge. The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 418.
Henrietta McCall (1990-01). Mesopotamian myths. University of Texas Press. p. 46. ISBN 0-292-72076-9.
Egypt’s Golden Empire – Pharaohs of the Sun
AMENHOTEP III c.1388–1350BC FATHER OF AKENATEN AND A SUN WORSHIPPER
INVENTOR OF THE ATEN…..AND MONOTHEISM?
AMENHOTEP III AND QUEEN TIYE INVENTORS OF ATEN AND EGYPTIAN MONOTHEISM
Amenhotep III (Hellenized as Amenophis III; Egyptian Amāna-Ḥātpa; meaning Amun is Satisfied) also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. According to different authors, he ruled Egypt from June 1386 to 1349 BC or June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC after his father Thutmose IV died. Amenhotep III was the son of Thutmose by a minor wife Mutemwiya.
His reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of her artistic and international power.Proof of this is shown by the diplomatic correspondence from the rulers of Assyria, Mitanni, Babylon, and Hatti which is preserved in the archive of Amarna Letters; these letters document frequent requests by these rulers for gold and numerous other gifts from the pharaoh. The letters cover the period from Year 30 of Amenhotep III until at least the end of Akhenaten’s reign When he died (probably in the 39th year of his reign), his son initially ruled as Amenhotep IV, but later changed his own royal name to Akhenaten.
One of the king’s most popular epithets was Aten-tjehen which means “the Dazzling Sun Disk”; it appears in his titulary at Luxor temple and, more frequently, was used as the name for one of his palaces as well as the Year 11 royal barge, and denotes a company of men in Amenhotep’s army
Queen Tiye wearing the crown of Amen
Amenhotep III was the father of two sons with his Great Royal Wife Tiye, a queen who could be considered as the progenitor of monotheism through her first son, Crown Prince Thutmose, who predeceased his father, and her second son, Amenhotep IV, later known as Akhenaten, who ultimately succeeded Amenhotep III to the throne. Amenhotep III also may have been the father of a third child—called Smenkhkare, who later would succeed Akhenaten, briefly rule Egypt as pharaoh, and who is thought to have been a woman
William L. Moran, The Amarna Letters, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, (1992), EA 3, p.7
Clayton, Peter. Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson Ltd., 1994. p.112
Beckerath, Jürgen von, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz, (1997) p.190
O’Connor, David & Cline, Eric. Amenhotep III: Perspectives on His Reign, University of Michigan Press, 1998, p.3
The Amarna Succession by James P. Allen,]
QUARTZITE FOR RA/HORUS SUN WORSHIPPERS
RED GRANITE FOR AMEN/SET FERTILITY WORSHIPPERS
AMENHOTEP III HAD BOTH
quartzite head of amenhotep iii
The 18th Dynasty Ancient Egyptian colossal quartzite statue of Amenhotep III, dating from c.1350 BC, was found in the massive mortuary temple of the pharaoh Amenhotep III on the West Bank of the River Nile at Thebes (the present-day settlement of Kom el-Hitan) in Egypt
This golden quartzite statue was one of a series of near-identical statues that flanked the west side of a colonnaded courtyard. When complete, it would have measured more than 8 metres (26 feet) high without its base, and the body would have stood in the classic pose of Osiris with legs together and arms crossed, holding the crook and the flail, which were symbols of Egyptian kingship. The statue would have worn a short royal kilt and the red crown of Lower Egypt.
The statues on the other side of the courtyard were similar, but were made of red granite and wore the white crown of Upper Egypt
B. Porter & R. Moss, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs and Paintings II (Oxford, 1972), p. 453 (with earlier bibliography)
T. G. H. James & W. V. Davies, Egyptian Sculpture (London, 1983), p. 38, fig.45
P. Kozloff, B. Bryan and M. Berman, Egypt’s Dazzling Sun (Cleveland Museum of Art, 1992), pp. 156–158 = Le Pharaon-Soleil (Paris, 1993), pp. 126–128]
NO DOUBT THAT AKENATEN WAS FIGHTING A CORRUPT POWER AND WEALTH MAD THEOCRACY
HE COULD ALSO BE CONFRONTING A GROWING FOREIGN HYKSOS INFLUENCE IN KARNACK
A SUN WORSHIPING REBEL PUPPET PHARAOH THAT CUT HIS THEBEN PUPPET STRINGS
IT ALSO SHOWS THE UNPOPULARITY OF AMEN/SET WORSHIP IN EGYPT POST HYKSOS
UNFORTUNATELY THE AKENATEN WAS A MEGALOMANIAC “NERO-ESQUE” MADMAN
HE BELIEVED THAT HE WAS THE ONLY GOD
HE WAS DETERMINED TO DESTROY ALL OTHER GODS AND EVEN EGYPT ITSELF
AKENATEN WAS THE ORIGINATOR OF THE ONE GOD ,ONE EMPIRE , ONE EMPEROR IDEOLOGY
THE FIRST IN A LONG LINE OF INSANE MEGALOMANIAC POWER MAD IMPERIAL MONOTHEISTS
DETERMINED TO IMPOSE THEIR MONOTHEISTIC BELIEF ON AN UNWILLING POPULATION….EVEN IF IT DESTROYS THE POPULATION AND SOCIETY ITSELF!!!
Ancient Voices: 2/11 – Egypt’s Lost City (BBC Documentary Series)
BUT FOR AKENATEN DISASTER…
The Egyptians themselves tried to hide the evidence of the Amarna king’s reigns from us. Neferneferuaten’s successor seems to have denied her a king’s burial and, later, in the reign of Horemheb of Amen, temple builder to Set ,the entire Amarna period began to be regarded as anathema and the reigns of the Amarna period pharaohs from Akhenaten to Aya were expunged from history as these king’s total regnal years were assigned to Horemheb.
Horemheb of Amon, instigated a campaign of damnatio memoriae against pharaohs associated with the unpopular Amarna Period. The result is that 3300 years later, scholars would have to piece together events and even resurrect the players bit by bit with the evidence sometimes limited to palimpsest – erased – text
THE 18TH AND 19TH DYNASTY POWER STRUGGLE BETWEEN RA/HORUS AND AMEN/SET
PHAROAH AND THE PRIESTS OF AMEN
SUN WORSHIP VS MALE FERTILITY
PERHAPS EVEN SUN WORSHIP MONOTHEISM VS MALE FERTILITY POLYTHEISM?
AKENATEN JUST DEMONSTRATES THE SUN WORSHIP AND FERTILITY WORSHIP POWER STRUGGLE GOING ON IN EGYPT FOR CONTROL OF EGYPT
AND THE CHAOS A CENTRALISED MONOTHEIST THEOCRACY BROUGHT TO EGYPT
THE RISE AND FALL OF RA AND MONOTHEISTIC SUN WORSHIP C.1388- 1334BC
Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or as Tell el-Amarna) (Arabic: العمارنة al-‘amārnah) is an extensive Egyptian archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city newly established and built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty (c. 1353 BC), and abandoned shortly afterwards.The name for the city employed by the ancient Egyptians is written as Akhetaten (or Akhetaton—transliterations vary) in English transliteration. Akhetaten means “Horizon of the Aten”
To be able to make the move from Thebes to Amarna, Akhenaten needed the support of the military. Ay, one of Akhenaten’s principal advisors, exercised great influence in this area because his father Yuya had been an important military leader. Additionally, everyone in the military had grown up together, they had been a part of the richest period and most successful period of Egypt’s history under Akhenaten’s father, so loyalty among the ranks was strong and unwavering, and, perhaps most importantly, “it was a military whose massed ranks the king took every opportunity to celebrate in temple reliefs, first at Thebes and later at Amarna.”
It is very likely that a plague swept across Egypt between Akhenaten’s 12th and 15th regnal years, for many members of the royal family cease to be mentioned again; among them Queen Mother Tiye, Queen Nefertiti, Akhenaten’s secondary wife Kiya, Meketaten and the two youngest princesses, Neferneferure and Setepenre.
The power of the Amun priesthood was temporarily curtailed during the Amarna period. A high priest named Maya is recorded in year 4 of Akhenaten. Akhenaten has the name of Amun removed from monuments during his reign (as well as the names of several other deities). After Akhenaten’s death Amun is restored to his place of prominence among the cults in Egypt. The young pharaoh Tutankhaten changes his name to Tutankhamen to signal the restoration of the old god to his former place of prominence. Tutankhaten/Tutankhamun-Commonly believed to be the son of Akhenaten, probably reinstated the polytheistic religion and the name change reflects the change in primary deity from Aten to Amun 1333-1324BC and power moves back to Thebes.
As illustrated in a 2011 Metropolitan Museum of Art symposium on Horemheb, the general chronology of the late 18th Dynasty is:
Akhenaten 17 yrs
Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten 2+ yrs
Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare 1–2 years
Tutankhaten/Tutankhamen 10 years
Ay 3 years
Horemheb 14 years
By the start of the 21st Century, a “a fair degree of consensus” emerged that Neferneferuaten was a female king and Smenkhkare a separate male king, particularly among specialists of the period. Almost as important, when presented with just the name Ankhkheperure, it is now widely accepted that the use of epithets indicates Neferneferuaten ,Akhet-en-hyes (“Effective for her husband”), while no epithets indicates Smenkhkare
We list Smenkhkare as the eleventh pharaoh of Egypt’s famous 18th Dynasty, ruling from 1336 until about 1334 BC. In point of fact, he may never have ruled on his own, though in the later years of Akhenaten reign, he was probably a co-regent. His birth name was Smenkh-ka-re (or Djeser-kheperu, meaning “Vigorous is the Soul of Re, Holy of Manifestations”). His name can also be found as Smenkhkara. His Throne name was Ankh-khepery-re, meaning “Living are the Manifestations of Re”.
AMEN SUPPORTTERS TAKE CONTROL AGAIN ,AY CONTROLS THE YOUNG REGENT
THE VERY YOUNG REGENT PHAROAH TUTANKATEN ,CHANGES HIS NAME TO AMEN AND ABANDONS AMARNA AND RETURNS THE SEAT OF POWER TO THEBES
It is the only ancient Egyptian city which preserves great details of its internal plan, in large part because the city was abandoned after the death of Akhenaten, when Akhenaten’s son, King Tutankhamen, decided to leave the city and return to his birthplace in Luxor. The city seems to have remained active for a decade or so after his death, and a shrine to Horemheb indicates that it was at least partially occupied at the beginning of his reign, if only as a source for building material elsewhere. Once it was abandoned it remained uninhabited until Roman settlement.
Tyldesley, Joyce. Nefertiti: Egypt’s Sun Queen. Penguin. 1998. ISBN 0-670-86998-8
“The Official Website of the Amarna Project”. Archived from the original on 8 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-01.
Akhenaten, Egypt’s False Prophet, Reeves, Nicholas, Thames & Hudson Ltd, London, copyright 2001]
SHORTLY AFTER THIS MOVE ATEN MONOTHEISM IS USURPED AND AMEN POLYTHEISM RETURNS UNDER TUT AND THEN AY
THE PHAROAH TUTANKAMEN c.1332-1323BC COMES OF AGE AND DIES…UNDER SUSPICIOUS CIRCUMSTANCES
THERE IS A POWER STRUGGLE GOING ON FOR THE THRONE OF EGYPT
THE QUEEN IS STILL SUPPORTING RA/HORUS SUN WORSHIP AND POSSIBLY MONOTHEISM
AY LEADS THE POLYTHEISTIC RELIGIOUS AMEN(MIN)CANAANITE FACTION
HOREMHEB LEADS THE POLYTHEISTIC SET MILITARY FACTION
Tutankhamun (alternatively spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled ca. 1332 BC – 1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom. His original name, Tutankhaten, means “Living Image of Aten”, while Tutankhamun means “Living Image of Amun”.
Although there is some speculation that Tutankhamun was assassinated, the consensus is that his death was accidental. A CT scan taken in 2005 shows that he had suffered a left leg fracture shortly before his death, and that the leg had become infected. DNA analysis conducted in 2010 showed the presence of malaria in his system.
A recent “Secrets of the Dead” program on PBS entitled “Ultimate Tut” advanced a much different version of Tut’s death. The program was aired July 10 2013. The program, using a variety of simulations, physical tests (including chemical and electronic microscopic tests on actual samples of Tut’s mummified flesh), and re-analyses of Carter’s and some post Tut scrolls, determined that Tut died in battle by being hit while on his knees by a chariot traveling at full speed. The program suggests that Tut was embalmed without his heart because it was smashed when Tut was hit by the chariot.
A USURPER STEPS IN
PRETENDS TO BE A LOYAL SERVANT OF AMENHOTEP III ,THE PHAROAH WHO INVENTED THE ATEN
BUT AY IS THE SON OF A HIGH PRIEST OF AMEN…,AND A SPY OR AGENT OF AMEN …..AND PROBABLY JUST A POWER MAD MEGALOMANIAC
Ay receiving the Gold of Honor of Aten
A limestone relief block depicts Ay receiving the gold of honor originally from his El-Amarna tomb during the reign of king Akhenaten. Ay would later take the throne and succeed Tutankhamun as the second last 18th dynasty New Kingdom pharaoh of Egypt.
WITH HOREMHEB FIGHTING ON THE EGYPTIAN BORDER
The Commander of the Army, Horemheb, had actually been designated as the “idnw” or “Deputy of the Lord of the Two Lands” under Tutankhamun and was presumed to be the boy king’s heir apparent and successor.It appears that Horemheb was outmaneuvered to the throne by Ay who married Ankhesenamun, the widow of Tutankhamun, in order to legitimise his claim to the throne.
AY TAKES THE THRONE PROMISED TO HOREMHEB ,AND TRIES TO MAKE THE QUEEN MARRY HIM
THE QUEEN OFFERS TO MARRY A HITTITE PRINCE INSTEAD OF EITHER AY OR HOREMHEB
THIS QUEEN OF THE SUN FEARS HER SET AND MIN WORSHIPING SUBJECTS AND ASKS THE HITTITES FOR HELP
Ankhesenamun (ˁnḫ-s-n-imn, “Her Life Is of Amun”; c. 1348 – after 1322 BC) was a queen of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Born as Ankhesenpaaten, she was the third of six known daughters of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten and his Great Royal Wife Nefertiti, and became the Great Royal Wife of her half-brother Tutankhamun.After her father’s death and the short reigns of Smenkhkare and Neferneferuaten, she became the wife of Tutankhaten.Following their marriage, the couple honored the deities of the restored religion by changing their names to Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun.She became the Pharaoh Queen on his death.
A document was found in the ancient Hittite capital of Hattusa which dates to the Amarna period; the so-called “Deeds” of Suppiluliuma I. The king receives a letter from the Egyptian queen, while being in siege on Karkemish.Around the end of the reign of Pharaoh Akhenaten, Carchemish was captured by king Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites. The letter reads:
“My husband has died and I have no son. They say about you that you have many sons. You might give me one of your sons to become my husband. I would not wish totake one of my subjects as a husband… I am afraid.”
Ankhesenamun seems the most likely since there were no candidates for the throne on the death of her husband,Tutankhamun.
BUT IN EGYPT
AY PREVAILS ….AND THE QUEEN DISAPPEARS FROM HISTORY
Ay ruled Egypt in his own right for only four years. During this period, he consolidated the return to the old religious ways that he had initiated as senior advisor and constructed a mortuary temple at Medinet Habu for his own use. A stela of Nakhtmin (Berlin 2074), a military officer under Tutankhamun and Ay—who was Ay’s chosen successor— is dated to Year 4, IV Akhet day 1 of Ay’s reign
POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS POWER MOVES BACK TO THEBES AND AMEN/SET POLYTHEISTS
AY IS NOW THE PHAROANIC POWER
AMEN-MIN IS NOW THE GODLY POWER
Ay was the penultimate Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt’s 18th dynasty. He held the throne of Egypt for a brief four-year period (probably 1323–1319 BC or 1327–1323 BC, depending on which chronology is followed), although he was a close advisor to two and perhaps three of the pharaohs who ruled before him and was said to be the power behind the throne during Tutankhamun’s reign. Ay’s prenomen or royal name—Kheperkheperure—means “Everlasting are the Manifestations of Ra” while his birth name Ay it-netjer reads as ‘Ay, Father of the God.
THE AMEN RULE AND INFLUENCE CONTINUES UNDER AY
Ay is usually believed to be a native Egyptian from Akhmim. During his short reign, he built a rock cut chapel in Akhmim and dedicated it to the local deity there: Min. He may have been the son of Yuya, who served as a member of the priesthood of Min(Amen as male fertility) at Akhmin as well as superintendent of herds in this city,.Ay is believed to be the son of Yuya and Thuya, and therefore a brother of the Prophet of Amun,(Anen), and Queen Tiye, wife of Amenhotep III.
Yuya (sometimes Iouiya, also known as Yaa, Ya, Yiya, Yayi, Yu, Yuyu, Yaya, Yiay, Yia, and Yuy) was a powerful Egyptian courtier during the eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt (circa 1390 BC).Yuya was an influential nobleman at the royal court of Amenhotep III who was given the rare privilege of having a tomb built for his use in the royal Valley of the Kings presumably because he was the father of Tiye, Amenhotep’s chief Queen
He was married to Tjuyu, an Egyptian noblewoman associated with the royal family, who held high offices in the governmental and religious hierarchies.Their daughter, Tiye, became the Great Royal Wife of Amenhotep III.They are also the parents of Ay.
Yuya and Tjuyu also are known to have had a son named Anen, who carried the titles Chancellor of Lower Egypt, Second Prophet of Amun, sem-priest of Heliopolis, and Divine Father
Akhmim was known in Ancient Egypt as Ipu, Apu or Khent-min. It was the capital of the ninth (Chemmite) nome of Upper Egypt. The city is a suggested hometown for Yuya, the official of Tuthmosis IV and Amenhotep III. The ithyphallic Min (whom the Greeks identified with Pan) was worshipped here as “the strong Horus.”(Set Horus) Herodotus mentions the temple and asserts that Chemmis was remarkable for the celebration of games in honor of that hero, after the manner of the Greeks, at which prizes were given; as a matter of fact some representations are known of Nubians and people of Punt (southern coastal Sudan and the Eritrean coast) clambering up poles before the god Min. Min was especially a god of the desert routes on the east of Egypt, and the trading tribes are likely to have gathered to his festivals for business and pleasure
KARNACK / THEBES AND THE PRIESTS OF AMEN
A POWER STRUGGLE BETWEEN AMEN-MIN/SET “FERTILITY” WORSHIPPERS WITH POSSIBLE CANAANITE INFLUENCE AND EGYPTIAN MILITARY,AMEN-RA/ SET AS “HERO OF RA”
Senwosret before Amen-Min at Karnak
A REGENT PHAROAH DEDICATED TO A MALE FERTILITY AMEN-MIN IS GROOMED TO RULE FROM THEBES
Prior to his death, Ay designated Nakhtmin to succeed him as pharaoh. However, Ay’s plan for his succession went awry since Horemheb became the last king of Egypt’s 18th Dynasty instead of Nakhtmin. The fact that Nakhtmin was Ay’s intended heir is strongly implied by an inscription carved on a dyad funerary statue of Nakhtmin and his spouse which was presumably made during Ay’s reign. Nakhtmin is clearly given the titles rpat (Crown Prince) and zA nzw (King’s Son). The only conclusion which can be drawn here is that Nakhtmin was either a son or an adopted son of Ay and that Ay was grooming Nakhtmin for the royal succession instead of Horemheb.
Wolfgang Helck, Urkunden der 18. Dynastie: Texte der Hefte 20-21 (Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1984), pp. 1908–1910]
HOREMHEB ,THE EGYPTIAN MILITARY SET HORUS,THE KHEPRI SET ,OVERTHROWS AY
AS PUNISHMENT FOR ETERNITY THE TRAITOR AY IS ENTOMBED WITH THE LONG VERSION OF THE HYMN TO ATEN
THE GOD HE SERVED AND BETRAYED
It appears that one of Horemheb’s undertakings as Pharaoh was to eliminate all references to the monotheistic experiment, as well as the Set/Amen-Min Pharaohs, a process that included expunging the name of his immediate predecessors, especially Ay, from the historical record. Horemheb desecrated Ay’s burial and had most of Ay’s royal cartouches in his WV23 Tomb Wall paintings erased while his sarcophagus was smashed into numerous fragments.
The Great Hymn to the Aten is the longest form of one of a number of hymn-poems written to the creator god Aten
One of these, found in almost identical form in five tombs, is known as The Short Hymn to the Aten. The long version was found in the tomb of the courtier (and later Pharaoh) Ay.
ITS A CURSE!
LEFT WITH AY FOR ETERNITY
PHAROAH HOREMHEB C.1319–1292BC
HORUS THE AVENGER USURPS THE THRONE ,AND PLACES MILITARY SET ON THE PHAROANIC THRONE
THIS IS AN EGYPTIAN MILITARY SET “SET AS HERO OF RA”
NOT CANAANITE “SET” AS A MALE FERTILITY GOD OF AMEN
HOREMHEB ALSO PLACES HIS MILITARY PRIESTS IN THE TEMPLE OF AMEN
THESE WOULD ALSO BE DEDICATED TO MILITARY EGYPTIAN SET
HOREMHEB CREATES A DYNASTY DEDICATED TO SET……THE MILITARY FAMILY RAMOSES FROM AVAIRS
A Symposium on Haremhab: General and King of Egypt
Horemheb’s birth name and epithet was Horemheb Meryamun, meaning “Horus is in Jubilation, Beloved of Amun”. Believed to be a commoner, he rose to power under Tutankhamun, and “With energy and dedication, he sought to return the cult of Amun to its pre-Akhenaten glory, and to reverse the corruption and power imbalances brought about by Akhenaten’s over centralization of powers.” -Virtual-Egyptian museum.
Horemheb played an interesting role in Egypt’s history. Not only did he do much to clean up the mess Akhenaten had made, he initiated the nineteenth dynasty when he appointed Paramessu to be prince regent and vizier who then assumed the throne as Ramesses I when Horemheb died.
PHAROAH RAMOSES I THE RED HEAD c.1292–1290BC,
“CHOSEN OF RA AND SET” TO BE PHAROAH
“The role assigned to Paramessu once more reveals Horemheb’s preoccupation with the military situation in Egypt’s northern terrorities. Paramessu’s family came from Avaris, the former capitol of the Hyksos, and the role of its local god Seth, who had retained strong connections with that of Horus of Hutnesu in Horemheb’s career. In the light of this it is interesting to observe that Horemheb built a temple for Seth at Avaris. The Ramessid royal family considered the god Seth to be their royal ancestor, and a fragment of an obelisk (originally from Heliopolis), recently discovered on the seabed off the coast of Alexandria, shows Sety I as a sphinx with the head of the Seth-animal offering to Ra-Atum.” (_The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt_, edited by Ian Shaw, page 294)
SETI I c.1290–1279BC
Its noted that the Ramessides (the family of Ramses II), were devoted to Seth, with several bearing the name Seti, which means “beloved of Seth”. She concluded that the Ramessides believed themselves to be divine descendants of Seth, with their red hair as proof of their lineage; they may even have used this peculiar physical feature to propel themselves out of obscurity, and onto the throne of the Pharaohs.
Seti I horned as Pharoah
Seti I (also called Sethos I after the Greeks) was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt (Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt), the son of Ramesses I and Queen Sitre, and the father of Ramesses II. As with all dates in Ancient Egypt, the actual dates of his reign are unclear, and various historians claim different dates, with 1294 BC – 1279 BC and 1290 BC to 1279 BC being the most commonly used by scholars today
The name Seti means “of Set”, which indicates that he was consecrated to the god Set(commonly “Seth”).
Set and Horus Blessing the Pharaoh
“In a possible reference to a baptismal ceremony associated with his accession, the king is described as ‘the third at his accession.’ As a third, he would be between Horus and Seth (later Horus and Thoth), who would be standing on either side of him and would pour baptismal water over him. The position of the king between the dual gods, receiving blessings from both, symbolizes his union of their opposing natures within himself.”Shamanic Wisdom in the Pyramid Texts_ by Jeremy Naydler(pages 305-306)
The baptismal water he refers to shows in a much later relief “Horus and Thoth purifying Ptolemy XIII at the temple of Kom Ombo”.The deities have their hands at the pharoah’s crown
Seti I, who reigned not very long after Horemheb, has scenes in which he is being purified thusly by Set and Horus.
Merenptah, who ruled directly after Ramesses II, who has a blessing scene at Abu Simbel has a Heb-Sed festival lintel as well:
Above Horus the inscription reads “He of Behudet (Edfu), the great god presiding over the shrine of the North.”
Above Set is “He of Nubt (Ombos) the great god, presiding over the shrine of the South.”
SETI I WAS THE FATHER OF RAMOSES II c.1279–1213BC
RAMOSES II MOVED HIS POWER BASE OUT OF THEBES/KARNACK
RAMOSES II BUILT A CITY AND MONUMENTS TO THE SUN
RAMOSES II WOULD INCUR THE WRATH OF THE PRIESTS OF AMEN(AMUN)
Ramoses II has his power bases in the Nile Delta(Lower or North Egypt)
..SO WOULD HIS HIER MERNEPTAH c.1213–1203BC
ANOTHER PHARAOH DEDICATED TO RA WITH HIS POWER BASE IN THE NILE DELTA
THE HIGH PRIESST OF AMUN …THE POLITICAL PUPPET MASTERS
AND LORDS OF THE SOUTH
While not regarded as a dynasty per se, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were nevertheless of such power and influence that they were effectively the rulers of Upper Egypt from 1080 to c.943 BC, after this period their influence declined.By the time Herihor was proclaimed as the first ruling High Priest of Amun in 1080 BC–in the 19th Year of Ramesses XI–the Amun priesthood exercised an effective stranglehold on Egypt’s economy. The Amun priests owned two-thirds of all the temple lands in Egypt and 90 percent of her ships plus many other resources. Consequently, the Amun priests were, in reality, as powerful as Pharaoh, if not more. One of the sons of the High Priest Pinedjem I would eventually assume the throne and rule Egypt for almost half-a-decade as pharaoh Psusennes I while the Theban High Priest Psusennes III would take the throne as king Psusennes II–the final ruler of the 21st Dynasty.
The Temple Complex of Karnak in Thebes (Modern Luxor), Egypt
Karnak: The largest temple on Earth
The religious complex of Karnak, in Luxor, is the largest ancient religious site in the world. It was the Vatican of its day – and four millennia after its heydays, continues to dwarf all other religious buildings.
The word “amen” is at the end of many Christian prayers. Yet few Christians are aware that the word itself is a direct reference to the Egyptian god Amen, or Amun, the chief deity of Karnak.
Karnak: A Hidden History of Ancient Egypt (Documentary)
PLEASE NOTE THAT IN ALL MODERN EGYPTIAN DOCUMENTRIES DISCUSSION OF THE GOD SET AND HIS LATER EXPULSION IS COMPLETELY AVOIDED.
AMAZING WHEN YOU CONCIDER SET WAS “HIS MAJESTY” TO AMEN WORSHIPERS !
A TITLE ONLY RA EQUALED, AND IT WAS SET AND HORUS THAT MADE EGYPT AND THE RED AND WHITE CROWN OF EGYPT WAS THE CROWN OF SET AND HORUS
BUT NOBODY WANTS TO MENTION WHO WORSHIPED SET ,…THE HYKSOS AND THE PRIESTS OF AMEN AND MALE FERTILITY WORSHIPERS
OR WHY SET WAS DEMONISED AND EXPELLED FROM EGYPT
OR THE FACT THAT THESE EXPELLED SET WORSHIPERS WENT ON TO BECOME THE MYTHOLOGICAL AND THEOLOGICAL BASE TO ABRAHAMIC MONOTHEISM!
THE BIRTH OF AMEN PATRIARCHAL MALE FERTILITY
In Egyptian mythology, the Ogdoad (Greek “ογδοάς”, the eightfold) were eight deities worshipped in Hermopolis during what is called the Old Kingdom, the third through sixth dynasties, dated between 2686 to 2134 BC.
The eight deities were arranged in four female-male pairs: Naunet and Nu, Amaunet and Amun, Kauket and Kuk, Hauhet and Huh. The females were associated with snakes and the males were associated with frogs. Apart from their gender, there was little to distinguish the female goddess from the male god in a pair; indeed, the names of the females are merely the female forms of the male name and vice versa. Essentially, each pair represents the female and male aspect of one of four concepts, namely the primordial waters (Naunet and Nu), air or invisibility (Amunet and Amun), darkness (Kauket and Kuk), and eternity or infinite space (Hauhet and Huh)
IN THE NEW KINGDOM WITH THE ARRIVAL OF MALE PATRIARCHAL FERTILITY
THE STORY CHANGES TO AMEN CREATING HIMSELF FROM THE COSMIC WATERS
PATRIARCHAL POLYTHEISM IS BORN IN EGYPT
Amun-Ra in this period (16th to 11th centuries BC) held the position of transcendental, self-created creator deity “par excellence”.It was thought that Amun created himself and then his surroundings.
The concept of an Ogdoad also appears in Gnostic systems of the early Christian era, and was further developed by the theologian Valentinus (ca. 160 AD).
Michael Brennan Dick, Born in heaven, made on earth: the making of the cult image in the ancient Near East, Eisenbrauns, 1999 ISBN 1575060248, p. 184
David Warburton, Architecture, Power, and Religion: Hatshepsut, Amun and Karnak in Context, 2012, ISBN 9783643902351.
Wilkinson, Richard H. (2003). The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. p. 78
Butler, Edward P. “Hermopolitan Ogdoad”. Retrieved 2010-08-21.
MEANWHILE THE PATRIACHAL POLYTHESTIC PRIESTS OF AMEN PLOT FOR CONTROL OF EGYPT
THEY ALSO SEEM TO SYMPATHISE WITH SET AS CAN BE SEEN WITH THE PHAROAHS THEY SUPPORT!
THIS SUPPORT OF SET PROBABLY LEADS TO DISUNITY IN EGYPT AND THE DOWNFALL OF THE PRIEST OF AMEN
THERE ARE 2 FACTIONS SUPPORTING SET
THE FERTILITY SET/AMEN-MIN FACTION ,PRIESTLY WITH CANAANITE INFLUENCE
Since rams were considered a symbol of virility, and the Hyksos see themselves as representing male fertility.Amun also became thought of as a male fertility deity, and so started to absorb the identity of Min, becoming Amen-Min.
THE SET AS “HERO OF RA” ,EGYPTIAN MILITARY
When the army of the founder of the Eighteenth dynasty expelled the Hyksos rulers from Egypt, the victor’s city of origin, Thebes, became the most important city in Egypt, the capital of a new dynasty.Amun became identified with the chief deity who was worshipped in other areas during that period, the sun god Ra. This identification led to another merger of identities, with Amun becoming Amun-Ra. In the Hymn to Amun-Ra he is described as
“Lord of truth, father of the gods, maker of men, creator of all animals, Lord of things that are, creator of the staff of life.”
KARNACK ITSELF WOULD BE DIVIDED BY THIS STRUGGLE ,
AS PHAROAH HOREMHEB PLACED HIS OWN LOYAL EGYPTIAN MILITARY PRIESTS OF SET INTO THEBES
THESE WOULD BE EGYPTIAN MILITARY AMEN-RA ,SET AS HERO OF RA PRIESTS
BUT THE POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS POWER OF SET AND THE PRIESTS OF AMEN IN EGYPT ARE ALSO CHALLENGED BY SUN WORSHIPING PHARAOHS
SET VERSES RA
MERNEPTAH c.1213–1203BC A PHAROAH OF RA
PHARONIC POWER RULES FROM THE NILE DELTA
Merneptah (or Merenptah) was the fourth ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. He ruled Egypt for almost ten years between late July or early August 1213 and May 2, 1203 BC, according to contemporary historical records.He was the thirteenth son of Ramesses II. His throne name was Ba-en-re Mery-netjeru, which means “The Soul of Ra, Beloved of the Gods”
Merneptah was already an elderly man in his late 60s if not early 70s when he assumed the throne. Merneptah moved the administrative center of Egypt from Piramesse (Pi-Ramesses), his father’s capital, back to Memphis, where he constructed a royal palace next to the temple of Ptah
Memphis (Arabic: منف; Greek: Μέμφις) was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt. Its ruins are located near the town of Mit Rahina, south of Cairo.
According to legend related by Manetho, the city was founded by the pharaoh Menes around 3000 BC. Capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom, it remained an important city throughout ancient Mediterranean history. It occupied a strategic position at the mouth of the Nile delta, and was home to feverish activity.During its golden age, Memphis thrived as a regional centre for commerce, trade, and religion.
Memphis was believed to be under the protection of the god Ptah, the patron of craftsmen. Its great temple, Hut-ka-Ptah (meaning “Enclosure of the ka of Ptah”), was one of the most prominent structures in the city. The name of this temple, rendered in Greek as Aί γυ πτoς (Ai-gy-ptos) by the historian Manetho, is believed to be the etymological origin of the modern English name Egypt.
With the invasion of the Hyksos, and their rise to power ca. 1650 BC, the city of Memphis came under siege. Following its capture, many monuments and statues of the ancient capital and were dismantled, looted or damaged by the Hyksos kings, who later carried them to adorn their new capital at Avaris.Evidence of royal propaganda has been uncovered and attributed to the Theban kings of the 17th dynasty, who initiated the reconquest of the kingdom .
There is evidence that, under Rameses II, the city developed new importance in the political sphere through its proximity to the new capital Pi-Rameses. The pharaoh devoted many monuments in Memphis and adorned them with colossal symbols of glory. Merneptah, his successor, constructed a palace and developed the southeast wall of the temple of Ptah. For the early part of the 19th dynasty, Memphis received the privileges of royal attention, and it is this dynasty that is most evident among the ruins of the city today.
SET TAKES THE THRONE AGAIN…AND EGYPT GOES INTO CIVIL WAR
There is a Temple of Seti II in the so-called Ethiopian courtyard (atrium) in the temple of Karnak north of Luxor, Egypt.
Statue of king Seti II with “Was septre”(Set-staff) from the Egyptian Museum of Turin, Italy
SETI II c.1203–1197BC
EGYPTIAN AMEN-RA/SET WORSHIP RULES EGYPT
BUT PLOTS AND CIVIL WAR PUT EGYPT IN CHAOS
THREE MAIN FACTIONS
AMEN-RA/SET WORSHIP WITH THE EGYPTIAN MILITARY POWER (Khepri-Set Horus)
THE PRIESTS OF AMEN WITH THE RELIGIOUS POWER AND WEALTH BUT ALSO AN INTERNAL POWER STRUGGLE(Amen-Min-Set/Amen-Ra-Set)
RA/HORUS PHAROANIC POWER (Ra Osiris Isis Horus)
Seti II with Amen (Ram headed) Khepri-Set
- Replica of a relief of Seti II holding a shrine to the god Amun(Ram headed) on display at the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum in San Jose, California.
THERE IS NOT JUST THE PHAROAH VERSUS THE HIGH PRIESTS OF AMEN POWER STRUGGLE
THERE SEEMS TO BE A POWER STRUGGLE GOING ON WITHIN KARNACK BETWEEN THE SET/AMEN-MIN FERTILITY CANAANITE AND SET/AMEN-RA EGYPTIAN MILITARY FACTIONS
AS WELL AS VERSUS THE RA/OSIRIS/ISIS/HORUS SUN WORSHIP PHARONIC POWER STRUGGLE
Seti II (or Sethos II), was the fifth ruler of the Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt and reigned from c. 1200 BC to 1194 BC.His throne name, Userkheperure Setepenre, means “Powerful are the manifestations of Re, the chosen one of Re.’He was the son of Merneptah and Isetnofret II and sat on the throne during a period known for dynastic intrigue and short reigns, and his rule was no different. Seti II had to deal with many serious plots, most significantly being the accession of a rival king named Amenmesse, possibly a half brother, who seized control over Thebes and Nubia in Upper Egypt during his second to fourth regnal years.
Amenmesse (also Amenmesses or Amenmose) was the 5th ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt, possibly the son of Merneptah and Queen Takhat. Others consider him to be one of the innumerable sons of Ramesses II. Very little is known about this king, who ruled Egypt for only three to four years. Various Egyptologists date his reign between 1202 BC–1199 BC or 1203 BC–1200 BC with others giving an accession date of 1200 BC but a difference of 1 or 2 years is unimportant.
A POWER STRUGGLE BETWEEN THE SET WORSHIPPING FACTIONS BREAKS OUT IN THEBES KARNACK
AMEN/MIN FERTILITY/CANAANITE AND AMEN/RA “HERO OF RA”EGYPTIAN
AMENMESSE AMEN/MIN FERTILITY CANAANITE FACTION
Amenmesse means “born of or fashioned by Amun” in Egyptian. Additionally, his nomen can be found with the epithet Heqa-waset, which means “Ruler of Thebes”.
SETI II AMEN/RA EGYPTIAN MILITARY FACTION
Seti (mer-en-ptah) was this king’s birth name, meaning “He of the god Seti, Beloved of Ptah”. He is also sometimes referred to by his Greek name, Sethos II. His throne name was User-kheperu-re Setep-en-re, meaning “Powerful are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen of Re”.
There has also been a suggestion that the story of the “Tale of Two Brothers”, first attested during the reign of Seti II, may contain a veiled reference to the struggle between Amenmesse and Seti II
The cartouches of Seti II’s tomb in Upper Egypt were deliberately erased and then repainted, suggesting that Seti’s rule in Upper Egypt was temporarily interrupted by agents of his half-brother. Confusion generally clouds Amenmesse’s reign and location within the Egyptian 19th Dynasty. However, an increasing number of Egyptologists today such as Rolf Krauss and Aidan Dodson maintain that Seti II was in fact the immediate successor of Merneptah “without any intervening rule by Amenmesse.” Under this scenario, Amenmesse did not succeed Merneptah on the throne of Egypt and was rather a rival king who usurped power sometime during Years 2 to 4 of Seti II’s reign in Upper Egypt and Nubia where his authority is monumentally attested. Amenmesse was documented in power at Thebes during his third and fourth year (and perhaps earlier in Nubia) where Seti II’s Year 3 and Year 4 are noticeably unaccounted for. The treatment of Amenmesse as a rival king also best explains the pattern of destruction to Seti II’s tomb which was initially ransacked and later restored again by Seti II’s officials. This implies that the respective reigns of Amenmesse and Seti II were parallel to one another; Seti II must have initially controlled Thebes in his first and second years during which time his tomb was excavated and partly decorated. Then Seti was ousted from power in Upper Egypt by Amenmesse whose agents desecrated Seti II’s tomb. Seti would finally defeat his rival Amenmesse and return to Thebes in triumph whereupon he ordered the restoration of his damaged tomb.
During the second to fourth years of Amenmesse/Seti II’s parallel reigns, Amenmesse gained the upper hand and seized control over Upper Egypt and Nubia; he ordered Seti II’s tomb in the Valley of the Kings to be vandalised. Prior to his fifth year, however, Amenmesse was finally defeated by his rival, Seti II who was the legitimate successor to the throne since he was Merneptah’s son. Seti II, in turn, launched a damnatio memoriae campaign against all inscriptions and monuments belonging to both Amenmesse and this king’s chief supporters in Thebes and Nubia which included a certain Khaemter, a former Viceroy of Kush, who had served as Amenmesse’s Vizier. Seti II’s agents completely erased both scenes and texts from KV10, the royal tomb of Amenmesse.
AMENMESSES THEBEN AMEN/MIN PLOT FAILS
There is confusion about the events surrounding Amenmesses death. His mummy was not amongst those found in the cache at Deir el Bahri, and from the destruction of his tomb in the Valley of the Kings, it is assumed that Seti II took revenge upon his usurping half-brother.
A number of officials associated with Amenmesse were also attacked or replaced, chief among them being the Theban High Priest of Amun, Roma-Roy, and Kha-em-ter, a former viceroy of Kush, who may have supported Amenmesse’s usurpation
Seti II’s reign was apparently relatively peaceful. We have no evidence of foreign policy during his reign, though there was probably activity at the mines around Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai. He made a number of claims regarding building projects, though there is little indication that his words translate into physical accomplishments. We find surviving trances of his work at Hermopolis, where he apparently finished some decorations in his grandfather’s, Ramesses II, temple. He also did some work in Karnak, where he was probably responsible for a new way station of the sacred barks in the First Court of the temple of Amun-Re, and he probably also completed some work in the temple of Mut.
KV-10 The Tomb of Amenmesse
Edward Wente and Charles Van Siclen III, “A Chronology of the New Kingdom,” 218
Michael Rice, Who’s Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge, 1999
Vandersleyen, ĽÈgypte et la Vallée du Nil, vol 2: 575
K. A. Kitchen, “The Titularies of the Ramesside Kings as Expression of Their Ideal Kingship,” ASAE 71 (1987): 134-35.
Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss & David Warburton (editors), Handbook of Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), Brill: 2006, p.212
Krauss 1976, 1977, 1997; Dodson 1997
Hornung, Krauss & Warburton, op. cit., p.213
Krauss 1976, 1977; The Viceroy of Kush]
Seti II also expanded the copper mining at Timna Valley in Edom, building an important temple to Hathor the cow goddess in the region. Abandoned in the late Bronze Age collapse, where a part of the temple seems to have been used by Midianite nomads, linked to the worship of a bronze serpent discovered in the area.
In the bible King Hezekiah institutes a religious iconoclastic reform and destroys “the brazen serpent that Moses had made; for unto those days the children of Israel did offer to it; and it was called Nehushtan.” (2 Kings 18:4)
Snake cults had been well established in Canaan in the Bronze Age: archaeologists have uncovered serpent cult objects in Bronze Age strata at several pre-Israelite cities in Canaan: two at Megiddo,one at Gezer,one in the Kodesh Hakodashim (Holy of Holies) of the Area H temple at Hazor,and two at Shechem.
A late Bronze Age Hittite shrine in northern Syria contained a bronze statue of a god holding a serpent in one hand and a staff in the other.In sixth-century Babylon a pair of bronzer serpents flanked each of the four doorways of the temple of Esagila.At the Babylonian New Year’s festival, the priest was to commission from a woodworker, a metalworker and a goldsmith two images one of which “shall hold in its left hand a snake of cedar, raising its right [hand] to the god Nabu”. At the tell of Tepe Gawra, at least seventeen Early Bronze Age Assyrian bronze serpents were recovered.
Ancient Egyptians worshiped snakes, especially the cobra. The cobra was not only associated with Ra, but also many other deities such as Wadjet who was said to ‘spit fire’ at the pharaoh’s enemies, and the enemies of Ra. Sometimes referred to as one of the eyes of Ra. Serpents could also be evil and harmful such as the case of Aapep.
They were also referenced in the Book of the Dead, in which spell number 39 was made to help repel an evil snake(Set) in the underworld. “Get back! Crawl away! Get away from me, you snake! Go, be drowned in the Lake of the Abyss, at the place where your father commanded that the slaying of you should be carried out.”An obvious reference to the expulsion of Set into Canaan.
Magnusson, Magnus, “Archaeology of the Bible Lands” (BBC Books)
Gordon Loud, Megiddo II: Plates plate 240: 1, 4, from Stratum X (dated by Loud 1650-1550 BC) and Statum VIIB (dated 1250-1150 BC), noted by Joines 1968:245f.
R.A.S. Macalister, Gezer II, p. 399, fig. 488, noted by Joiner 1968:245 note 3, from the high place area, dated Late Bronze Age.
Yigael Yadin et al. Hazor III-IV: Plates, pl. 339, 5, 6, dated Late Bronze Age II (Yadiin to Joiner, in Joiner 1968:245 note 4).
Maurice Viera, Hittite Art (London, 1955) fig. 114.
Leonard W. King, A History of Babylon, p. 72.
Pritchard ANET, 331, noted in Joines 1968:246 and note 8.
E.A. Speiser, Excavations at Tepe Gawra: I. Levels I-VIII, p. 114ff., noted in Joines 1968:246 and note 9.
Faulkner, Raymond O. (2010). Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead. New York, NY: Fall River Press. pp. 67–68.]
SETI II DIES MYSTERIOUSLY IN HIS 30’S AT THE HEIGHT OF HIS HEALTH AND POWER
PROBABLY AT THE HANDS OF CHANCELLOR BAY
HIS EGYPTIAN “HERO OF RA” CHOSEN HEIR IS ALREADY DEAD
AN AMEN/MIN CANAANITE PUPPET USURPER IS PUT IN PLACE
BY THE CANAANITE HIGH PRIEST OF AMEN/MIN CHANCELLOR BAY
His chief wife and consort was Twosret who was the mother of crown prince Seti-Merenptah who died before his father. Seti II was succeeded by Siptah ,whos mother was the concubine Sutailja who had come from Canaan.
According to an inscribed ostraca document from the Deir el-Medina worker’s community, Seti II’s death was announced to the workmen by “The [Chief of] police Nakht-min” on Year 6, I Peret 19 of Seti II’s reign. Since it would have taken time for the news of Seti II’s death to reach Thebes from the capital city of Pi-Ramesses in Lower Egypt, the date of I Peret 19 only marks the day the news of the king’s death reached Deir el-Medina
THE PLACING OF BAY WAS PROBABLY A PEACE SETTLEMENT BETWEEN THE 2 FACTIONS
CHANCELLOR BAY IS THE PRIESTS OF AMEN-MINS MAN IN PHAROAHS CAMP
Seti II promoted Chancellor Bay to become his most important state official and built 3 tombs – KV13, KV14, and KV15 – for himself, his Senior Queen Twosret and Bay in the Valley of the Kings. This was an unprecedented act on his part for Bay, who was of Syrian descent and was not connected by marriage or blood ties to the royal family
THE RENEGADE PRIEST OF HELIOPOLIS
AND THE PRIESTS OF AMEN-MINS AGENT IN PHAROAHS CAMP
Bay is called a Syrian (Hurru = Hurrian or Harran-born) Asiatic. While his precise background is unknown except for his Syrian origins, Bay is first attested as scribe and butler, an important position in Egypt, during the reign of Seti II.
Indeed, Bay’s first official position may have been that of a priest in the temple at Heliopolis, where a small statue of him has been found.
Bay would carry the titles Chancellor of Lower Egypt, Second Prophet of Amun, sm-priest of Heliopolis, and Divine Father
By the time of the death of Seti II, Bay had risen to the post of Chancellor and played the role of “kingmaker.”
Bay’s status at Siptah’s court was so great that on several of the young king’s monuments, “the chancellor is shown in scenes with the pharaoh on the same scale as the latter, the earliest occasion in which a commoner was depicted in such a manner.”
His tomb was clearly constructed as part of a triad of tombs, including that of the Pharaoh Siptah and Queen Twosret. This was an unprecedented privilege, the likes of which were rarely accorded to a commoner, let alone a foreigner. It is possible that Bay was accorded this tomb because he was a relation of Siptah’s mother, a Canaanite concubine of Seti II, or perhaps even of Amenmesse. His tomb was later usurped under the Twentieth Dynasty by prince Mentuherkhepshef, a son of Ramesses IX.
Papyrus Harris I portrays his tenure in office as a time when Egypt was in chaos and temple offerings were denied to the gods.After the death of Twosret, Egypt seems to have fallen into anarchy, with many temples being looted by Asiatic followers of Bay and Irsa!!!!!
papyrus Salt 124
MOSES THE HIGH PRIEST OF SET/AMEN AND A CHANCELLOR OF LOWER EGYPT AND DIVINE FATHER C.1200BC
ANOTHER RENEGADE PRIEST OF HELIOPOLIS
the chief foreman of Deir el-Medina, a certain Neferhotep, was killed in the reign of king Amenmesse on the orders of a certain ‘Msy’ who was either Amenmesse himself or one of this king’s agents, according to Papyrus Salt 124 Neferhotep, one of the two chief workmen of the Deir el Medina necropolis, had been replaced by Paneb, his troublesome son-in-law. Many crimes were alleged by Neferhotep’s brother—Amennakhte—against Paneb in a violently worded indictment preserved in papyrus now in the British Museum. If Amennakhte’s testimony can be trusted, Paneb had allegedly stolen stone from the tomb of Seti II while still working on its completion—for the embellishment of his own tomb—besides purloining or damaging other property belonging to that monarch. Paneb was also accused of trying to kill Neferhotep, his adopted father-in-law, despite being educated by the latter and after the murder of Neferhotep by ‘the enemy,’ Paneb had reportedly bribed the Vizier Pra’emhab in order to usurp his father’s office. Whatever the truth of these accusations, it is clear that Thebes was going through very troubled times. There are references elsewhere to a ‘war’ that had occurred during these years, but it is obscure to what this word alludes, perhaps to no more than internal disturbances and discontent. Neferhotep had complained of Paneb’s attacks on himself to the vizier Amenmose, presumably a predecessor of Pra’emhab, whereupon Amenmose had punished Paneb. This trouble-maker had then brought a complaint before ‘Mose’ (i.e.: ‘Msy’), who then acted to remove Pra’emhab from his office. Evidently this ‘Mose’ must have been a person of the highest importance, perhaps the king Amenmesse himself or a senior ally of the king.
Moses most probably carried the titles Chancellor of Lower Egypt, Second Prophet of Amun, sm-priest of Heliopolis, and Divine Father
Rolf Krauss finds that there are a number of parallels between the story of Amenmesse and biblical story of Moses in Egypt.
Ruins of Deir el-Medina
THE SERVANTS OF SET MAAT
Deir el-Medina (Arabic: دير المدينة)which in Arabic means “monastery of the city”,is an ancient Egyptian village which was home to the artisans who worked on the tombs in the Valley of the Kings during the 18th to 20th dynasties of the New Kingdom period (ca. 1550–1080 BC) The settlement’s ancient name was “Set Maat” (translated as “The Place of Truth”), and the workmen who lived there were called “Servants in the Place of Truth
The site is located on the west bank of the Nile, across the river from modern-day Luxor. The village is laid out in a small natural amphitheatre, within easy walking distance of the Valley of the Kings to the north, funerary temples to the east and south-east, with the Valley of the Queens to the west. The village may have been built apart from the wider population in order to preserve secrecy in view of sensitive nature of the work carried out in the tombs, and was administered directly by the vizier.
Prayers were made and dedicated to a particular deity as votive offerings, similar in style to the penitential psalms in the Hebrew scriptures that express remorse and thanksgiving for mercy.Stelae record sorrow for human error and humbly invoke a god for forgiveness and mercy.
Amun(Amen) was considered a special patron of the poor and one who was merciful to the penitent.
A stelae records:
[Amen] who comes at the voice of the poor in distress, who gives breath to him who is wretched..You are Amen(Amun), the Lord of the silent, who comes at the voice of the poor, when I call to you in my distress You come and rescue me…Though the servant was disposed to do evil, the Lord is disposed to forgive
Dream interpretation, a gift which Hebrew scriptures also attribute to Joseph, was very common. A book of dreams was found in Scribe Kenhirkhopeshef’s library which was old even in his time. This book was used to interpret various types of dreams.
“Pharaoh’s Workers: How the Israelites Lived in Egypt”, Leonard and Barbara Lesko, Biblical Archaeological Review, Jan/Feb 1999
Cambridge Ancient History, p. 380
KRI IV: 327. II.22-28, §57 (A.17)
Jacobus J. Janssen, Village Varia: Ten Studies on the History and Administration of Deir el-Medina, Egyptologische Uitgaven 11 (Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten, 1997), 153-54
Donald B. Redford (Editor), “Oxford Guide to Egyptian Mythology”, p. 313, Berkley Reference, 2003, ISBN 0-425-19096-X
“Egyptian Myths”, George Hart, p. 46, University of Texas Press, 1990, ISBN 0-292-72076-9
“Ancient Egyptian Literature”, Miriam Lichtheim, pp. 105-106, University of California Press, 1976, ISBN 0-520-03615-8
John Romer, “Testament”, p50, Guild Publishing,1988]
THIS IS SETMOSES
THIS PERSON IS OBVIOUSLY A LEADER OF A POWERFUL AMEN/SET FACTION
IF HE CAN REPLACE VIZERS HE IS DEFINATELY THE CHANCELLOR AT LEAST
HE IS DEFINATELY IN LEAGUE WITH AMENMESSE AND CHANCELLOR BAY
LATER ,WITH AMENMESSE AND CHANCELLOR BAY DEAD HE WOULD LATER RETURN TO LEAD HIS PEOPLE OUT OF EGYPT AND INTO CANAAN ,THE LAND OF SET,WHEN HIS PLANS FAIL AND SET IS EXPELLED FROM EGYPT?
The youthful Moses becomes a murderer and fugitive from justice (Exodus 2.11,15).
Moses flees to Arabia where he marries the daughter of a Midianite priest and lives as a shepherd. His father-in-law is ‘Reuel’ (Exodus 2.18) or ‘Jethro’ (Exodus 3.1,4.18) or ‘Hobab’ (Judges 4.11) – take your pick.
After 40 years in Midian, Moses returns to Egypt to make his famous demand of pharaoh to “let go” (Exodus 5.1) the people he has lived without for 80 years (Exodus 7.7).
According to the bible Ten plagues later and Egypt had lost its labour force and its army (Exodus 14.28). Moses, an octogenarian, now begins 40 years of wandering.
In reality, Egypt reached new heights of imperial splendour and prosperity during the New Kingdom (18th – 19th dynasties). Tutmosis III campaigned beyond the Euphrates and reached the Fourth Cataract on the Nile; Rameses II halted the advance of the Hittites in Syria and built more temples and monuments than anyone.
Perhaps those Hebrews hadn’t pulled their weight after all!
MEANWHILE CHANCELLOR BAY PLACES A CHILD USURPER ON THE THRONE ,
THE RED HEADED PHAROAH SIPTAH
AND SON OF AMENMESSE
IT SEEMS BAY IS WORKING FOR THE PRIESTS OF AMEN/MIN AND ENSURING A COMPLIENT SET PHARONIC LINEAGE
PHAROAH SIPTAH c.1197–1191BC
THE CHILD PUPPET OF THE PRIEST OF AMEN
SIPTAH ,SON OF AMENMESSE
It is possible that Siptah, the Pharaoh who succeeded Seti II was the son of Amenmesse and not of Seti II. A statue of Siptah in Munich shows the Pharaoh seated in the lap of another, clearly his father. The statue of the father, however, has been completely destroyed. Dodson writes:
“The only ruler of the period who could have promoted such destruction was Amenmesse, and likewise he is the only king whose offspring required such explicit promotion. The destruction of this figure is likely to have closely followed the fall of Bay or the death of Siptah himself, when any short-lived rehabilitation of Amenmesse will have ended”.
Akhenre Setepenre Siptah or Merenptah Siptah was the penultimate ruler of the 19th Dynasty.
He was not the crown prince, but succeeded to the throne as a child after the death of Seti II. His accession date occurred on I Peret day 2 around the month of December
The identity of his father is currently unknown; some Egyptologists speculate it may have been Amenmesse rather than Seti II since both Siptah and Amenmesse spent their youth in Chemmis and both are specifically excluded from Ramesses III’s Medinet Habu procession of statues of ancestral kings unlike Merneptah or Seti. This suggests that Amenmesse and Siptah were inter-related in such a way that they were “regarded as illegitimate rulers and that therefore they were probably father and son.”
Originally a scribe to Seti II,Chancellor Bay publicly boasts that he was instrumental in installing Siptah on the throne in several inscriptions including an Aswan stela set up by Seti, the Viceroy of Kush and at Gebel el-Silsila. A key graffito located at the entrance to the Speos of Horemheb at Gebel el-Silsila depicts Bay standing in a pose of adoration directly behind Siptah, who is making an offering to Amun; a following inscription in the graffito reads:
“the spirit of the Great Superintendent of the Seal of the entire land, who established the King [Siptah] in the place of his father; beloved of his lord, Bay.”
Chancellor Bay on the door jamb of the Amada temple, Nubia, shown adoring the cartouche of Siptah
Images of Bay exist showing him standing behind the throne of Pharaoh Siptah, an unusual position for a commoner, and also opposite Twosret on the doorjamb of the Amada temple where he faces the queen. Tablets unearthed by excavators at Ras Shamra prove Ugarit was communicating with Bay of Egypt (RS 86.2230), who described himself the “head of the bodyguard of the Great King, the King of Egypt”.
BAY IS EXECUTED AS A TRAITOR c.1193BC
Year 5 III Shemu the 27th. On this day, the scribe of the tomb Paser came announcing ‘Pharaoh, life, prosperity, and health!, has killed the great enemy Bay’.
This date accords well with Bay’s last known public appearance in Year 4 of Siptah. The ostraca’s information was essentially a royal order for the workmen to stop all further work on Bay’s tomb since the latter had now been deemed a traitor to the state
SIPTAH THE CHILD PUPPET PHAROAH OF AMEN SET DIES
PHAROAH QUEEN TWOSRET c.1191–1189BC
A RA/HORUS/ISIS QUEEN TAKES THE PHARONIC THRONE
After his death, Twosret simply assumed his Regnal Years and ruled Egypt as a queen for a year or two at the most. Siptah was buried in the Valley of the Kings, in tomb KV47, but his mummy was not found there. In 1898, it was discovered along with 18 others in a mummy cache within the (KV35) tomb of Amenhotep II.
Queen Twosret (Tawosret, Tausret) was the last known ruler and the final Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty. She is recorded in Manetho’s Epitome as a certain Thuoris, who in Homer is called Polybus, husband of Alcandara, and in whose time Troy was taken. She was said to have ruled Egypt for seven years, but this figure included the nearly six-year reign of Siptah, her predecessor
Queen Twosret is thought to have been a daughter of Merenptah,. She was thought to be the second royal wife of Seti II. There are no known children for Twosret and Seti II, unless KV56 represents the burial of their daughter
After her husband’s death, she became first regent to Seti’s heir Siptah
Twosret officially assumed the throne for herself, as the “Daughter of Re, Lady of Ta-merit, Twosret of Mut”, and assumed the role of a Pharaoh.
CANAANITE AMEN/MIN FACTION FOLLOWERS OF AMENMESSE, BAY, MOSES AND IRSA RIOT AND LOOT TEMPLES
After the death of Twosret, Egypt seems to have fallen into anarchy, with many temples being looted by Asiatic followers of Bay and Irsa!!!!!
Twosret’s reign ended in a civil war which is documented in the Elephantine stela of her successor Setnakhte who became the founder of the Twentieth dynasty.
PHARAOH SETNAKHTE c.1189–1186BC
SET COMES TO THE THRONE VIA ANOTHER CIVIL WAR
Setnakhte and his son Ramesses III described the late 19th dynasty as a time of chaos. Setnakhte usurped the joint KV14 tomb of Seti II and Twosret but reburied Seti II in tomb KV15, while deliberately replastering and redrawing all images of Twosret in tomb KV14 with those of himself. Setnakhte’s decisions here demonstrate his dislike and presumably hatred for Twosret since he chose to reinter Seti II but not Twosret.
Setnakhte’s son, Ramesses III, later excluded Twosret and even Siptah of the 19th dynasty from his Medinet Habu list of Egyptian kings thereby delegitimizing them in the eyes of the citizenry. It appears more likely that Setnakhte overthrew Twosret from power in a civil war.
YET ANOTHER BIBLICAL PHAROAH
SETNAKHTE HERO OF RA AND EXPELLER OF ASIATICS(SEMITES)
MILITARY AMEN/RA SET WORSHIP RULES EGYPT AGAIN
Userkhaure-setepenre Setnakhte (or Setnakht) “Victorious is Set, Beloved of Amun Re” was the first Pharaoh (1189 BC–1186 BC) of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt and the father of Ramesses III.
Setnakhte was not the son, brother or a direct descendant of the previous 2 pharaohs: either Twosret or Merneptah Siptah, nor that of Siptah’s predecessor Seti II, whom Setnakht formally considered the last legitimate ruler. It is possible that he was an usurper who seized the throne during a time of crisis and political unrest, or he could have been a member of a minor line of the Ramesside royal family who emerged as Pharaoh
The beginning of the Great Harris Papyrus or Papyrus Harris I, which documents the reign of Ramesses III, provides some details about Setnakhte’s rise to power. An excerpt of James Henry Breasted’s 1906 translation of this document is provided below
“He was Khepri-Set, when he is enraged; he set in order the entire land which had been rebellious; he slew the rebels who were in the land of Egypt; he cleansed the great throne of Egypt; he was ruler of the Two Lands, on the throne of Atum. He gave ready faces to those who had been turned away. Every man knew his brother who had been walled in. He established the temples in possession of divine offerings, to offer to the gods according to their customary stipulations.”
James H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol No.4,(1906), pp.198-199
HERO OF RA
EXPELLER OF THE ASIATICS
THIS IS THE 2ND EXODUS c.1189BC
MOSES HAVING RETURNED ,WAS PROBABLY EXPELLED AS WELL AT THIS TIME
WITH AMENMESSE AND CHANCELLOR BAY DEAD , MOSES WOULD BE NEXT IN LINE TO LEAD HIS PEOPLE.
AS A MAJOR PLOT TO BRING THE HYKSOS/CANAANITE SET WORSHIPPING (AS MALE FERTILITY/CANAANITE) PHAROAHS BACK BUT UNDER PRIESTLY AMEN/”MIN” RULE.
IS DEFEATED BY THE EGYPTIAN MILITARY AMEN-RA/SET WORSHIPPING PHAROAH ,”SET HERO OF RA”
pharaoh Setnakhte presents an offering to the god Amun
Setnakhte’s royal Elephantine stela on the island of Elephantine
“from the second (?) year of Pharaoh Sethnakht, founder of the XXth Dynasty …, dating in absolute chronology from the first or second decade of the 12th century B.C.E. …, the political situation in Egypt … was marred by the enigmatic intervention of Asiatics … who were approached and bribed by a faction of Egyptians … who revolted against another faction … who remained loyal to Sethnakht.”
Sethnakht overcame the plot and drove the Asiatics from Egypt.
THERE ARE MANY BIBLICAL SIMILARITIES
Setnakhte’s Elephantine stela touches on this chaotic period and refers explicitly to the expulsion of certain Asiatics, who fled Egypt, abandoning the gold which they looted from Egyptian temples behind. Setnakhte identified with the God Atum or Temu, and built a temple to this God at Per-Atum (Biblical Pithom)
The Papyrus Harris I also describes “the Syrian-Palestinian usurpation of Egypt” as well as the “desolate conditions” that held sway prior to Ramses III. According to the papyrus, the Asiatics were led by “someone called Irsa,” (Irsa-el?)
IRSA THE CANAANITE LOOTS EGYPT
“The land of Egypt was overthrown from without,(probably refering to Chancellor Bay,the canaanite, usurption) and every man was thrown out of his right; they had no “chief mouth” for many years formerly until other times. The land of Egypt was in the hands of chiefs and of rulers of towns; one slew his neighbour, great and small. Other times having come after it, with empty years, Irsa, a certain Syrian was with them as chief (wr). He set plundering their (i.e.: the people’s) possessions. They made gods like men, and no offerings were presented in the temples.
SETNAKHTE HERO OF RA ,SET IS STRONG
SAVES EGYPT AND BRINGS LIFE ,PROSPERITY AND HEALTH
“But when the gods inclined themselves to peace, to set the land in its rights according to its accustomed manner, they established their son, who came forth from their limbs, to be ruler, LPH, of every land, upon their great throne, Userkhaure-setepenre-meryamun, LPH, the son of Re, Setnakht-merire-meryamun, LPH.
LPH = ankh: “Life” wedja: “to be whole/intact”/”Endurance” (= “Prosperity”) seneb: “Health”
There is a strong resemblance between the items offered as bribes by the rebels to the Asiatics in the Levant and the items described in Exodus taken by the Israelites from the Egyptians:
“And it shall come to pass, that, when ye go, ye shall not go empty; but every woman shall ask of her neighbor, and of her that sojourneth in her house, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment; and ye shall put them upon your sons, and upon your daughters; and ye shall spoil the Egyptians.”
IRSA’S FOLLOWERS ARE IN LEAGUE WITH CHANCELLOR BAYS FOLLOWERS ACCORDING TO THE HARRIS PAPYRUS
CHANCELLOR BAY IS IN LEAGUE WITH AMENMESSE
AND AMENMESSE WAS IN LEAGUE WITH MOSES
THEIR PLOT TO BRING CANAANITE SET WORSHIP BACK TO EGYPT FAILS
Set’s religious and administrative prominence in Nome XIX(19th Dynasty) was duly shifted south to Oxyrhynchus after this time (cf. te Velde, Seth: God of Confusion, p. 139) Joining forces with the High Priets of Amen.
BUT IT DOES SEEM MOSES MANAGED TO RUN OFF WITH A “WAS SEPTRE” (SET STAFF/ ROD OF AARON)
BUT THEY HAD TO MAKE A NEW CHEST OF ANUBIS(ARK OF THE COVENANT)
OTHER NON-EGYPTIAN REFERENCES TO THIS EVENT
SET WORSHIPPERS RETAKE AVAIRS AND INVITE THE HYKSOS BACK
AND MORE PROOF THAT MOSES IS INFACT (SET)MOSES
Osarsiph Seizes the Throne
It is to Flavius Josephus, the Roman Jew who transmitted certain fragments of Egyptian history to the modern world, that we will turn for further hints about the person of Moses. In Against Apion, and in the process of trying to refute certain statements of Manetho, Josephus tells us the following:
Manetho therefore had acknowledged that his Hyksos forefathers were gone out of Egypt so many years ago,
THUS CONNECTING THE ISRAELITES WITH THE SET WORSHIPPING HYKSOS AGAIN
FATHER OF MOSES IS AMEN-RA
Amram, the father of Moses according to the bible
MOSES MEANS “SON OF..”
Moses was simply the Egyptian word for child ,or born of, such as Ah-mose, Thut-mose, and Ra-mose (Ramses)
THUS ” MOSES” IS NAMED AFTER A GOD THAT CANNOT BE NAMED BY THE UNINITIATED
SETMOSES WOULD FIT THIS DESCRIPTION,
SET IS ALSO THE SON OF AMEN
SET IS WORSHIPPED BY THE HYKSOS
SET IS WORSHIPPED AS BAAL IN CANAAN
MOSES PLANS A COUP
USING THE GODS TO SOW DOUBT AND COVER HIS PLANS
“how this namesake(Amenmesse) of his told him that he might see the gods, if he would clear the whole country of the lepers and of the other impure people; that the king was pleased with this injunction, and got together all that had any defect in their bodies out of Egypt; and that their number was eighty thousand; whom he sent to those quarries which are on the east side of the Nile, that they might work in them, and might be separated from the rest of the Egyptians.”
SOME PRIESTS ARE INVOLVED
He says further, that “there were some of the learned priests that were polluted with the leprosy; but that still this Amenophis, the wise man and the prophet, was afraid that the gods would be angry at him and at the king, if there should appear to have been violence offered them; who also added this further, (out of his sagacity about futurities,) that certain people would come to the assistance of these polluted wretches, and would conquer Egypt, and keep it in their possession thirteen years; that, however, he durst not tell the king of these things, but that he left a writing behind him about all those matters, and then slew himself, which made the king disconsolate.”
MOSES RETAKES AVAIRS ,THE CITY OF SET
EGYPTIANS SUN WORSHIPPERS WOULD REFER TO IT AS PI-RAMESSE
THE BIBLE CLAIMS THE HEBREWS LEFT EGYPT FROM PI-RAMESSE
After which he writes thus verbatim: “After those that were sent to work in the quarries had continued in that miserable state for a long while, the king was desired that he would set apart the city Avaris, which was then left desolate of the shepherds, for their habitation and protection; which desire he granted them. Now this city, according to the ancient theology, was Typho’s city.
MOSES TAKES CHARGE OF THE CITY
A SACRED RED HEFFER IS SLAUGHTERED?
EGYPTIANS SUN WORSHIPPERS WOULD CALL THIS THE APIS BULL AND WORSHIP IT
THE POPULATION AND PRIESTHOOD ARE SLAUGHTERED
But when these men were gotten into it, and found the place fit for a revolt, they appointed themselves a ruler out of the priests of Heliopolis, whose name was Osarsiph, and they took their oaths that they would be obedient to him in all things. He then, in the first place, made this law for them, that they should neither worship the Egyptian gods, nor should abstain from any one of those sacred animals which they have in the highest esteem, but kill and destroy them all; that they should join themselves to nobody but to those that were of this confederacy.
WAR IS DELCARED AGAINST THE EGYPTIAN PHAROAH
When he had made such laws as these, and many more such as were mainly opposite to the customs of the Egyptians, he gave order that they should use the multitude of the hands they had in building walls about their City, and make themselves ready for a war with king Amenophis, while he did himself take into his friendship the other priests, and those that were polluted with them,
THE SET WORSHIPPING HYKSOS ARE INVITED BACK
BY THE “EGYPTIAN LEPER” SET WORSHIPPING FACTION
and sent ambassadors to those shepherds who had been driven out of the land by Tefilmosis to the city called Jerusalem; whereby he informed them of his own affairs, and of the state of those others that had been treated after such an ignominious manner, and desired that they would come with one consent to his assistance in this war against Egypt.
WEALTH POWER AND RICHES ARE PROMISED AS WELL AS THE PHAROANIC CROWN
He also promised that he would, in the first place, bring them back to their ancient city and country Avaris, and provide a plentiful maintenance for their multitude; that he would protect them and fight for them as occasion should require, and would easily reduce the country under their dominion. These shepherds were all very glad of this message, and came away with alacrity all together, being in number two hundred thousand men; and in a little time they came to Avaris.
THE EGYPTIAN PHAROAH RETREATS TO SOUTHERN(UPPER) EGYPT
And now Amenophis the king of Egypt, upon his being informed of their invasion, was in great confusion, as calling to mind what Amenophis, the son of Papis, had foretold him; and, in the first place, he assembled the multitude of the Egyptians, and took counsel with their leaders, and sent for their sacred animals to him, especially for those that were principally worshipped in their temples, and gave a particular charge to the priests distinctly, that they should hide the images of their gods with the utmost care he also sent his son Sethos, who was also named Ramesses, from his father Rhampses, being but five years old, to a friend of his. He then passed on with the rest of the Egyptians, being three hundred thousand of the most warlike of them, against the enemy, who met them. Yet did he not join battle with them; but thinking that would be to fight against the gods, he returned back and came to Memphis, where he took Apis and the other sacred animals which he had sent for to him, and presently marched into Ethiopia, together with his whole army and multitude of Egyptians; for the king of Ethiopia was under an obligation to him, on which account he received him, and took care of all the multitude that was with him, while the country supplied all that was necessary for the food of the men. He also allotted cities and villages for this exile, that was to be from its beginning during those fatally determined thirteen years. Moreover, he pitched a camp for his Ethiopian army, as a guard to king Amenophis, upon the borders of Egypt. And this was the state of things in Ethiopia.
THE HYKSOS BRING BARABARISM AND SLAUGHTER TO NORTH EGYPT …AGAIN
But for the people of Jerusalem, when they came down together with the polluted Egyptians, they treated the men in such a barbarous manner, that those who saw how they subdued the forementioned country, and the horrid wickedness they were guilty of, thought it a most dreadful thing; for they did not only set the cities and villages on fire but were not satisfied till they had been guilty of sacrilege, and destroyed the images of the gods, and used them in roasting those sacred animals that used to be worshipped, and forced the priests and prophets to be the executioners and murderers of those animals, and then ejected them naked out of the country. It was also reported that the priest, who ordained their polity and their laws, was by birth of Heliopolis, and his name Osarsiph, from Osyris, who was the god of Heliopolis; but that when he was gone over to these people, his name was changed, and he was called Moses.”
This is what the Egyptians relate about the Jews, with much more, which I omit for the sake of brevity.
THE HYKSOS INVADERS ARE DRIVEN OUT OF EGYPT BY PHAROAH
But still Manetho goes on, that “after this, Amenophis returned back from Ethiopia with a great army, as did his son Rhampses with another army also, and that both of them joined battle with the shepherds and the polluted people, and beat them, and slew a great many of them, and pursued them to the bounds of Syria.”
…AND SO IS THE GOD SET!!
HE GETS REPLACED WITH THOTH
ANUBIS ,SET’S SON,IS RELACED BY OSIRIS
Clearly, Sethos was Seti I;
Rhampses, his son Ramses II.
Amenophis, whom Josephus insists was mythological, was Merneptah, the father of
Thermuthis/Tausret and whose victories in Palestine are commemorated on the Israel Stele; And
Sethos/Ramesses was Seti II.
Osarsiph must therefore have been the usurper Amenmesse, and what Manetho is claiming is no less than that Amenmesse was Moses.
Amenmesse simply seizes Egypt with the help of his Hyksos allies and drives Merneptah into exile in “Ethiopia,” the Cush of the Masoretic Text
Clearly, this does not agree with the biblical account, nor does it fit our revised chronology, but it does explain certain aspects of the political conditions that allowed Moses to pull off what he did a generation later. In the Egyptian political sphere, it demonstrates the ability of a priest to overthrow the government of Egypt.
THIS EVENT MUST BE A LATER RETELLING OF THE PHAROAH SEKNAKHTE EXPULSION OF THE ASIATIC/SEMITIC/HYKSOS SET WORSHIPPING USURPERS
IF WE JUST TAKE THE EVIDENCE AND LEAVE OUT THE RELIGIOUS FANTASY
THE STORY BECOMES VERY CLEAR
WHAT WE HAVE IS THE BIBLICAL EXODUS
MOSE IS (SET)MOSES AKA THE BIBLICAL MOSES
(SET)MOSES IS A HIGH PRIEST OF SET AND CHANCELLOR OF LOWER EGYPT
A CO-CONSPIRATOR WITH THE HIGH PRIESTS OF AMEN(MIN) ,RENEGADE PHAROAH AMENMESSE AND CHANCELOR BAY
WORKING FOR THE MALE FERTILITY SET WORSHIPING FACTION OF THE PRIESTS OF AMEN-MIN
WHEN SETI II COMES TO THE THRONE A BARGIN IS MADE WITH HIS HALF BROTHER AMENMESSE
THE PRIESTS OF AMEN GET A SPY INTO A POSITION OF POWER, CHANCELLOR BAY
AMENMESSE NOW MAKES A BID TO BECOME PHARAOH
AMENMESSE TAKES CONTROL OF THE SOUTH ,USING HIS PRIESTLY AMEN/MIN THEBEN FACTION
PHAROAH SETI II DEFEATS AMENMESSE WITH HELP FROM THE PRIESTLY EGYPTIAN MILITARY AMEN-RA FACTION
BUT THANKS TO CHANCELOR BAY , SETI II DIES AT THE HEIGHT OF HIS POWER!!
A USURPER PUPPET CHILD PHAROAH OF AMEN IS PLACED ON THE THRONE, SIPTAH
SIPTAH IS ALSO THE SON OF AMENMESSE
BUT SHORTLY AFTER THAT COUP
BAY IS EXECUTED AS A TRAITOR
THE CHILD PHAROAH DIES AS WELL ,PROBABLY AT THE HANDS OF THE QUEEN OF RA PHARAOH TWOSRET
TWOSRET A QUEEN PHAROAH, DAUGHTER OF RA TAKES OVER
THE TEMPLES OF SET ARE CLOSED IN UPPER EGYPT
CHAOS BREAKS OUT IN EGYPT WITH THE FOLLOWERS OF IRSA/BAY/MOSES LOOTING TEMPLES
ANOTHER PHARAOH OF SET APPEARS SEKNAKHTE(EGYPTIAN MILITARY,SET AS HERO OF RA)
AND ANOTHER CIVIL WAR BREAKS OUT.
SEKNAHKTE WINS AND IS PHAROAH
IN THIS TIME OF DISCORD SETMOSES SEES HIS LAST CHANCE
SETMOSES AND HIS FOLLOWERS TAKE PI-RAMESS/AVAIRS AND WAIT FOR HABIRU/CANAANITE MERCENARIES TO JOIN THEM
BUT SEKNAHKTE HAS THE EGYPTIAN MILITARY BEHIND HIM
HE RUNS “SET”MOSES AND HIS “LEPER” FOLLOWERS AND HIS HABIRU MERCENARIES OUT OF EGYPT AND ALL THE WAY TO SYRIA
IN UPPER EGYPT THE TEMPLES OF SET REMAIN CLOSED
(SET)MOSES AND COMPANY OBVIOUSLY TRY TO CARRY OFF AS MUCH GOLD AS THEY CAN
(SET)MOSES AND HIS FOLLOWERS WOULD LIVE A BANDIT LIFE IN CANAAN FOR A GENERATION
AFTER THE DEATH OF MOSES THEY SEE THE BIRTH OF THE BAAL WORSHIPPING KINGDOM OF ISRAEL IN CANAAN
WHICH IS THE RESULT OF THE EXPULSION OF THE EGYPTIAN GOD SET INTO THE LAND OF CANAAN
THE REST ,AS THEY SAY ,…IS MYTHOLOGY
MEANWHILE IN EGYPT
RAMOSES III COMES TO POWER c.1186–1155BC
AND THE AGE OF PHARAOHS OF SET ENDS
Pharaoh Ramoses III was the last the be blessed by Set and Horus
Horus and Set and Ramoses III
Horus and Set with Ramesses the Third seen at the Global Egyptian Museum website, housed in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo
Granite, height 195cm, width 72cm, originally found at Medinet Habu
Set and Horus, called “The Two Lords”, protect the pharoah, along with “The Two Ladies”. Geraldine Pinch shares an example of this:
“Figure 46. A king protected by the Two Ladies (Wadjyt and Nekhbet) and the Two Lords (Seth and Horus.
Line drawing of a late New Kingdom relief in the temple of Khonsu at Karnak. (Art Resource),_Handbook of Egyptian mythology_, page 212
The text at the Global Museum explains: “Each god has placed one hand on the crown of the king, performing the Coronation of Ramesses the Third.”
THE PHAROAHS OF RA, BASED IN THE NILE DELTA NOW RULE EGYPT
RAMOSES III c.1186–1155BC
VICTIM OF AN AMEN/SET PLOT?
THE FINAL CHAPTER OF THE EXODUS
Usimare Ramesses III (“Powerful one of Ma’at and Ra, Beloved of Amun, Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis”)
He was probably murdered by an assassin in a conspiracy led by one of his secondary wives and her minor son.The servant in charge of his food and drink were also among the listed conspirators, but there were also other conspirators who were called the snake and the lord of snakes. It was in Thebes where this great conspiracy was conjured, and performed.(Redford I-XXIV)
Rearing serpent replicating the form of Taharqo’s Kamutef statue from Luxor used as an illustration to BD Spell 87: “….I am a snake which is at the limits of the earth; I pass the night and am reborn, renewed and rejuvenated every day.” The snake evidently symbolized the culminating event of the Luxor Opet-festival. From the papyrus of Ani, British Museum. (Faulkner 2005, 98)
The fertility Amen Set-Horus.The crown indicates that the snake is actually the same sun god, with human body and ram head, who traverses the Underworld nightly in his bark in order to unite with Osiris and to be reborn as Khepri-Set (or child king) at dawn. The shape of these serpents is the same and suggests a similar meaning of Luxor and Jebel Barkal. Papyrus BM 10257 (Faulkner 1972, 163)
At this time, the dynastic rulers were based in the Nile Delta region, and the office of the Divine Adoratrice was a means to secure peaceful relations with the Theban area where the cult of Amun was centered. A number of the God’s Wives had mortuary shrines constructed on the west bank of the river, mostly alongside the Medinet-Habu of Ramesses III.
The temple, some 150 m long, is of orthodox design, and resembles closely the nearby mortuary temple of Ramesses II (the Ramesseum). The temple precinct measures approximately 700 ft (210 m). by 1,000 ft (300 m) and contains more than 75,350 sq ft (7,000 m2) of decorated wall reliefs.Just inside the enclosure, to the south, are chapels of Amenirdis I, Shepenupet II and Nitiqret, all of whom had the title of Divine Adoratrice of Amun.
The title, God’s Wife of Amun, “referred to the myth of the divine birth of the king”. While the office theoretically, was sacred, it was essentially wielded as a political tool by the serving Egyptian pharaoh to ensure “royal authority over the Theban region and the powerful priesthood of Amun” there.
THE DIVINE ADORATRICE OF AMUN WAS THE HAND OF GOD
THIS WAS OBVIOUSLY A POLITICAL TOOL/BRIBE OF THE PHAORH AND HIS SPY IN THE HEART OF THEBES/KARNACK!
PHAROAH LITERALLY HAD KARNACK BY THE BALLS!
Ayad, Mariam, God’s Wife, God’s Servant: The God’s Wife of Amun (c. 740-525 BC). Routledge, 2009.
Toby Wilkinson, The Thames and Hudson Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson, 2005.]
Unknown Man ‘E’: The Most Mysterious Mummy in the World (Ancient Egypt History Documentary)
The plot to murder Ramoses III.
Investigates the mysterious princely mummy buried in an unmarked sarcophagus, naked but for a sheep skin lion cloth(a shepard king)un-embalmed with his body intact and unprepared for mummification,(and possibly buried alive or at least drugged, as the little embalming fluid used did not get down his throat),and his part in the royal Theben “snake” plot,the Harem conspiracy.Magic and priests are also involved and Ramoses III is shown as the protector against all snakes.
This is obviously a failed Amen/Set plot carried out by the Theben Canaanite influenced Amen/Set worshipers in a last attempt to put an Amen/Set shepard king on the throne of Egypt.
It is not certain whether the assassination plot succeeded. However, Ramesses III died in his 32nd year before the summaries of the sentences were composed, but the same year that the trial documents record the trial and execution of the conspirators.
Although it was long believed that Ramesses III’s body showed no obvious wounds, a recent examination of the mummy by a German forensic team, televised in the documentary Rameses on the Science Channel in 2011, showed excessive bandages around the neck. A subsequent CT scan that was done in Egypt by Ashraf Selim and Sahar Saleem, professors of Radiology in Cairo University, revealed that beneath the bandages was a deep knife wound across the throat, deep enough to reach the vertebrae. According to the documentary narrator, “It was a wound no one could have survived.”
In one respect the conspirators certainly failed. The crown passed to the king’s designated successor: Ramesses IV. Ramesses III may have been doubtful as to the latter’s chances of succeeding him, given that, in the Great Harris Papyrus, he implored Amun to ensure his son’s rights
RAMOSES III BUILDER OF SUN TEMPLES
The Great Harris Papyrus or Papyrus Harris I, which was commissioned by his son and chosen successor Ramesses IV, chronicles this king’s vast donations of land, gold statues and monumental construction to Egypt’s various temples at Piramesse, Heliopolis, Memphis, Athribis, Hermopolis, This, Abydos, Coptos, El Kab and other cities in Nubia and Syria. It also records that the king dispatched a trading expedition to the Land of Punt and quarried the copper mines of Timna in southern Canaan. Papyrus Harris I records some of Ramesses III activities:
“I sent my emissaries to the land of Atika, [ie: Timna] to the great copper mines which are there. Their ships carried them along and others went overland on their donkeys. It had not been heard of since the (time of any earlier) king. Their mines were found and (they) yielded copper which was loaded by tens of thousands into their ships, they being sent in their care to Egypt, and arriving safely.” (P. Harris I, 78, 1-4
RAMOSES III DEFEATS THE SEA PEOPLES AND SAVES EGYPT… AND BRINGS PEACE TO THE LEVENT
BUT THEN THE HORUS PHAROAH OF RA DIES IN A THEBEN(AMEN/SET) PLOT
BUT THE AMEN/SET PLOT FAILS THE PLOTTERS EXECUTED
SET IS EXPELLED FROM EGYPT INTO THE LAND OF CANAAN
AND A DYNASTY OF RA/HORUS PHAROAHS CONTINUE TO RULE EGYPT
Twentieth Dynasty timeline
SEKAKHT IS THE LAST EVER PHAROAH DEDICATED TO SET
RAMOSES III IS THE LAST PHAROAH TO BE DIVINELY APPOINTED BY HORUS AND SET
AFTER THE EXPULSION OF THE HYKSOS AND THE CHAOS CAUSED BY THE AMEN SET VS RA HORUS POWER STRUGGLE
SET IS THEN DEMONISED TOTALLY BY THE 19TH DYNASTY AND REMOVED FROM TEMPLES BY THE 20TH DYNASTY
AMEN IS JOINED WITH RA
ANUBIS ,SON OF SET ,IS REPLACED BY OSIRIS AS LORD OF THE UNDERWORLD
SET IS REPACED BY THOTH AS GOD OF LOWER EGYPT
THE SUN WORSHIPPERS HAVE WON THE POWER STRUGGLE
from the Great temple of Amen-Ra, Ipet-Sut.Ramoses II being crowned by Thoth (with the Red Crown) and Horus (with the White Crown)
THE EGYPTIAN HEBREWS ARE NOT MONOTHEISTS AS THERE IS NO EVIDENCE OF EGYPTIAN SET WORSHIP MONOTHEISM
SET WORSHIP IS A POLYTHIESTIC MALE FERTILITY CULT
THE HABIRU/HYKSOS/HEBREWS DEFINATELY WORSHIPPED SET NOT RA/HORUS AS CAN BE SEEN BY THIER RELIGIOUS TRAPPINGS ,CEREMONIES AND TRADITIONS.
AT BEST THEY CONCIDERED SET TO BE HIS MAJESTY AND HEAD GOD
WITH THE EXPULSION OF THE GOD SET FROM EGYPT INTO CANAAN
WE SEE IN CANAAN AT THIS TIME, THE BIRTH OF THE POLYTHEISTIC BAAL WORSHIPPING KINGDOM OF ISRAEL
MONOTHEISM IS BROUGHT TO THE HABIRU/HEBREW/ISRAELITES LATER BY THE PERSIANS AND ZOROASTRAIANISM
RAMOSES IS THE BETTER CANDIDATE FOR A MONOTHEIST,AS IT IS EGYPTIAN RA/HORUS SUN WORSHIP THAT THE LATER CONSTANTINIAN CHRISTIANITY WOULD BE INFLUENCED BY
Abrahamic Monotheism Part 2 – The Invention of Christianity
MEANWHILE BACK IN THE LEVANT……….
THE EXODUS 2 TRAIL
ENSLAVED AND DIS-EMPOWERED SET WORSHIPPERS FLEE EGYPT
MENTIONS OF THE SECOND EXODUS
Apion (20s BC – c. 45 AD), Graeco-Egyptian grammarian, sophist and commentator on Homer, was born at the Siwa Oasis, and flourished in the first half of the 1st century AD, identifies a second exodus mentioned by Manetho when a renegade Egyptian priest called Osarseph led 80,000 “lepers” to rebel against Egypt at the end of the 19th Dynasty (12th century). Then Apion additionally combines these with the Biblical Exodus, even alleges that this heretic priest changed his name to Moses.
- Baal, right arm raised. Bronze figurine, 14th-12th centuries, found in Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit).
ACCORDING TO THE BIBLE
THE FLEEING ISRAELITES LEAVE EGYPT FROM AVAIRS,
THE HYKSOS CITY DEDICATED TO SET ,NOW REBUILT AS PI-RAMSES
IT APPEARS SET/BAAL BLESSES THE FLEEING ISRAELITES
According to the biblical account, the Israelites departed from (Pi-)Ramses in their exodus from Egypt (Exodus 12:37).
Later in Exodus, Balak meets with Balaam at Kirjath-huzoth, and they go to the high places of Baal,(SETH is associated with Baal) and offer sacrifices at seven altars, leading to Balaam being given a prophecy by God,the prophecy blesses Israel;(the habiru)
THIS ALSO FITS WITH THE SEKNAKHTE STELA ,HARRIS PAPYRUS AND MANTHEO AND APION DESCRIPTION
THESE ARE DEFINATELY POLYTHEISTIC SET WORSHIPPERS
THE BIBLE ALSO CLAIMS
ON THE WAY MOSES MEETS GOD(SET/BAAL)
THE NAME OF GOD IS GIVEN……BUT ITS NOT WHAT YOU THINK IT IS!!
Exodus 3:14 (New International Version)
14 God said to Moses, “I am who I am .This is what you are to say to the Israelites: ‘I AM has sent me to you.’ “
Another possibility according to the Complete Jewish Bible by author David H. Stern, proposes that the Tetragrammaton be pronounced letter for letter in Hebrew and that the name of God should be rendered by spelling out the four letters, “Yud He Vav He”, the meaning assumed to be “I am that I am” or “I am Who I am”, as revealed to Moses in the Torah
SO GOD”S NAME IS NOT YAHAWEH ,IT WAS HIS RESPONSE TO MOSES QUESTION,WHO ARE YOU?..
“I AM WHO I AM”
GOD’S NAME IS “SET”(SETH) AND YOUR ARE NOT SUPPOSED TO MENTION IT
only priests were allowed to utter his divine name
BUT IT IS ALSO POSSIBLE “I AM” WAS A NAME OF GOD GIVEN TO THE HEBREWS LATER BY THE PERSIANS
“I AM” IS A NAME OF SHIVA
“I AM BECOME DEATH” IS SHIVA THE DESTROYER
BUT THERE IS NO ARCHEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT A MASS EXODUS OR MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE OUT OF EGYPT OR IN THE SINAI AT ANY TIME!!!
Map of the near east circa 1400 BCE
The Hittites were an ancient Anatolian(Indo-European) people who established an empire at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC. This empire reached its height during the mid-14th century BC under Suppiluliuma I, when it encompassed an area that included most of Asia Minor as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia. After c. 1180 BC, the empire came to an end during the Bronze Age collapse, splintering into several independent “Neo-Hittite” city-states, some of which survived until the 8th century BC.
The Hittite language was a member of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family. They referred to their native land as Hatti. The conventional name “Hittites” is due to their initial identification with the Biblical Hittites in 19th century archaeology.
The Mitanni (Hittite cuneiform KUR URUMi-ta-an-ni, also Mittani Mi-it-ta-ni) or Hanigalbat (Assyrian Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat) was an Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and south-east Anatolia from ca. 1500 BC–1300 BC. Founded by an Indo-Aryan ruling class governing a predominately Hurrian population.
Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit close similarities to Indo-Aryan, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion.
In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni, the deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya (Ashvins) are invoked. Kikkuli’s horse training text includes technical terms such as aika (eka, one), tera (tri, three), panza (pancha, five), satta (sapta, seven), na (nava, nine), vartana (vartana, turn, round in the horse race). The numeral aika “one” is of particular importance because it places the superstrate in the vicinity of Indo-Aryan proper.
Paul Thieme, The ‘Aryan’ Gods of the Mitanni Treaties. JAOS 80, 1960, 301-17
The Kassites were an ancient Near Eastern people who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire ca. 1531 BC and until ca. 1155 BC.Several Kassite leaders bore Indo-European names, and they seemed have had an Indo-European elite similar to the Mitanni.
THE LAND OF CANAAN
THE HISTORY OF CANAAN IS WELL DOCUMENTED AND RESEARCHED
BUT NOT ONE SIGN OF AN EMPIRE OF ISRAEL OR A KING DAVID OR A SOLOMON OR HIS TEMPLE
Prior to 3500 BCE (prehistory – Stone Age and Chalcolithic): hunter-gatherer societies slowly giving way to farming and herding societies, and early metal-working in the last thousand years;
3500–2000 (Early Bronze): invention of writing;
2000–1550 (Middle Bronze): city-states;
1550–1200 (Late Bronze): Egyptian hegemony;
THE LAND OF CANNAN
RULED BY EGYPT ,RAIDED BY HABIRU BANDITS
Canaanites as they were portrayted in the Ancient Egyptian “Book of Gates”, dated to the 13th Century BCE.
The Canaanites were organized into loose confederations of city-states, virtually all of which were under Egyptian domination from around 1500 to 1200 BCE. It should be noted that many of the names of king/governors of the Canaanite kingdoms are Indo-European rather than Semitic, and it is likely that many of these dynasts were Hurrian or Hittite mercenaries in the service of the Pharaohs rather than native Canaanites, or at least came from families that had adopted Hurrian or Hittite culture. Some archeologists and historians believe that some of the early Israelite tribes were actually Canaanite in origin.
As an interesting aside – in the Bible (Gen. 10) eleven Canaanite “tribes” are mentioned: the Sidonians, Arvadites (both Phoenician people), Hethites, Jebusites, Amorites, Girgashites, Hivites (who lived in Shechem), Arkites, Sinites, Zemarites, and Hamathites (possibly referring to the Canaanite population of the Syrian interior). Later in Genesis another tribe is mentioned, the Perizzites, though they do not appear on the Gen. 10 genealogy. The interesting thing about this is that if you add the Perizzites to the other Canaanite tribes mentioned this brings the number up to twelve. This was a magic number in the ancient Middle East (Babylonian mathematics, for example, is based on 12 which is why we have a 24 hour day, 60 min. hour, etc.) and many historians suspect that the Israelites engaged in some creative adjustment of tribal identities (see under Hebrews) in order to maintain the number of tribes in their confederacy at twelve. So you have, in the Biblical narrative, twelve Canaanite peoples being supplanted by twelve Israelite tribes. Alternatively, you could ignore the Perizzites and to the original eleven add the Hittite/Hurrian warrior aristocracy that made up the ruling class of most of the cities- this gives you 12 also.
A number of the Amarna letters—sent to pharaohs Amenhotep III, Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) and, briefly, his two successors from vassal kings in Canaan and Syria in the 14th century BC — mention the “Habiru”. These letters, written by Canaanite scribes in the cuneiform-based Akkadian language, complain about attacks by armed groups who were willing to fight and plunder on any side of the local wars in exchange for equipment, provisions, and quarters.
Shechem /ˈʃɛkəm/ or Sichem (/ˈsɪkəm/; Hebrew: שְׁכֶם / שְׁכָם, Standard Š(ə)ḫem Tiberian Šəḵem, “shoulder”) was a Canaanite city mentioned in the Amarna Letters of about 1350 BC. Šakmu (i.e. Shechem) was the center of a kingdom carved out by Labaya (or Labayu), a Canaanite warlord who recruited mercenaries from among the Habiru. Labaya was the author of three Amarna letters, and his name appears in 11 of the other 382 letters, referred to 28 times, with the basic topic of the letter, being Labaya himself, and his relationship with the rebelling, countryside Habiru.
Shechem first appears in the Bible in Genesis 12:6-8, which records how Abraham reached the “great tree of Moreh” at Shechem and offered sacrifice nearby. Genesis, Deuteronomy, the Book of Judges and Joshua hallow Shechem over all other cities of the land of Israel.At Shechem, Abram “built an altar to the Lord who had appeared to him … and had given that land to his descendants” (Gen 12:6-7).It appears in the Hebrew bible as an Israelite city of the tribe of Manasseh and the first capital of the Kingdom of Israel, the kings of Israel moved first to Tirzah, and later on to Samaria.
Those people are identified by the Sumerian logogram SA.GAZ in most of the letters, and by the Akkadian name Hapiru in a few from the area of Jerusalem. They appear to be active on a broad area including Syria (at Upe near Damascus), Phoenicia (Sumur, Batrun and Byblos), and to the south as far as Jerusalem. None of the kings of the region, with the possible exception of one Abdi-Ashirta, are called Habiru or SA.GAZ.
Abdi-Heba, the Egyptian vassal ruler of Jerusalem in the Amarna period (mid-1330s BC), wrote a series of letters to the Egyptian king in which he complained about the activities of the “Habiru.” The Habiru were plundering the lands of the king.
Abdi-Heba wanted to know why the king was letting them behave in this way; why he was not sending archers to protect his, the king’s properties. If he did not send military help the whole land would fall to the Habiru
Abdi-Heba’s name can be translated as “servant of Hebat”, a Hurrian goddess.Egyptian documents have him deny he was a ḫazānu(Hurrian) and assert he is a soldier (we’w), the implication being he was the son of a local Egyptian chief sent to Egypt to receive military training there.Abdi-Heba himself notes that he holds his position not through his parental lineage but by the grace of Pharaoh. At this time the area he administered from his garrison may have had a population of fifteen hundred people and Jerusalem would have been a ‘small highlands stronghold’ in the fourteenth century BC with no fortifications or large buildings.
Donald B. Redford , Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, Princeton University Press, 1992 p.270.
Finkelstein, Israel and Silberman, Neil AsherThe Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, 2001, The Free Press, New York City, ]
Just after the Amarna period a new problem arose which was to trouble the Egyptian control of southern Canaan (the rest of the region now being under Hittite/Mitanni/Assyrian control). Pharaoh Horemhab campaigned against Shasu (Egyptian = “wanderers”) or living in nomadic pastoralist tribes, who had moved across the Jordan to threaten Egyptian trade through Galilee and Jezreel. Seti I (ca. 1290 BC) is said to have conquered these Shasu, Semitic nomads living just south and east of the Dead Sea, from the fortress of Taru (Shtir?) to “Ka-n-‘-na”.Rameses II had to campaign vigorously in Canaan to maintain Egyptian power. Egyptian forces penetrated into Moab and Ammon, where a permanent fortress garrison (Called simply “Rameses”) was established.
THE PEACE WITH THE HITTITES
THE TREATY OF KARDESH
After expelling the Hyksos 15th dynasty, the native Egyptian New Kingdom rulers became more aggressive in reclaiming control of their state’s borders. Thutmose I,Thutmose III and his son and coregent Amenhotep II fought battles from Megiddo north to the Orontes River, including conflict with Kadesh.Many of the Egyptian campaign accounts between c. 1400 and 1300 BC reflect the general destabilization of the region.
Hittite-Egyptian relations officially began once the Hatti took over Mitanni’s role as the ruling power in central Syria and from there tensions would continue to be high until the conclusion of the treaty nearly one hundred years later.During the invasion and eventual defeat of Mitanni, the Hittite armies poured into Syria and began to exert their rule over the Egyptian vassals of Kadesh and Amurru.The loss of these lands in northern Syria would never be forgotten by the Egyptian pharaohs.
The immediate antecedents to the Battle of Kadesh were the early campaigns of Ramesses II into Canaan. In the fourth year of his reign, he marched north into Syria,either to recapture Amurru or, as a probing effort, to confirm his vassals’ loyalty and explore the terrain of possible battles. The recovery of Amurru was Muwatalli’s King of the Hittites stated motivation for marching south to confront the Egyptians
The Battle of Kadesh (also Qadesh) took place between the forces of the Egyptian Empire under Ramesses II and the Hittite Empire under Muwatalli II at the city of Kadesh on the Orontes River, in what is now Syria.
The battle is generally dated to 1274 BC,and is the earliest battle in recorded history for which details of tactics and formations are known.It was probably the largest chariot battle ever fought, involving perhaps 5,000–6,000 chariots
After fifteen years of futile attempts at regaining his lost territory in Syria, scholars argue that Ramesses now realized that his opportunities to match the military achievements of Tuthmosis III were unrealizable. In that light, it became increasingly important for Ramesses to obtain an international victory through diplomacy to bolster his deeds as pharaoh.The attempts at regaining the lands that the Hittites had taken had ultimately failed to break the hold that the Hittites had over the region.The treaty was signed to end the long war between the Hittite Empire and the Egyptians, who had fought for over two centuries to gain mastery over the lands of the eastern Mediterranean. Ramesses II would take his losses in Amurru ,so long as the Hittites would recognize the current division of Syria, give Egypt access to ports in the Hittite territory to boost commerce, and grant trading access as far north as Ugarit.
After reaching the desired alliance with the Hatti, Ramesses was now able to turn his energies to domestic building projects, such as the completion of his great rock Abu Simbel temples. In year 34 of Ramesses II’s reign there is evidence that to continue the relationship between the two empires, the pharaoh married a Hittite princess in an effort to establish stronger, familial bonds with Hatti. Evidence of the dynastic marriage as well as the lack of textual evidence of a deterioration of the friendly relationship demonstrates that peaceful dealings between Hatti and Egypt continued for the remainder of Ramesses’ reign.By furthering their bonds of friendship through marriage the Hittites and Egyptians ensured that a mutually beneficial peace would exist between them until the fall of Hatti.
John A. Wilson, The Culture of Ancient Egypt (1951) p. 247.
Gardiner, Alan, The Kadesh Inscriptions of Ramesses II (1975) pp.2–4.
Eggenberger, David (1985). An Encyclopedia of Battles. Dover Publications. p. 214
Bryce, Trevor, The Kingdom of the Hittites, Oxford University Press, new edition 2005, ISBN 0-19-927908-Xm p.233,256
Klengel, Horst, “From War to Eternal Peace: Ramesses II and Khattushili III,” Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies 37 (September 2002), page 52
EGYPT RULES CANAAN
1200–586 (Iron Age, divided into Iron Age I and II): village societies in Iron I giving way to kingdoms in Iron II.
After the Iron Age the periods are named after the various empires that ruled the region: Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, Greek (Hellenistic) and Roman.
Canaanite religion is the name for the group of Ancient Semitic religions practiced by the Canaanites living in the ancient Levant from at least the early Bronze Age through the first centuries of the Common Era.
“Canaanite religion” is a controversial term because the Bible and some religious scholars distinguish between Canaanite and Israelite religions. However, biblical and archaeological data suggest that Israelite religion was one local variety of the larger, regional Canaanite religion.
Canaanite religion was strongly influenced by their more powerful and populous neighbors, and shows clear influence of Mesopotamian and Egyptian religious practices. Like other people of the Ancient Near East Canaanite religious beliefs were polytheistic, with families typically focusing worship on ancestral household gods and goddesses, the Elohim, while acknowledging the existence of other deities such as Baal and El. Kings also played an important religious role and in certain ceremonies, such as the sacred marriage of the New Year Festival may have been revered as gods. “At the center of Canaanite religion was royal concern for religious and political legitimacy and the imposition of a divinely ordained legal structure, as well as peasant emphasis on fertility of the crops, flocks, and humans.”
Egyptian and Mesopotamian religions had a growing impact upon Canaanite religion. For example during the Hyksos period, when chariot-mounted maryannu ruled in Egypt, at their capital city of Avaris, Baal became associated with the Egyptian god Set, and was considered identical – particularly with Set in his form as Sutekh. Iconographically henceforth Baal was shown wearing the crown of Lower Egypt and shown in the Egyptian-like stance, one foot set before the other. Similarly Athirat (known by her later Hebrew name Asherah), Athtart (known by her later Greek name Astarte), and Anath henceforth were portrayed wearing Hathor-like Egyptian wigs.
Tubb, Jonathan “The Canaanites” (British Museum Press)
Canaanite Anat with Egyptian crown and arm raised with septre
Canaanite civilization was a response to long periods of stable climate interrupted by short periods of climate change. During these periods, Canaanites profited from their intermediary position between the ancient civilizations of the Middle East — Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia (Sumer, Akkad, Assyria, Babylonia), the Hittites, and Minoan Crete — to become city states of merchant princes along the coast, with small kingdoms specializing in agricultural products in the interior. This polarity, between coastal towns and agrarian hinterland, was illustrated in Canaanite mythology by the struggle between the storm god, variously called Teshub (Hurrian) or Ba’al Hadad (Semitic Amorite/Aramean) and Ya’a, Yaw, Yahu or Yam, god of the sea and rivers. Early Canaanite civilization was characterized by small walled market towns, surrounded by peasant farmers growing a range of local horticultural products, along with commercial growing of olives, grapes for wine, and pistachios, surrounded by extensive grain cropping, predominantly wheat and barley.
DURING THE TIME OF RAMOSES II EGYPT RULED THE LEVANT
ANY FLEEING HYKSOS SLAVES OR PERSECUTED SET WORSHIPPER WOULD HAVE TO LIVE AN OUTLAW LIFE IN CANAAN
SO PREHAPS WHEN RAMOSES II LETS THE HYKSOS/HABIRU HAVE THIER “BIBLICAL” FESTIVAL TO “SET”(SETH)
SOME OF THEM RUN AWAY TO CANAAN ,TO JOIN THIER BANDIT BROTHERS
THIS WOULD BE SMALL GROUPS AND NO BIG LOSS TO PHAROAH,WOULD HE EVEN NOTICE?
MAYBE THEY EVEN FIND THE DESCENDANTS OF EXODUS 1 WHO HAVE BECOME BANDITS IN CANAAN
WHICH IS PART OF THE NEW EGYPTIAN KINGDOM.
The New Kingdom, sometimes referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, was Egypt’s most prosperous time and marked the zenith of its power.Possibly as a result of the foreign rule of the Hyksos during the Second Intermediate Period, the New Kingdom saw Egypt attempt to create a buffer between the Levant and Egypt, and attain its greatest territorial extent. It expanded far south into Nubia and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria. Pharoah Merneptah (or Merenptah) who was the fourth ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. He was the thirteenth son of Ramesses II He ruled Egypt for almost ten years between late July or early August 1213 to May 2, 1203 BC His throne name was Ba-en-re Mery-netjeru, which means “The Soul of Ra, Beloved of the Gods”.
THESE EXODUS 1 DESCENDANTS AND ANY ESCAPED SLAVES GET WIPED OUT BY PHAROAH MERNEPTAH
c.1210BC ISRAEL GETS A MENTION FOR THE FIRST TIME…TO TELL US THEY ARE ALL DEAD!!!
It is conspicuous that no Egyptian records speaking of Israelites in Egypt have ever been found (because they where the hyksos before c1550BC and habiru afterwards)
From similarity of context and description, it is believed that the Egyptian `PR.W are equivalent to the Akkadian Habiru/Hapiru.
In his account of the conquest of Joppa, General Djehuty or Toth of pharaoh Thutmose III of Egypt (around 1440 BC) asks at some point that his horses be taken inside the city, lest they be stolen by a passing Apir.
On two stelae at Memphis and Karnak, Thutmose III’s son Amenhotep II boasts of having made 89,600 prisoners in his campaign in Canaan (around 1420 BC), including “127 princes and 179 nobles(?) of Retenu, 3600 Apiru, 15,200 Shasu, 36,600 Hurrians”, etc.
A stela from the reign of Seti I (around 1300 BC) tells that the pharaoh sent an expedition into the Levant, in response to an attack of “the apiru from Mount Yarmuta” upon a local town.
A list of goods bequeathed to several temples by Pharaoh Ramesses III (around 1160 BC) includes many serfs, Egyptian and foreign: 86,486 to Thebes (2607 foreigners), 12,364 to Heliopolis (2093 foreign), and 3079 to Memphis (205 foreign). The foreign serfs are described as “maryanu (soldiers), apiru, and people already settled in the temple estate”.
The laborers that Ramesses IV sent to the quarry of Wadi Hammamat in his third year included 5,000 soldiers, 2,000 men attached to the temples of Pharaoh as well as 800 Apiru. This is the last known reference to the Apiru in Egyptian documents.
BUT Merneptah has a stele mentioning Israel.The FIRST mention of ISRAEL.The line mentioning Israel is grouped together with three other defeated states in Canaan (Gezer, Yanoam and Ashkelon). :
The stela does make clear that “Israel” at this stage, refers to a people or tribal confederation, the Ancient Israelites, and not a kingdom or city state, since the determinative used is that for “foreign people”, not that for “country”
“Israel is wasted, bare of seed” or “Israel lies waste, its seed no longer exists”
It describes the reign of peace resulting from the victory
Israel (Yisra’el) means “he will contend/wrestle God”
THESE ARE THE HYKSOS DESCENDENTS, IN THIS CONTEXT ,IT CAN ONLY REFER TO THE RA/HORUS AMEN/SET STRUGGLE GOING ON IN EGYPT AND CANAAN AT THIS TIME.
SUN WORSHIP VERSES MALE FERTILITY WORSHIP AND THE RIGHT TO RULE EGYPT
IT SEEMS PHAROAH MERNEPTAH WAS OVER CONFIDENT
AS A SMALL KINGDOM OF ISRAEL WOULD APPEAR LATER IN CANAAN
SO THE HABIRU SURVIVORS LIVE IN THE DESERT IN HIDING OR ON THE RUN PROTECTED BY “SET” GOD OF THE DESERT.
STILL DREAMING OF EGYPTIAN THEMED EMPIRES AND PHARONIC POWER
BUT NOW JUST BANDITS ,OUTLAWS AND MERCENARIES LIVING IN THE HILLS OF CANAAN
BUT THE BANDIT IRSA,INVOLVED IN THE ATTEMPTED INVASION/COUP OF EGYPT WITH MOSES, MAYBE AN ISRAELITE SURVIVOR SEEKING REVENGE AND EVEN THE ROOT OF THE NAME IRSA-EL (ISRAEL)
THE HITTITE EMPIRE FALLS TO THE SEA PEOPLE
Hittitie empire pre Sea Peoples
THE SEA PEOPLE INVADE AND SETTLE THE LEVANT
EMPIRES FALL TO THE SEA PEOPLE C.1175
Between 1206 and 1150 BC, the cultural collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria, and the New Kingdom of Egypt in Syria and Canaan interrupted trade routes and severely reduced literacy. In the first phase of this period, almost every city between Pylos and Gaza was violently destroyed, and often left unoccupied thereafter: examples include Hattusa, Mycenae, and Ugarit.Evidence shows that Deir Alla (Succoth) was destroyed after the reign of Queen Twosret (ruled 1191–1189 BCE). The destroyed site of Lachish was briefly reoccupied by squatters and an Egyptian garrison, during the reign of Ramesses III (ruled 1186–1155 BCE). All centres along a coastal route from Gaza northward were destroyed, and evidence shows Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Akko, and Jaffa were burned and not reoccupied for up to thirty years. Inland Hazor, Bethel, Beit Shemesh, Eglon, Debir, and other sites were destroyed.
Refugees escaping the collapse of coastal centres may have fused with incoming nomadic and Anatolian elements to begin the growth of terraced hillside hamlets in the highlands region that was associated with the later development of the Hebrews.
This also saw the eventual rise of settled Syro-Hittite states in Cilicia and Syria, Aramaean kingdoms of the mid-10th century BC in the Levant, and the eventual rise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
“The collapse of the Near Eastern regional system at the end of the Bronze Age: the case of Syria” in Centre and Periphery in the Ancient World, M. Rowlands, M.T. Larsen, K. Kristiansen, eds. (Cambridge University Press) 1987.
S. Richard, “Archaeological sources for the history of Palestine: The Early Bronze Age: The rise and collapse of urbanism”, The Biblical Archaeologist (1987)
The physical destruction of palaces and cities is the subject of Robert Drews, The End of the Bronze Age: changes in warfare and the catastrophe ca. 1200 B.C., 1993.]
The fact that several civilizations around 1175 BCE collapsed has led suggestion that the Sea Peoples may have been involved in the end of the Hittite, Mycenaean and Mitanni kingdoms. The American Hittitologist, Gary Beckman, writes on page 23 of Akkadica 120 (2000):
A terminus ante quem for the destruction of the Hittite empire has been recognised in an inscription carved at Medinet Habu in Egypt in the eighth year of Ramesses III (1175 BC). This text narrates a contemporary great movement of peoples in the eastern Mediterranean, as a result of which “the lands were removed and scattered to the fray. No land could stand before their arms, from Hatti, Kode, Carchemish, Arzawa, Alashiya on being cut off. [ie: cut down]”
Ramesses’ comments about the scale of the Sea Peoples’ onslaught in the eastern Mediterranean are confirmed by the destruction of the states of Hatti, Ugarit, Ashkelon and Hazor around this time. As the Hittitologist Trevor Bryce observes:
It should be stressed that the invasions were not merely military operations, but involved the movements of large populations, by land and sea, seeking new lands to settle.
This situation is confirmed by the Medinet Habu temple reliefs of Ramesses III which show that:
the Peleset and Tjekker warriors who fought in the land battle [against Ramesses III] are accompanied in the reliefs by women and children loaded in ox-carts.
THE EGYPTIAN EMPIRE FIGHTS BACKS
RAMOSSES III c1186 1155BC
Khonsu Temple Karnak
Ramesses III, the second king of the Egyptian 20th Dynasty, who reigned for most of the first half of the 12th century BC, was forced to deal with a later wave of invasions of the Sea Peoples—the best-recorded of these in his eighth year. The pharaoh records the Sea People’s activities
Temple of Ramses III at Medinet Habu
medinet habu luxor egypt
The first pylon leads into an open courtyard, lined with colossal statues of Ramesses III as Osiris on one side, and uncarved columns on the other.
Reliefs and actual heads of foreign captives were also found placed within the temple perhaps in an attempt to symbolise the king’s control over Syria and Nubia.
inscriptions from his Medinet Habu mortuary temple:
The foreign countries (ie. Sea Peoples) made a conspiracy in their islands, All at once the lands were removed and scattered in the fray. No land could stand before their arms: from Hatti, Qode, Carchemish, Arzawa and Alashiya on, being cut off [ie. destroyed] at one time. A camp was set up in Amurru. They desolated its people, and its land was like that which has never come into being. They were coming forward toward Egypt, while the flame was prepared before them. Their confederation was the Peleset, Tjeker, Shekelesh, Denyen and Weshesh, lands united. They laid their hands upon the land as far as the circuit of the earth, their hearts confident and trusting: “Our plans will succeed!”
The inscriptions of Ramesses III at his Medinet Habu mortuary temple in Thebes record three victorious campaigns against the Sea Peoples considered bona fide, in Years 5, 8 and 12,
The Battle of the Delta. Relief from the mortuary temple of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu.
The inner west wall of the second court describes the invasion of Year 5. Only the Peleset and Tjeker are mentioned
In Ramesses’ Year 8, the Nine Bows appear again as a “conspiracy in their isles”. This time, they are revealed unquestionably as Sea Peoples: the Peleset, Tjeker, Shekelesh, Denyen and Weshesh, which are classified as “foreign countries” in the inscription. They camped in Amor and sent a fleet to the Nile. The campaign is recorded more extensively on the inner northwest panel of the first court.
The campaign of Year 12 is attested by the Südstele found on the south side of the temple. It mentions the Tjeker, Peleset, Denyen, Weshesh and Shekelesh.
Papyrus Harris I of the period, found behind the temple, suggests a wider campaign against the Sea Peoples but does not mention the date. In it, the persona of Ramses III says, “I slew the Denyen (D’-yn-yw-n) in their isles” and “burned” the Tjeker and Peleset, implying a maritime raid of his own. He also captured some Sherden and Weshesh “of the sea” and settled them in Egypt. As he is called the “Ruler of Nine Bows” in the relief of the east side
RAMOSES III CLAIMS VICTORY AND SUBJUGATES THE SEA PEOPLE
Ramesses III claims that he incorporated the Sea Peoples as subject peoples and settled them in Southern Canaan, although there is no clear evidence to this effect; the pharaoh, unable to prevent their gradual arrival in Canaan, may have claimed that it was his idea to let them reside in this territory. Their presence in Canaan may have contributed to the formation of new states in this region such as Philistia after the collapse of the Egyptian Empire in Asia.
The Onomasticon of Amenope, or Amenemipit (amen-em-apt), gives a slight credence to the idea that the Ramesside kings settled the Sea Peoples in Canaan. Dated to about 1100 BC, at the end of the 21st dynasty (which had numerous short-reigned pharaohs), this document simply lists names. After six place names, four of which were in Philistia, the scribe lists the Sherden (Line 268), the Tjeker (Line 269) and the Peleset (Line 270), who might be presumed to occupy those cities.The Story of Wenamun on a papyrus of the same cache also places the Tjeker in Dor at that time.
The Great Harris Papyrus or Papyrus Harris I, which was commissioned by his son and chosen successor Ramesses IV, chronicles this king’s vast donations of land, gold statues and monumental construction to Egypt’s various temples at Piramesse, Heliopolis, Memphis, Athribis, Hermopolis, This, Abydos, Coptos, El Kab and other cities in Nubia and Syria. It also records that the king dispatched a trading expedition to the Land of Punt and quarried the copper mines of Timna in southern Canaan.
THE SEA PEOPLE SETTLE DOWN IN CANAAN/PALESTINE C.1150
AND RAMOSES III BUILDS A TEMPLE TO AMEN IN CANAAN c1194AD
THE RISE OF THE PHOENCIAN-CANAANITE CITY STATES
while “Phoenician” and “Canaanite” refer to the same culture, archaeologists and historians commonly refer to the Bronze Age, pre-1200 BC Levantines as Canaanites and their Iron Age descendants, particularly those living on the coast, as Phoenicians.
The archaeological evidence from the southern coastal plain of ancient Palestine, termed Philistia in the Hebrew Bible, indicates a disruption of the Canaanite culture that existed during the Late Bronze Age and its replacement (with some integration) by a culture with a possibly foreign (mainly Aegean) origin. This includes distinct pottery, which at first belongs to the Mycenaean IIIC tradition (albeit of local manufacture) and gradually transforms into a uniquely Philistine pottery. Mazar says:
… in Philistia, the producers of Mycenaean IIIC pottery must be identified as the Philistines. The logical conclusion, therefore, is that the Philistines were a group of Mycenaean Greeks who immigrated to the east … Within several decades … a new bichrome style, known as the “Philistine”, appeared in Philistia …
The Sea Peoples, or Peoples of the Sea, were a confederacy of seafaring raiders from Southern Europe, especially the Aegean Sea who sailed around the eastern Mediterranean and invaded Anatolia, Syria, Canaan, Cyprus, and Egypt toward the end of the Bronze Age
A terminus ante quem for the destruction of the Hittite empire has been recognised in an inscription carved at Medinet Habu in Egypt in the eighth year of Ramesses III (1175 BC). This text narrates a contemporary great movement of peoples in the eastern Mediterranean, as a result of which “the lands were removed and scattered to the fray. No land could stand before their arms, from Hatti, Kode, Carchemish, Arzawa, Alashiya on being cut off. [ie: cut down]”
RAMOSES III BUILDS A TEMPLE TO AMEN IN CANAAN c1194BC
THIS IS THE ORIGIN OF THE SOLOMON TEMPLE MYTH
After the collapse of the Levant under the so-called “Peoples of the Sea” Ramesses III (ca. 1194 BC) is said to have built a temple to the god Amen to receive tribute from the southern Levant. This was described as being built in Pa-Canaan a geographical reference whose meaning is disputed, with suggestions that it may refer to the city of Gaza or to the entire Egyptian-occupied territory in the south west corner of the Near East.
Some believe the “Habiru” signified generally all the nomadic tribes known as “Hebrews,” and particularly the early Israelites, who sought to appropriate the fertile region for themselves. Whether the term may also include other related Semitic peoples such as the Moabites, Ammonites and Edomites is uncertain.
Reign of Ramesses III
Usimare Ramesses III (“Powerful one of Ma’at and Ra, Beloved of Amun, Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis”) was the second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty and is considered to be the last great New Kingdom king to wield any substantial authority over Egypt.He was probably murdered by an assassin in a conspiracy led by one of his secondary wives and her minor son.
Ramesses III was born during the twentieth dynasty to his father Pharaoh Setnakhte and mother Queen Tiy-merenese. His father Setnakhte came to the throne by rescuing Egypt from the hands of foreign powers. After Ramesses II or Ramesses The Great outlived twelve of his sons, Egypt was put in the hands of others. Setnakhte saved Egypt and led Egypt into the twentieth dynasty. It is said that Ramesses III “entered life destined for the kingship and remained at the pinnacle of society and power throughout” (Redford, XXIV). Ramesses III ruled Egypt for 32 years before his life was cut short. He had recently relocated to Thebes to celebrate the Heb-Sed, the rejuvenation festival that occurs after a king rules for thirty years and it continues to take place every three years thereafter. It was in Thebes where this great conspiracy was conjured, and performed.(Redford I-XXIV)
THE BATTLE BETWEEN AMEN/SET AND RA/HORUS IS STILL GOING ON IN EGYPTIAN POWER POLITICS
Ramesses III is believed to have reigned from March 1186 to April 1155 BC. This is based on his known accession date of I Shemu day 26 and his death on Year 32 III Shemu day 15, for a reign of 31 years, 1 month and 19 days.
In a description of his coronation from Medinet Habu, four doves were said to be “dispatched to the four corners of the horizon to confirm that the living Horus, Ramses III, is (still) in possession of his throne, that the order of Maat prevails in the cosmos and society”
RAMOSES III, THE LIVING HORUS, EMBODIMENT OF OSIRIS, DEDICATED TO RA ,BASED IN THE NILE DELTA
WITH HIS “WIFE OF GOD” ENSURING “AMEN-RA” RULE AMONGST THE PRIESTS OF AMEN
AND ACTING AS HIS SPY IN THEBEN KARNACK
RAMOSEES III IS MURDERED IN A THEBAN POWER STRUGGLE PLOT
IT SEEMS THE SET FACTION OF THE PRIESTS OF AMUN ARE BEHIND THIS
IT WAS THIS “CANAANITE SET” FACTION THAT OPPOSED THE PREVIOUS EGYPTIAN PHAROAH SEKNAKHTE
AND INVITED FOREIGN HYKSOS INVADERS TO TAKE OVER AS PHARAOH
BUT FORTUNATELY FOR EGYPT
RAMOSES III DEFEATED THE SEA PEOPLES INVASION OF EGYPT BEFORE THE PLOT WAS SPRUNG
THE PLOT ALSO FAILS TO REPLACE THE PHARONIC LINE
…AND THE CONSPIRATORS WHERE CAUGHT TRIED AND EXECUTED
THE RA DEDICATED PHAROANIC LINE CONTINUES….
THIS MARKS THE END OF SOCIO-POLITICAL POWER OF SET WORSHIP IN EGYPT
THE TEMPLES OF SET ARE CLOSED
THE WIFE OF GOD IS PERMANENTLY STATIONED IN KARNACK TO ENSURE AMEN-RA WORSHIP
THERE WILL BE NO MORE PHAROAHS DEDICATED TO SET EVER!
THE RAMOSSES PHARONIC LINE CONTINUES FROM III-XI UNBROKEN!
SO RAMOSES III BECOMES ANOTHER PHAROAH OF THE EXODUS
LIKE AHMOSE I FROM EXODUS 1(WHICH IS ALSO THE ENSLAVEMENT)
AND RAMOSES II, MERNEPTAH AND SEKNAKHTE FROM EXODUS 2.(WITH THE DENIGRATION AND EXPULSION OF SET)
IT SEEMS THIS WAS A LAST ATTEMPT TO GET A SET/AMEN PHAROANIC LINE RETURNED TO THEBEN CONTROL
DID THIS FAILURE LED TO A FLEEING OF A PHAROANIC BRANCH OF PEOPLE DEDICATED TO SET?
THE PLOT INVOLVED PHAROAHS “SECONDRY” WIVE AND A MINOR SON……….THIS SOUNDS BIBLICALLY FAMILIAR
BUT IN THE CASE OF RAMOSES III THE SMALLISH BAND OF CONSPIRATORS ARE CAUGHT AND EXECUTED
MOSES AND HIS FOLLOWERS WOULD OF BEEN DEAD, SO NO EXODUS!
BUT IT IS POSSIBLE A PHARONIC CHALLENGER OF SET ,IS SPARED EXECUTION AND JUST EXPELLED WITH HIS PERSONAL RETAINERS
OR AT LEAST THE LAST REMNENTS OF “CANAANITE SET” FACTION PREISTS OF AMEN FLEE EGYPT
…AND THE LAST HYKSOS SET/AMEN WORSHIPPING EGYPTIAN PHARONIC CLAIMENT LEAVES EGYPT
WITH THE GOD SET REMOVED FROM EGYPTIAN RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL POWER HIS TEMPLES CLOSED HIS IMAGE REMOVED FROM ALL TEMPLES
IT IS ABOUT NOW WE SEE THE BIRTH OF ISRAEL
THE LANDS OF SET
EDOM(RED) JUDAH(LORD) AND ISRAEL(HE CONTENDS/WRESTLES GOD) RED LORD WHO WRESTLES GOD
LATER THIS STORY IS MERGED WITH THE MOSES HIGH PRIEST OF SET EXPULSION ,AND THE EARLIER HYKSOS EXPULSION TO GIVE US THE MODERN EXODUS STORY.
AFTER RAMOSES III DEFEAT OF THE SEA PEOPLES THAT EVENTUALLY SETTLE PEACEFULLY IN CANAAN.
RAMOSES III BUILDS A TEMPLE TO AMEN IN CANAAN TO CELEBRATE THIS AND RECIEVE TRIBUTES FROM ALL OF CANAAN
RAMOSES IV IS THE LAST PHAROAH TO MENTION HABIRU SLAVES IN EGYPT
WITH THE EXPULSION OF THE GOD SET FROM EGYPT INTO CANAAN
WE WOULD SEE A MOVEMENT OF SET WORSHIPERS OUT OF EGYPT AND INTO CANAAN ,THE LAND OF SET.
THEY POSSIBLY USE RAMOSES III TEMPLE OF AMEN IN CANAAN
AND WE SEE THE BIRTH OF THE SHORT LIVED POLYTHEISTIC BAAL WORSHIPING NATIONS OF ISRAEL/JUDEA
the “sons of God” who appear in Genesis 6:2 are identified as the children of Seth(Set), and the “daughters of men” as women descended from Cain, who successfully tempt most of the Sethites to come down from their mountain and join the Cainites in the valley below, under the instigation of Genun son of Lamech.
The name Edom means “red” in Hebrew.It comes from Egyptian where Red is the colour of Set.Canaan is the land of Set and Edom specifically is the Egyptian followers of Set,given to Esau,(Shasu are the Egyptians that live in the Edom) the elder son of the Hebrew patriarch Isaac, at the fact he was born “red all over”.The Torah, Tanakh and New Testament thus describe the Edomites as descendants of Esau.
WITH THE FALL OF EGYPTIAN POWER IN CANAAN
THEY POSSIBLY UTILISED THE TEMPLE TO AMEN BUILT BY RAMOSES III IN CANAAN
BEFORE THEY FALL/ALLY TO BABYLON
AND ARE CONVERTED TO MONOTHEISM BY PERSIANS ,CYRUS THE GREAT AND ZOROASTRIAN SCRIBES
There can no longer be the slightest doubt that the Exodus never happened. Neither the Exodus, nor the wandering in the desert, nor the conquest of Canaan.
The Egyptians were obsessive chroniclers. Many tens of thousands of tablets have already been deciphered. It would have been impossible for an event like the exodus to pass without being reported at length. Not if 600,000 people left, as the Bible tells it, or 60,000, or even 6000. Especially if during the flight a whole Egyptian army contingent, including war chariots, was drowned.
The same goes for the Conquest. Because of acute security concerns, after being invaded once from there, the Egyptians employed a host of spies, – travelers, merchants and others – to follow closely the events in neighboring Canaan, in every single one of its towns and at all times. An invasion of Canaan, even a minor one, would have been reported. Except for the periodic incursions of Bedouin tribes, nothing was recorded.
Moreover, the Egyptian towns mentioned in the Bible did not exist at the time the event is supposed to have happened. They did exist, however, when the Bible was written, in the first or second century BC.
There is no need to point out that after a hundred years of frantic archaeological searching by devout Christians and Zionist zealots, not a shred of concrete evidence for the conquest of Canaan has been found (nor that the Kingdoms of Saul, David or Salomon ever existed).
Uri Avnery is an Israeli author and activist. http://www.avnery-news.co.il
THE CREATION OF ISRAEL ,THE BIBLICAL VERSION
the “sons of God” who appear in Genesis 6:2 are identified as the children of Seth, and the “daughters of men” as women descended from Cain, who successfully tempt most of the Sethites to come down from their mountain and join the Cainites in the valley below, under the instigation of Genun son of Lamech.
THEOLOGICALLY SPEAKING ,ITS THE JOINING OF EGYPTIAN SET WORSHIP
WITH CANAANITE FERTILITY WORSHIP
“Thus says the Lord God to Jerusalem: Your origin and your birth are of the land of the Canaanites; your father was an Amorite and your mother a Hittite.”
– Ezekiel 16.3
CULTURALLY SPEAKING ITS THE JOINING OF SEMITIC CANAANITES AND ARYAN EGYPTIANS AND HITTITES
YET AGAIN PROBABLY WITH AN ARYAN RULING CLASS
The claimed biblical kingdoms of judah and israel
THE GENOCIDE BEGINS
“‘When the LORD your God brings you into the land you are to possess and casts out the many peoples living there, you shall then slaughter them all and utterly destroy them…You shall make no agreements with them nor show them any mercy…You shall destroy their altars, break down their images, cut down their groves and burn their graven images with fire. For you are a holy people unto the LORD thy God and He has chosen you to be a special people above all others upon the face of the earth…’ –Book of Deuteronomy, 7:1-8”
According to the traditional view, around the 11th century BCE, the first of a series of Israelite kingdoms and states established rule over the region;.
According to the Bible, before the united monarchy, the Israelite tribes lived as a confederation under ad hoc charismatic leaders called Judges. In around 1020 BCE, under extreme threat from foreign peoples, the tribes united to form the first united Kingdom of Israel. Samuel anointed Saul from the tribe of Benjamin as the first king c. 1026 BCE, but it was David who in c.1006 BCE created a strong unified Israelite monarchy.
The tribe of Judah elevated King David to rule over them, and the Davidic line survived for almost 350 years, until the Kingdom fell in 586 BCE to the Babylonian Empire
According to the Hebrew Bible, the First Temple was built by King Solomon (reigned c 970-c 930).
When Solomon’s successor Rehoboam dealt tactlessly with economic complaints of the northern tribes, in about 930 BCE (there are difference of opinion as to the actual year) the united Kingdom of Israel split into two kingdoms: the northern Kingdom of Israel, which included the cities of Shechem and Samaria, and the southern Kingdom of Judah, which contained Jerusalem; with most of the non-Israelite provinces achieving independence
The Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew: ???????? ????????, Standard Mal?ut Y?huda Tiberian Mal?û? Y?hû?ah) (c.930 BC–586 BC), often known as the “Southern Kingdom,” was one of the successor states to the “United Monarchy.”
THESE BIBLICAL CLAIMS ARE FALSE.
RELATIVE PEACE REIGNED IN THE LEVANT FROM c.1100BC UNTIL c.900BC
THERE NEVER WAS AN EMPIRE OF ISRAEL,
DAVID WAS A BANDIT CHIEF IF HE EXISTED AT ALL.
NO SOLOMON OR A TEMPLE OF SOLOMON EXISTED EITHER
ALL THESES STORIES ARE PURE FANTASY
king david the red head, chosen one of Set(Baal)
KING DAVID OR A BANDIT CHIEF
The ancient Jewish hero David, “son of Jesse the Bethlehemite,” is a “curiously elusive figure” (Oxford Companion to the Bible). In turns shepherd, giant killer, court musician, poet, warlord and king, nothing and no one outside the Bible notes his existence.
If a historical ‘Dawid’ inspired tales of a legendary king, the original was an inconsequential bandit chieftain in the Judaean hills, nothing more. Possibly the only element of truth in the biblical story is the episode of David as renegade and outlaw leader, living from theft.
“The biblical story of David is indeed mythic in nature.. He spent most of his career as a brigand-king, and, where he ruled, he did so by employing murder and mayhem.. ”
– Baruch Halpern, David’s Secret Demons, p 479/80.
The archaeological evidence concludes that “an independent history of Judea during the Iron I and Iron II periods [i.e., the period of David] has little room for historicizing readings of the stories of I-II Samuel and I Kings.” Within this gamut some interesting studies of David have been written. Baruch Halpern has pictured David as a lifelong vassal of Achish, the Philistine king of Gath; Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman have identified as the oldest and most reliable section of Samuel those chapters which describe David as the charismatic leader of a band of outlaws who captures Jerusalem and makes it his capital.
Steven McKenzie, Associate Professor of the Hebrew Bible at Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee, USA and author of King David: A Biography, argues that the Biblical version of David was conceived by spin doctors. He states the belief that David actually came from a wealthy family and was “ambitious and ruthless”: “The vigor with which the apology in the Bible asserts David’s innocence against Saul strongly suggests that he was in fact involved in a plot against him.” The story with Goliath was probably part of the propaganda in David’s favour. McKenzie’s view is that David was a tyrant who murdered his political opponents, including his own sons
THE KINGDOM OF DAVID WAS PURE FANATSY
The brevity (and brutality) with which the Holy Book records the conquest of the whole of Syrio/Palestine is breathtaking:
Defeat of the Philistines:
“And after this it came to pass that David smote the Philistines, and subdued them: and David took Methegammah out of the hand of the Philistines.” – 2 Samuel 8.1.
Conquest of the North:
“David smote also Hadadezer, the son of Rehob, king of Zobah, as he went to recover his border at the river Euphrates … David slew of the Syrians two and twenty thousand men. David put garrisons in Syria of Damascus: and the Syrians became servants to David.” – 2 Samuel 8.3,6.
Genocide and conquest of the South:
“For it came to pass, when David was in Edom, and Joab the captain of the host was gone up to bury the slain, after he had smitten every male in Edom.” – 2 Kings 11.15.
Mass Slaughter in the Transjordan:
“And he smote Moab, and measured them with a line, casting them down to the ground; even with two lines measured he to put to death, and with one full line to keep alive. And so the Moabites became David’s servants, and brought “–2 Samuel 8.2.
“And it came to pass, after the year was expired, at the time when kings go forth to battle, that David sent Joab, and his servants with him, and all Israel; and they destroyed the children of Ammon, and besieged Rabbah.” – 2 Samuel 11.1.
As archaeology unequivocally testifies, in the 10th century BC in the valleys of Palestine Canaanite culture continued uninterrupted. Thankfully most of the biblical carnage that is the motif of “David’s Empire Building” is a fanatic’s fantasy.
THE FOLLOWING DOCUMENTRY LOOKS AT THE COMPLETE LACK OF ARCHEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR JEWISH RELIGIOUS BELIEFS
In the following documentry ,we look at the complete lack of evidence supportting the biblical view and look at the current best explainations of what really happened.
Bible’s Buried Secrets (BBC) Ep. 1: Did King David’s empire exist? (1/4)
First episode (out of 3) of the BBC programme, hosted by biblical scholar Dr. Francesca Stavrakopoulou. Here she explores what archeology can tell us about the kingdom of David, and even the historicity of David.
Bible’s Buried Secrets (BBC) Ep.1: Did King David’s empire exist? (2/4)
Bible’s Buried Secrets (BBC) Ep.1: Did King David’s empire exist? (3/4)
Bible’s Buried Secrets (BBC) Ep.1: Did King David’s empire exist? (4/4)
THE ARCHEOLOGICAL VERDICT IS IN
NO KINGDOM OF DAVID AND NO ISRAELLI EMPIRE
The Jebusite city on the eastern hill has nothing to do with a “King David” but the Jewish hero gets the credit.
The so-called “City of David” occupied a hilltop barely 200 by 600 yards. Nothing “Davidic” has ever been found here but numerous Astarte figurines – fertility symbols of the Canaanites – have been.
Astarte fertility goddess
NO SOLOMON EITHER
Concedes a ‘pro-imperial Israel’ historian:
“Solomon … in the eyes of Israelite historians, marked the apex of Israelite achievement. Curiously, no reference to him or his father David, or their empire in a non-Israelite source is known … “
– Isserlin, The Israelites, p72.
Legendary kings David and Solomon supposedly had an imperial capital in Jerusalem. Yet extensive archaeology in the city reveals Jerusalem was a village in the 10th century BC. In contrast, Megiddo, ‘part of the empire.’ far to the north, had a palace!
In reality, separate and distinctive chiefdoms developed in Samaria and Judah in the 9th century. They were never a ‘united monarchy.’ The north was larger, richer and more developed – and soon succumbed to the Assyrians
THE TEMPLE OF SOLOMN
SOLOMONS TEMPLE…NO TRACE AND NO MENTION OUTSIDE OF THE BIBLE
WE CAN SAFELY SAY SOLOMONS TEMPLE DID NOT EXIST
“The archaeological evidence in Jerusalem for the famous building projects of Solomon is nonexistent.
19th and early 20th century excavations around the Temple Mount in Jerusalem failed to identify even a trace of Solomon’s fabled Temple or palace complex.”
– Finkelstein, Silberman, p128
Because of the religious and political sensitivities involved, no archaeological excavations and only limited surface surveys of the Temple Mount have been conducted. Because no excavations of the site have been allowed, there is no direct archaeological evidence for the existence of Solomon’s Temple. This building is not mentioned in extra-biblical accounts which have survived
Langmead, Donald; Garnaut, Christine (2001). Encyclopedia of architectural and engineering feats (3rd, illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. ISBN 157607112X, 9781576071120. http://books.google.com/?id=T5J6GKvGbmMC&pg=PA314&dq=%22solomon%27s+temple%22#v=onepage&q=%22solomon%27s%20temple%22&f=false.
Handy, Lowell (1997). The age of Solomon: scholarship at the turn of the millennium. Brill. pp. 493–494. ISBN 978-9004104761. http://books.google.com/?id=gam10TAOZusC&pg=PA494&dq=temple+of+solomon+non-biblical++contemporary#v=onepage&q&f=false.
Finkelstein, Israel, and Silberman, Neil Asher (2002). The Bible Unearthed : Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts. Simon & Schuster. pp. 128–129. ISBN 0-684-86912-8.]
THIS IS A COVER STORY .ITS THE ABRAHAMIC MONOTHEISTSIC INQUISTION IN ACTION.ALL 3 IN THIS CASE!!
YOU DO NOT NEED TO EXCAVATE TO SEE FOUNDATIONS IN THE GROUND
ANY GROUND SONAR WILL SHOW THE REMAINS OF SOLOMONS TEMPLE IF IT EXISTED
…SO FAR NOTHING!! AND NO MENTION IN ANY NON-BIBLICAL REFERENCE.DO NOT EXPECT TO HEAR ANY MORE NEWS.
YOU CAN BE BLOODY SURE NO-ONE WILL BE ALLOWED TO EXCAVATE TO PROVE ITS NON-EXISTANCE!!
THERE IS ALSO NO TRACE OF A “SECOND TEMPLE” OR EVEN THE CLAIMED HEROD THE GREATS “REBUILDING” (JUST FALSE CLAIMS)
BUT LETS LOOK AT THIS FANTASY TEMPLE OF SOLOMON
FIRST WHAT ABOUT THE TEMPLE DESIGN ITSELF?
Its general form is reminiscent of Egyptian sanctuaries and closely matches that of other ancient temples in the region
Roland De Vaux (tr. John McHugh), Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions (NY, McGraw-Hill, 1961).]
THERE IS ALSO NO TRACE OF A “SECOND TEMPLE” OR EVEN THE CLAIMED HEROD THE GREATS “REBUILDING” (JUST FALSE CLAIMS) THE TEMPLE IS A MEMORY OF THIER TIMES IN EGYPT AND EGYPTAIN TEMPLES LIKE THE TEMPLE OF SET..WITH ITS RITUAL BATH HOUSE!!
THEY DID FIND A BATH HOUSE WHILE EXCAVATING ,SO NO TEMPLE OF SOLOMON BUT POSSIBLY A SMALL TEMPLE OF SET/BAAL
Coins stamped with successor to Pontius Pilate
Construction ‘had not even begun’ by Herod’s death The history of one of the world’s holiest sites – sacred to both Jews and Muslims – is set to be rewritten, following a surprise discovery in a ritual bath beneath the complex.
BUT FERTILITY CULTS BOTH MALE AND FEMALE USED SACRED BATHING POOLS
WE KNOW THE EGYPTIANS BUILT A TEMPLE TO AMEN IN CANAAN ,
IT IS POSSIBLE THAT THE PROTO-ISRAELITES USED THE TEMPLE OF AMEN BUILT BY RAMOSES III
Ramesses III (ca. 1194 BC) is said to have built a temple to the god Amen to receive tribute from the southern Levant. This was described as being built in Pa-Canaan.
AMEN IS ASSOCIATED WITH SET IN EGYPT AND AMEN/SET IS ASSOCIATED WITH BAAL /EL IN CANANN
BUT THERE ARE OTHER TEMPLES LIKE IT….
According to Finkelstein in The Bible Unearthed, the description of the temple is remarkably similar to that of surviving remains of Phoenician temples of the time, and it is certainly plausible, from the point of view of archaeology, that the temple was constructed to the design of Phoenicians.
SO THE TEMPLE OF SOLOMON IS NOT EVEN A NEW OR UNIQUE DESIGN
HEBREW TALES OF THE FIRST TEMPLE ARE PROBABLY BASED ON THE TEMPLE TO AMEN BUILT BY RAMOSES III IN PA-CANAAN c.1194BC
OR ARE BASED ON THE MEMORIES OF THE TEMPLES OF SET
WHEN THE HYKSOS RULED LOWER(NORTH) EGYPT FROM THE CITY OF AVAIRS
OR THE EGYPTIAN RULE OF THE 21ST DYNASTY FROM TANIS (ZOAN)
IN FACT EVERYTHING FOUND IN THIS ISRAEL ACTUALLY HAS AN EGYPTIAN FEEL
WAS SOLOMON IN FACT BASED ON AMENHOTEP III?
In the 1950s, Yigael Yadin – Israeli Defence Chief of Staff turned archaeologist – decided that the ruins of Megiddo, Hazor and Gezer were the legendary ‘Fortress Cities’ of Solomon.”Our great guide was the Bible” he said. Thus he confirmed the Bible with the Bible.
This was despite an absence of any find at the sites naming Solomon – but a cartouche naming Pharaoh Amenhotep III instead!
Excavations in Jaffa confirm presence of Egyptian settlement on the ancient city site
Old Testament Studies and Biblical Archaeology division at Mainz University has been involved in the archaeological survey of the ancient city of Jaffa since 2007
The recent excavations have not only shed new light on the destruction of elements of the fortification, but also unearthed evidence pointing towards the presence of an Egyptian population on the site.
Historically, Jaffa, now part of the city of Tel Aviv, is the oldest port documented in world history. Ever since the 2nd millennium B.C., Jaffa has been home to intense trading activity. The remains of a gateway belonging to an Egyptian fortification dating to the dynasty of Ramses II (1279-1213 B.C.) had already been discovered during excavations led by the former municipal archaeologist Y. Kaplan in the 1950s. However, the findings from Kaplan’s digs have never been extensively published
The German site director Dr. Martin Peilstöcker of JGU explains that it has now become clear that the gate itself was destroyed and rebuilt at least four times. Moreover, it also appears that there is more than just the mud brick architecture and household pottery that reflect Egyptian tradition. In fact, a rare scarab amulet has been found that bears the cartouche of the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep III (1390-1353 B.C.), thus also attesting to the presence of an Egyptian community in the city. Some of the discoveries made during the excavations are to be put on display in a special exhibition at the Bible Experience Museum Frankfurt in 2013.
SOLOMONS MINES ,PORT ,PILLARS OR SMELTING INDUSTRY….NO EVIDENCE
Solomon’s Mines? American rabbi-archaeologist Nelson Glueck so-named the copper mining at Timna (30 km. north of Eilat) in the 1930s. They were, in fact, Egyptian mines, as hieroglyphs and the near-by temple of Hathor attest.
No one has ever found Solomon’s port at Ezion-Geber. It is not at Eilat or at Aqaba or anywhere between, so biblicists have been obliged to reposition it down the coast into Sinai, but no one knows where. King Solomon’s pillars or Solomon’s mines north of Eilat were not Solomon’s because they were abandoned before the tenth century and were probably Egyptian, and his smelting industry, the bible (1 Kg 7:46) says was between Succoth and Zarethan, nowhere near Nelson Glueck’s “Pittsburg of Palestine” at Tell el-Khaleifeh (identified with Ezion Geber). In fact, Tell el-Khaleifeh was a fort built to protect the spice trade with Arabia two centuries after Solomon. Mining occurred most intensely at Wadi Feinan around 700 BC under Assyrian supervision.
WHAT ABOUT SOLOMONS STABLES? WELL THEY SEEM TO BE ROMAN
An alternative view suggests that the mosque was initially a water reservoir that had been built by the Roman Emperor Hadrian in the second century, along with the stone wall currently surrounding al-Aqsa Mosque. Its overall structure closely resembles that of the Roman Ramla reservoir with stone pillars and junctions. That the reservoir was built at the same time as the wall is evident since the southern and eastern walls of the reservoir are a continuation of the wall surrounding al-Aqsa Mosque. Instead of an addition built long after the wall, the reservoir was built at the same time, as can be inferred from the joining of the stones.
One of these vertical canals can still be seen today and is located at the level of the main entrance of the Marwani mosque. It is semi-circular and is lined with a Roman fuller of limestone mixed with ground clay and sand
Raef Yusuf Najm, Jordan’s Role in ensuring the protection of Islamic and Christian Holy Sites in Al Quds Al Sharif, Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (ISESCO) conference, Amman, November 2004
SOLOMON WAS BASED ON AMENHOTEP III
SOLOMON DID NOT EXIST
NOT ONLY HAVE WE SEEN MANY ANCIENT SITES IN ISRAEL CLAIMED TO BE SOLOMONS
..ONLY TO DISCOVER THEY WHERE BUILT BY AMENHOTEP III
WE NOW MUST ASK OURSELVES….
THE WISDOM OF SOLOMON OR THE WISDOM OF AMENHOTEP III?
Colossal statue of Amenhotep III in the British Museum
Biblical “Proverbs of Solomon”?
“Every part of the book bears the mark of foreign influences … The close connection between the first part of the Thirty Sayings with Egyptian Wisdom … is only a special instance.”
Egyptian Wisdom:”Maxims of Amenhotep III” 1382 – 1344 BC
J.C. Rylaarsdam (Peake’s Commentary, 444)
Amenhotep III (sometimes read as Amenophis III; Egyptian Amāna-Ḥātpa; meaning Amun is Satisfied) also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. According to different authors, he ruled Egypt from June 1386 to 1349 BC or June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC after his father Thutmose IV died. Amenhotep III was the son of Thutmose by Mutemwiya, a minor wife of Amenhotep’s father
His reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of her artistic and international power. When he died (probably in the 39th year of his reign), his son initially ruled as Amenhotep IV, but later changed his own royal name to Akhenaten
TEACHINGS OF AMEN-EM-OPE VS PROVERBS
Instruction of Amenemope (also called Instructions of Amenemopet, Wisdom of Amenemopet) is a literary work composed in Ancient Egypt, most likely during the Ramesside Period (ca. 1300–1075 BC); it contains thirty chapters of advice for successful living, ostensibly written by the scribe Amenemope son of Kanakht as a legacy for his son.Amenemope belongs to the literary genre of “instruction” (Egyptian sebayt). It is the culmination of centuries of development going back to the Instruction of Ptahhotep in the Old Kingdom
Jaroslav Černý, whose authority on New Kingdom paleography was so great that his conclusions were considered “unquestionable”, dated the fragmentary Amenemope text on the Cairo 1840 ostracon to the late 21st dynasty.Since a 21st-dynasty date inevitably makes Amenemope chronologically prior to the earliest possible date for Proverbs, this would definitively establish the priority of Amenemope over Proverbs and make influence in the other direction impossible.
Other evidence for Egyptian priority includes:
the close literary relationship between Amenemope and earlier Ancient Egyptian works such as the Instruction of Kagemni and the Instruction of Ptahhotep (both dated to at least the 12th dynasty) and the Instruction of Ani (dated to the late 18th or early 19th dynasty)
the demonstrably native Egyptian character of the genre, themes, and vocabulary of Amenemope
the discovery of the editorial and structural mechanisms by which the Egyptian original was adapted by the biblical author
(Prov 22:17-21) is now known to be a translation from passages in the Egyptian hieratic papyrus, Amen-em-ope. This was obtained by the British Museum in 1888 but not published until 1923. German scholars in studies from 1924-1926 showed that Wisdom 22:17-23:11 was in Amen-em-ope.
Comparison of texts
A number of passages in the Instruction of Amenemope have been compared with the Book of Proverbs, including:
(Proverbs 22:20): “Have I not written for you thirty sayings of counsel and knowledge?” (ESV)
(Amenemope, ch. 30, line 539): “Look to these thirty chapters; they inform, they educate.”
(Proverbs 22:17-18):”Incline thine ear, and hear the words of the wise, And apply thine heart to my doctrine; For it is pleasant if thou keep them in thy belly, that they may be established together upon thy lips”
(Amenemope, ch. 1):”Give thine ear, and hear what I say, And apply thine heart to apprehend; It is good for thee to place them in thine heart, let them rest in the casket of thy belly; That they may act as a peg upon thy tongue”
(Proverbs 22:22):”Rob not the poor, for he is poor, neither oppress (or crush) the lowly in the gate.”
(Amenemope, ch. 2):”Beware of robbing the poor, and oppressing the afflicted.”
(Proverbs 22:24-5): “Do not befriend the man of anger, Nor go with a wrathful man, Lest thou learn his ways and take a snare for thy soul.”
(Amenemope, ch. 10): “Associate not with a passionate man, Nor approach him for conversation; Leap not to cleave to such an one; That terror carry thee not away.”
(Proverbs 22:29):”[if you] You see a man quick in his work, before kings will he stand, before cravens, he will not stand.”
(Amenemope, ch. 30):”A scribe who is skillful in his business findeth worthy to be a courtier”
(Proverbs 23:1):”When thou sittest to eat with a ruler, Consider diligently what is before thee; And put a knife to thy throat, If thou be a man given to appetite. Be not desirous of his dainties, for they are breads of falsehood.”
(Amenemope, ch. 23): “Eat not bread in the presence of a ruler, And lunge not forward(?) with thy mouth before a governor(?). When thou art replenished with that to which thou has no right, It is only a delight to thy spittle. Look upon the dish that is before thee, And let that (alone) supply thy need.”
(Proverbs 23:4-5):”Toil not to become rich, And cease from dishonest gain; For wealth maketh to itself wings, Like an eagle that flieth heavenwards”
(Amenemope, ch. 7):”Toil not after riches; If stolen goods are brought to thee, they remain not over night with thee. They have made themselves wings like geese. And have flown into the heavens.”
(Proverbs 14:7):”Speak not in the hearing of a fool, for he will despise the wisdom of thy words”
(Amenemope, ch. 21):”Empty not thine inmost soul to everyone, nor spoil (thereby) thine influence”
(Proverbs 23:10): “Remove not the widows landmark; And enter not into the field of the fatherless.”
(Amenemope, ch. 6): “Remove not the landmark from the bounds of the field…and violate not the widows boundary”
(Proverbs 23:12):”Apply thine heart unto instruction and thine ears to the words of knowledge”
(Amenemope, ch. 1):”Give thine ears, hear the words that are said, give thine heart to interpret them.”
The Legacy of Egypt”, S. R. K. Glanville, contributor W. O. E Oesterley, p. 246-248, Oxford, 1942
ANCIENT ISRAEL IS POLYTHEISTIC …AND SO WAS THE YHWH…HE HAD A WIFE YOU KNOW
THE EGYPTIAN POLYTHEISTIC “YHWH”
YHWH WAS A NON-SEMITIC GOD…FIRST FOUND ON AN EGYPTIAN TEMPLE TO AMEN , BUILT BY AMENHOTEP III!!!
Despite the expectations of earlier years no direct evidence of the name “Yahweh”, the tetragrammaton, in Canaanite texts has yet been found.
“In no list of gods or offerings is the mysterious god *Ya ever mentioned; his cult at Ebla is a chimera. Yahweh was not known at Ugarit either; the singular name Yw (vocalisation unknown) in a damaged passage of the Baal Cycle (KTU 1.1 Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible DDD K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, 1999:960)
The temple at Soleb was dedicated to the cults of the dynastic god Amun-Re and that of “Nebma’atre, lord of Nubia”. The latter, of course, represented the deified Amenhotep III himself, depicted as a god with the attributes of Amun
The temple of Soleb is additionally noteworthy for the Soleb Topographical List of Amenhotep III, the names of multiple locations in Egypt’s Nubian and Asiatic empires of the New Kingdom period being recorded around the column bases
The Shasu contain a group with a Yahwistic name, although the Egyptian inscription of Amenhotep III, at the Soleb temple, “Yhw in the land of the Shasu”, does not use the determinative for God, or even for people, but only for the possible name of a place.
The Prudhoe Lions are a pair of Ancient Egyptian red granite monumental sculptures dating from the 18th Dynasty, around 1370 BC, now in the British Museum.
The lions originally stood as guardian figures at the Temple of Soleb in Nubia, which was built by the pharaoh Amenhotep III.
Unsurprisingly for such magnificent statues, the lions carry many inscriptions which record their re-use by various rulers. The original inscriptions relate to Amenhotep III. The renewal of the temple by Tutankhamun is also recorded.Another inscription indicates that they were moved by Ay.
Edwards, I.E.S. “The Prudhoe Lions, Liverpool” Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology, 26, p.3-9
THE NAME OF GOD SEEMS TO HAVE EGYPTIAN ROOTS
ORIGINS OF YHWH
Egyptian Sun Worship YHWH(Set Hero of Ra)
Sun worship in the Levant was based at Beth Sheshem and possibly brought there by the Egyptian “Yhw in the land of Shasu” (Judah/Edom)Amen-Ra/Set worshipers.Samson(Set as Hero of Ra) is the name of the Semitic sun god, Shemesh.(Like Set,Samson is tricked and looses his power).The Bible mentions Beth-Shemesh in the description of the northern border of the Tribe of Judah (Joshua 15: 10-11) and as a Levitical city in the territory of Judah (Joshua 21: 16) It is about 15 miles from Jerusalem.The city is mentioned notably in chapter 6 of the book of 1 Samuel as being the first city encountered by the Ark of the Covenant on its way back from Philistia after having been captured by the Philistines in battle.This would make sense as the Ark of the Covenant/The Anubis Chest is a religious relic of Set worship. In the book of 2 Kings, Beit Shemesh is again mentioned as being the site of the battle between Amaziah king of Judea and Jehoash king of Israel.Possibly a battle between Baal and Yaw worshipers or Egyptian Baal sun god verses Canaanite Baal male fertility.
The temple at Soleb was dedicated to the cults of the dynastic god Amun-Re and that of “Nebma’atre, lord of Nubia”. The latter, of course, represented the deified Amenhotep III himself, depicted as a god with the attributes of Amun.It is noteworthy for the Soleb Topographical List of Amenhotep III, the names of multiple locations in Egypt’s Nubian and Asiatic empires.The Shasu contain a group with a Yahwistic name,“Yhw in the land of the Shasu”,but does not use the determinative for God, or even for people, but only for the possible name of a place(Beth Shemesh?”Yehouah”,a phallic god, was originally equated with Shemesh).
In ancient transliterations of the name into Egyptian hieroglyphics, Budge’s An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary gives this transliteration that occurs in Egyptian glyphs—IA or YA, and IAA or YAA. In ancient transliterations of the name of Yehouah into cuneiform script, which unlike Hebrew script, had written vowels, reads Yahweh.We know originally YHWH had Asherah as a consort, so did Set,so did Shemesh! So it seems “Yhw” was a fertility god represented by the sun,like Shemesh/Set as Hero of Ra.But Set has now taken on the attributes of a sun god.But as seen in the Samson saga,Canaanite sun worship is not like Egyptian sun worship,but is very similar to Babylonian Marduk/Bel Rabim worship.But it could be an Egyptian/Judah “Set as Hero of Ra”/”Yhw” ruling elite from Beth Shemesh ,that the Persians impose on the new sun worship Canaan.
But YHWH certainly arrives in Canaan as a sun god with Cyrus the Great who wanted to replace the Canaanite/ Israelite pantheon with a single most high god. Instead of choosing Asherha and female fertility or the popular moon god, Sin,they chose the formerly male fertility phallic god, Yehouah,made him a monotheistic sun god and they rewrote the scriptures to make worship of Sin into idolatry (Deut 4:19;17:3; 2 Kngs 21:3,5; 23:5; Jer 8:2; 19:13; Zeph 1:5).Sin along with Baal and Set became a word for apostasy from the laws Yehouah gave Moses.
The fact that Cyrus the Great chose the new but completely destroyed Assyrian city dedictaed to the sun instead of an old established Canaanite ,Israelite or Egyptian fertility cult centre,shows a new regime imposing its beliefs.The symbol of Cyrus the Great is the same as a Pharoah of Set Hero of Ra,the sun and fertility horns.It is Jerusalem and Shalem that are the recognised sun gods in the new sun worship Levant,first by the Assyrians.
Shalem was a Syrian sun god – later to be honoured in the name Jeru’salem .Later the Persians just take over and rebuild the Assyrian sun city Jerusalem and make it their local puppet capital..Not Beth Shemesh or Samaria or an old Egyptian stronghold.The REAL capital and temple was at Sidon and The Temple of Eshmun (Arabic: ???? ??????)(the REAL 2nd temple) an ancient place of worship which was dedicated to Eshmun,unlike impoverished Jerusalem, Sidon was a wealthy, cosmopolitan trading city with a powerful fleet in the service of the Persian empire.Then obviously the 1st temple could never have been built in Jerusalem(It was the temple of Amen in Tanis or the Hyksos temples of Set in Avaris or Ramoses III temple to Amen in Canaan) and I very much doubt a 2nd temple of any significance was actually built in Jerusalem,certainly nothing like the temple of Eshmun.
But I would imagine the local Canaanite population would be adverse to foreign sun worshipers ruling and descrating their fertility temples in the land of Set/Baal.This is why Canaan remains polytheistic for another 400 years.
Vedic YHWH(Destroyer of Worlds)
The name YHWH may possibly be taken from Vedic along with David and come directly from the Persian scribes themselves.Using “Yhw” the “Set as Hero of RA” sun god as a template.The layout of the Torah is similar to the Vedas.
The Vedas composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature.Hindus consider the Vedas to be apauru?eya (“not of human agency”).They are supposed to have been directly revealed, and thus are called sruti (“what is heard”). The Vedic texts or sruti are organized around four canonical collections of metrical material known as Sa?hitas,
Exodus 3:14 (New International Version)
14 God said to Moses, “I am who I am .This is what you are to say to the Israelites: ‘I AM has sent me to you.’ “
The Complete Jewish Bible by author David H. Stern, proposes that the Tetragrammaton be pronounced letter for letter in Hebrew and that the name of God should be rendered by spelling out the four letters, “Yud He Vav He”, the meaning assumed to be “I am that I am” or “I am Who I am”, as revealed to Moses in the Torah
In Vedic Sanskrit “I AM” is a title of Shiva ,as in “I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds” Shiva the destroyer.
verse 32 from chapter 11 of the Bhagavad Gita
This would be a fitting name for a warrior god.
“Dyeus Ved” in Vedic Sanskrit,would translate as “divine Shining Knowledge” or David.It would explain his rather non-Jewish name.And from Divine Shining Knowledge comes peace(Solomon).
Der wyyd in Welsh Celtic means “Holy wisdom” or a title “Great Priest”.
Hebrew YHWH(God of Disaster)
The name of god as a Hebrew sourse is very interesting.
Ya which is the short name of God (Hallelu-Ya means “Praise Yah”)and the Hebrew word HoWah (found in Isaiah 47:11 or Ezekiel 7:26) means “disaster” ( “ruin”, “adversity”, etc.).This would suggest in hebrew a “god of disaster” but then Israel (Yisra’el) means “he will contend/wrestle God”.I could see these names having “Polytheistic Set” roots.
Or it may just be a bad joke from Zoraostrian scribes.Remember these guys are being programmed as Persian arrow fodder,religious warriors for a Persian sun worshiping empire.The rulers of these people have a different belief system,Zoraostrian sun worship and are neither Jewish nor Semitic.
But one ,or even all, of these could be the sun god used by Zoraostrian scribes to write the Jewish books.Books probably based on the Vedic layout.
Placing a possibly obscure or unpopular but still royal “Amen-Ra/Set” “Judah/Shasu/Egyptian” line on the throne of the newly created monotheistic state,possibly married to a Persian royal.Who better to rule “male fertility” Canaan for an emperor of the sun,but “Set as Hero of Ra”.
In the following documentry we look at all the evidence supportting a polythiestic Israellite society and thier later converstion to monotheism by the Babylonians.
Bible’s Buried Secrets: Did God Have a Wife? (1/5)
Dr Francesca Stavrakopoulou asks whether the ancient Israelites believed in one God as the Bible claims. She puts the Bible text under the microscope, examining what the original Hebrew said, and explores archaeological sites in Syria and the Sinai which are shedding new light on the beliefs of the people of the Bible. Was the God of Abraham unique? Were the ancient Israelites polytheists? And is it all possible that God had another half?
Bible’s Buried Secrets: Did God Have a Wife? (2/5)
Bible’s Buried Secrets: Did God Have a Wife? (3/5)
Bible’s Buried Secrets: Did God Have a Wife? (4/5)
Bible’s Buried Secrets: Did God Have a Wife? (5/5)
THE ONLY JUDEAN “HOUSE OF YHWH”
IT HAS 2 GODS (GOD AND HIS WIFE)
AND THE REFERENCE TO IT BEING A HOUSE OF YHWH COMES FROM BROKEN POTTERY AFTER THE TEMPLES DESTRUCTION
The House of YHWH (or “House of Yahweh”, “House of the LORD”, Hebrew בית יהוה) is a phrase found in the Hebrew Bible and on at least one inscription, usually referring to a temple.There have been two structures identified as a ‘House of Yahweh’. One is located in Elephantine Egypt. The other structure suggested as a House of Yahweh is at Tel Arad.
FYI THE OTHER “HOUSE OF YHWH” IS A CONVERTED EGYPTIAN TEMPLE ADJOINING THE TEMPLE TO AMEN(AS A FERTILITY GOD)!!!
Among the most significant artifacts unearthed from this time are ostraca dating from the mid-7th century BCE, referring to this citadel as the “House of Yahweh”, which William G. Dever suggests may have referred to the temple at Arad or the temple at Jerusalem.
However, the temple was probably demolished around 700 BCE, which is before the date of the inscription ,while Solomons temple was supposed to have stood until its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE.But there is no evidence for the existance of Solomans temple either.
In 1962 Yohanan Aharoni excavated at Tel Arad the only Judean temple recovered by archaeologists to date. The incense altars and two “standing stones” may have been dedicated to Yahweh and Asherah
Mazar, Amihai. “The Divided Monarchy: Comments on Some Archaeological Issues.” Pages 159–80 in The Quest for the Historical Israel: Debating Archaeology and the History of Early Israel (Archaeology and Biblical Studies) Society of Biblical Literature (Sep 2007) ISBN 978-1-58983-277-0 p.176Aharoni, Yohanan (1981). Arad Inscriptions. University of Virginia: Israel Exploration Society. Retrieved 2008-09-15.
Dever, William G. What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It?: What Archaeology Can Tell Us About the Reality of Ancient Israel Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company (June 2002) ISBN 978-0-8028-2126-3 p.212
King, Philip J.; Lawrence E. Stager Life in Biblical Israel Westminster/John Knox Press,U.S.; 1 edition (19 April 2002) ISBN 978-0-664-22148-5 p.314]
SO IN REALITY THIS PROVES NOTHING ,
EXCEPT THAT YHWH WAS POLYTHEISTIC c.600BC
GODS WIFE ASHERAH
SO WHAT HAVE THEY ACTUALLY FOUND THAT PROVES ISRAEL EXISTED?
In 2007, artifacts dating to the 8th to 6th centuries BCE were described as being possibly the first physical evidence of human activity at the Temple Mount during the First Temple period. The findings included animal bones; ceramic bowl rims, bases, and body sherds; the base of a juglet used to pour oil; the handle of a small juglet; and the rim of a storage jar ,, stone weights for weighing silver,a seal impression containing ancient Hebrew writing which includes the name Netanyahu ben Yaush.
THESE FINDINGS ALSO SUGGEST THE INHABITANTS WHERE POLYTHEISTS (See BBC Davids Kingdom doc.)
ANY OTHER EVIDENCE?…ONLY FORGERIES
Tel Dan, at the foot of Mount Hermon in northern Galilee, is Israel’s longest continuous archaeological dig. Work started in 1966. Three fragments of a 13-line Aramaic inscription discovered by archaeologists of the Nelson Glueck School of Biblical Archaeology in 1993/4 purportedly refer to the “House of David.”
One interpretation is that stele records King Hazael’s 842 BC killing of “Jehoram, son of Ahab, king of Israel, and Ahaziah, son of Jehoram, king of the House of David. I set their towns to ruin, their land to desolation.”
But this interpretation of the fragments has been challenged, both by a realignment of the 3 fragments and a corrected rendering of the word “BYTDWD” – not “House of David” but a place-name meaning “House of Praise”.
“The desire to read the letters bytdvd as house of david is … a classic example of scholars working backwards from the Bible rather than forwards from the evidence.”
– M. Sturgis, It Ain’t Necessarily So, p129.
Ivory pomegranate ‘not Solomon’s’
An ancient ivory pomegranate thought to be the only relic of King Solomon’s Temple is from a different period, the Israel Museum in Jerusalem has said.
Now officials say the Hebrew inscription was only added to the pomegranate recently
AND EVIDENCE OF REWRITTING IN THE ORIGINAL SOURCES
In identifying these two sources, two separate accounts can be reconstructed. The anti-monarchical source describes Samuel (thought by a number of scholars to be a cipher for God himself) to have thoroughly routed the Philistines, yet begrudgingly accepting that the people demanded a ruler, and thus appointing Saul by cleromancy. The pro-monarchical source describes the divine birth of Saul (a single word being changed by a later editor so that it referred to Samuel instead), and his later leading of an army to victory over the Ammonites, which resulted in the people clamouring for him to lead them against the Philistines, whereupon he is appointed king
NO EVIDENCE OF A UNITED MONARCHY
According to Israel Finkelstein and Neil Silberman, authors of The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts,the idea of a United Monarchy is not accurate history but rather “creative expressions of a powerful religious reform movement,” possibly “based on certain historical kernels.” they cite that the earliest independent reference to the Kingdom of Israel is about 890 BCE, while for that of Judah is about 750 BCE
THE BIBLICAL CLAIMS OF THE KINGDOMS OF ISRAEL AND JUDAH ARE FALSE
The Kingdom of Israel (or Northern Kingdom) existed as an independent state until 722 BCE when it was conquered by the Assyrian Empire; while the Kingdom of Judah (or Southern Kingdom) existed as an independent state until 586 BCE when it was conquered by the Babylonian Empire.
ISRAEL AND JUDAH CO-EXISTED SEPERATELY FOR ABOUT 30 YEARS
Israel and judah c750BC
Both would shortly become vassel states.
THEY SOON FELL TO THE SURROUNDING EMPIRES AND BECAME VASSEL STATES
NO UNIFIED EMPIRE EVER EXISTED
NO EMPIRE OF ISRAEL EVER EXISTED
The so-called ‘United Monarchy’ is found only in the Bible. The ’empire’ has no monuments, no inscriptions and no artifacts. Neither David nor Solomon is as much as mentioned in the huge corpus of state records of either Egypt or Assyria.
A SHORT LIVED MIXED RACE PRIMINTIVE POLYTHESTIC COMMUNITY SURVIVED WITH NO ART OR MAJOR CONSTRUCTIONS c.900BC UNTIL 722BC
IT WAS MADE OF CANNANITE SLAVE CLASSES AND SEMITIC MOUNTAIN HILL TRIBES
IT IS THE MIXING OF THE SET/AMEN WORSHIPPING HABIRU “SONS OF SETH” AND THE BAAL/EL WORSHIPPING CANAANITE SLAVE CLASSES “DAUGHTERS OF CAIN”.BOTH FERTILITY CULTS!
THEY RISE UP FROM THE RUINS OF THE INDEPENDANT CANAANITE CITY STATES c.890BC
The earliest independent reference to the Kingdom of Israel is about 890 BCE until 722bc,when it was conquered by the Assyrian Empire
While for that of Judah is about 750 BCE until 586bc when it was conquered by the Babylonian Empire.
JERUSALEM IS NOT JEWISH ITS SYRIAN
Shalem was a Syrian sun god – later to be honoured in the name Jeru’salem
WITH EGYPTIAN POWER GONE
THE CANAANITE CITY STATES RISE AND THEN FALL
With the fall of Kannanite city state kingdoms.Around this time,archeology now suggests that the Israelite kingdoms rose from the “poor” and “slave” classes of the Kannanite kingdoms.These people abandoned the old city states after destroying them in the uprisings, and set up a new life in the mountains.They have a primitive potary and little or no art.
National Geographic TV “Digging the Bible”
THE RISE OF ISRAEL AND JUDAH ,ACCORDING TO ARCHEOLOGY
SO WHAT WAS REALLY GOING ON DURING THE AGE OF ISRAEL AND THE MYTHICAL UNITED MONARCHY
THE EFFECTS OF THE EXPULSION OF SET FROM EGYPT
EGYPT STILL RULED CANAAN
THE LANDS OF SET
EDOM(RED) JUDAH(LORD) AND ISRAEL(HE CONTENDS/WRESTLES GOD) RED LORD WHO WRESTLES GOD
NORTH CANAAN BECOMES CANAANITE FERTILITY BAAL/ISHTAR/YAW AND LOYAL TO PHEONICIA
SOUTH CANAAN BECOMES EGYPTY’S EAST NILE DISTRICT AND SHASU AMEN-RA/SET BAAL/YHW/SHEMESH INFLUENCED
BOTH ISRAEL AND JUDAH ARE SEEN SUPPORTING AMEN PHARAOHS RULING FROM TANIS(ZOAN/NEW AVARIS)
WE SEE THE ANCIENT POLYTHEISTIC HEBREWS WHERE HAPPY TO WORSHIP BA’AL AND YHW ,OF COURSE THIS WOULD GET A POLITICAL SPIN IN THE LATER MONOTHEISTIC RE-WRITTING
BAAL WAS THE CANAANITE NAME FOR THE EGYPTIAN SET
At first the name Baʿal was used by the Jews for their God without discrimination, but as the struggle between the two religions developed, the name Baʿal was given up in Judaism as a thing of shame, and even names like Jerubbaʿal were changed to Jerubbosheth: Hebrew bosheth means “shame”.
The Priests of Baʿal are mentioned in the Hebrew Bible numerous times.
(1 Kings 16:31 relates that Ahab, king of Israel, married Jezebel, daughter of Ethba’al, king of the Sidonians, and then served habba’al (‘the Baʿal’.) The cult of this god was prominent in Israel until the reign of Jehu, who put an end to it (2 Kings 10:26):
Some scholars claim it is uncertain whether “Baʿal” the Lord in Kings 10:26 refers to Melqart. They point out that Hadad was also worshipped in Tyre. This point of view ignores the possibility that Hadad and Melqart are the same god with different names because of different languages and cultures, Hadad being Canaanite and Melqart being Phoenician.
Josephus (Antiquities 8.13.1) states clearly that Jezebel “built a temple to the god of the Tyrians, which they call Belus” which certainly refers to the Baal of Tyre, or Melqart.
THERE IS EVIDENCE OF HABIRU BANDITS WITH NAMES LIKE DAVID ,SAUL AND JOSHUA
THEY COME FROM EGYPT AND INVADED CANAAN
THESE ARE THE SET WORSHIPERS LEAVING EGYPT FOR CANAAN, THE LAND OF SET
The name Edom means “red” in Hebrew.It comes from Egyptian where Red is the colour of Set.Canaan is the land of Set and Edom specifically is the Egyptian followers of Set,given to Esau,(Shasu are the Egyptians that live in the Edom) the elder son of the Hebrew patriarch Isaac, at the fact he was born “red all over”.The Torah, Tanakh and New Testament thus describe the Edomites as descendants of Esau.
Scholars pointed out similarities to Biblical accounts of Hebrews (i.e. `BRY (adj. form of the Hebrew ‘Eber’) putting people under the ban as they moved along the route of the kings highway through Edom and Moab into the territory of Ammon, Aram and the Amurru and realized that those records seemed to provide independent confirmation of the invasion of Canaan by Habiru fighting under Joshua, Saul, and David.
ISRAEL IS MADE FROM CANAAANITE SLAVES ,HABIRU BANDITS AND FLEEING EGYPTIANS(SHASU)
Research into settlement patterns suggests that the ethnogenesis of Israel as a people was a complex process involving mainly native pastoralist groups in Canaan (perhaps including Habiru and Shasu), with some infiltration from outside groups such as Hittites and Arameans from the north, as well as southern Shasu groups such as the Kenites- some of whom may have come from areas controlled by Egypt. Genetically, Palestinian Jews show closest connections with Kurdish people and other groups from Northern Iraq, suggesting that this is the area from which most of their ancestors originally came – a fact confirmed archaeologically from the Khirbet Kerak period down to the end of the Middle Bronze Age period, with the spread of the Hurrians (Biblical Horites), and in the Early Iron Age I period with the spread of Shasu (=Egyptian) and Ahlamu (=Assyrian Akkadian, i.e.wandering Aramaeans).
These semites (speakers of a tongue common to Syrians, Arabs and Mesopotamians) took up migratory occupation of the less fertile hill-country of the interior. Neither their limited sub-culture – an illiterate donkey nomadism; nor their social organisation – patriarchal and authoritarian – distinguished them from other tent-dwelling pastoralists. These early, polytheistic, Hebrews scratched an existence in an unpromising land on the fringes of the major civilisations
It seems as if they were joined, over time,by outcasts or refugees from the more sophisticated Canaanite (Phoenician) coastal cities. ‘Israel emerged peacefully and gradually from within Canaanite society ‘ concluded Karen Armstrong, the noted religious scholar. (A History of Jerusalem, p23]
Baal with Egyptian crown and arm raised.
“MAN OF BAAL” RULES “PROTO-ISRAEL”
AT THIS TIME ISRAEL IS PROBABLY JUST WANDERING TRIBES
According to the Hebrew Bible, Ish-bosheth Ashbaal or Ishbaal, was one of the four sons of King Saul, born c. 1047 BC. Ish-bosheth was chosen as the second king over the Kingdom of Israel, which then consisted of all the twelve tribes of the Israelites,Critical scholarship suggests that Bosheth was a substitute for Ba’al, beginning when Ba’al became an unspeakable word; as (in the opposite direction) Adonai became substituted for the ineffable Tetragrammaton
Egyptologist David Rohl identified Ishbaal with Mutbaal of the Amarna Letters. Both names have the same meaning, “Man of Baal.” Both fathers (Saul, Labaya) had their capitals west of the Jordan, but their sons had their center of power in Transjordan.
INTERESTINGLY ,MUTBAAL ALSO SEEMS TO HAVE EGYPTIAN AMEN/SET CONNECTIONS
IN EGYPT MUT WAS THE COSMIC WATERS FROM WHICH AMEN CREATED HIMSELF
AND BAAL,AS WE ALREADY KNOW, IS THE EGYPTIAN GOD SET.
Mut, which meant mother in the ancient Egyptian language.She was considered a primal deity, associated with the waters from which everything was born through parthenogenesis.Mut was a title of the primordial waters of the cosmos, Naunet, in the Ogdoad cosmogony during what is called the Old Kingdom She also was depicted as a woman with the crowns of Egypt upon her head.
The rulers of Egypt each supported her worship in their own way to emphasize their own authority and right to rule through an association with Mut.
Kushite pharaohs expanded the Mut temple and modified the Ramesses temple for use as the shrine of the celebrated birth of Amun and Khonsu, trying to integrate themselves into divine succession.
WITH HORUS RULING EGYPT AND SET RULING CANAAN
THE SET VERSES HORUS BATTLE IS OVER
A NEW POWER STRUGGLE BETWEEN THE HIGH PRIESTS OF THEBES IN THE SOUTH
AND THE PHARAOHS OF THE NILE DELTA IN THE NORTH
PHARAOH VERSES HIGH PRIESTS
Even in Ramesses XI’s day, the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt was losing its grip on power in the city of Thebes, whose priests were becoming increasingly powerful. After his death, his successor Smendes I ruled from the city of Tanis, but was mostly active only in Lower Egypt which they controlled. Meanwhile, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes effectively ruled Middle and Upper Egypt in all but name.However, this division was less significant than it seems, since both priests and pharaohs came from the same family.Nesibanebdjedet (Smendes) may have been a son of a lady named Hrere. Hrere was a Chief of the Harem of Amun-Re and likely the wife of a high priest of Amun.Nesibanebdjedet (Smendes) was married to Tentamun B, likely a daughter of Ramesses IX. They may have been the parents of his successor Amenemnisu.
Smendes features prominently in the Report of Wenamun, dated to Year 5 of the Renaissance or Whm Mswt era (or Year 23 proper of Ramesses XI), as a person of the highest importance. Wenamun states here that he had to visit Tanis and personally present his letters of accreditation to Smendes in order to receive the latter’s permission to travel north to modern Lebanon and procure precious cedar wood for use in the Great Temples of Amun at Thebes. Smendes responded by dispatching a ship for Wenamun’s travels to Syria and the Levant.
IN THIS STORY WE SEE AMEN RULING EGYPT AND BAAL RULING CANAAN
AND NO MENTION OF ISRAEL
The Story of Wenamun is an unparalleled source for learning of conditions in Egypt, as well as in Phoenicia. One can also see from this document, as from no other of the period, common attitudes toward religion (especially the cult of Amon), the state of Mediterranean shipping practises, and even the attitudes of foreign princes to Egyptian claims of supremacy in the region. Even the supremacy of the pharaoh in Egypt is placed under our scrutiny. The current pharaoh, Ramesses XI, is never even mentioned during Wenamun’s journey. Thebes, Wenamun’s hometown, is under the control of Herihor–the High Priest of Amon. The authority Wenamun goes to see in the delta is Smendes, who resides at Tanis, and bears the never-before-seen title “organizer-of-the-country”. It is worthy of note that neither Smendes nor Herihor bear any royal title whatsoever. Overall, the Story of Wenamun presents to us what could possibly be the most vivid and descriptive narrative of pre-classical times.
As the story begins, the principal character, Wenamun, a priest of Amun at Karnak, is sent by the High Priest of Amun Herihor to the Phoenician city of Byblos to acquire lumber (probably cedar wood) to build a new ship to transport the cult image of Amun. After visiting Smendes (Nesbanebded in Egyptian) at Tanis, Wenamun stopped at the port of Dor ruled by the Tjeker prince Beder, where he was robbed. Upon reaching Byblos, he was shocked by the hostile reception he received there. When he finally gained an audience with Zakar-Baal, the local king, the latter refused to give the requested goods for free, as had been the traditional custom, instead demanding payment. Wenamun had to send to Smendes for payment, a humiliating move that demonstrates the waning of Egyptian power over the Eastern Mediterranean. After a wait of almost a year at Byblos, Wenamun attempted to leave for Egypt, only to be blown off course to Alashiya (Cyprus), where he was almost killed by an angry mob before placing himself under the protection of the local queen, whom he called Hatbi. At this point the story breaks off.
1077BC 943BC THE 21ST DYNASTY IN EGYPT
AN EGYPTIAN DYNASTY DEDICATED TO AMEN
PHARAOHS RULED NORTH EGYPT AND THE LEVANT(CANAAN/PROTO-ISRAEL)
WHILE THE PRIESTS OF AMEN RULED CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN EGYPT
THE PHARAOHS THAT RULED PROTO-ISRAEL
FOUNDED BY “HE OF THE RAM LORD” ,IN “THE DOMAIN OF THE RAM LORD”
Hedjkheperre Setepenre Smendes was the founder of the Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt and succeeded to the throne after burying Ramesses XI in Lower Egypt – territory which he controlled. His Egyptian nomen or birth name was actually Nesbanebdjed meaning “He of the Ram, Lord of Mendes
Mendes (Μένδης), the Greek name of the Ancient Egyptian city of Djedet, also known in Ancient Egypt as Per-Banebdjedet (“The Domain of the Ram Lord of Djedet”) and Anpet, is known today as Tell El-Ruba (Arabic: تل الربع).In ancient times, Mendes was a famous city that attracted the notice of most ancient geographers and historians, including Herodotus (ii. 42, 46. 166), Diodorus (i. 84), Strabo (xvii. p. 802), Mela (i. 9 § 9), Pliny the Elder (v. 10. s. 12), Ptolemy (iv. 5. § 51), and Stephanus of Byzantium (s. v.). The city was the capital of the Mendesian nome, situated at the point where the Mendesian arm of the Nile (Μενδήσιον στόμα, Scylax, p. 43; Ptol. iv, 5. § 10; Mendesium ostium, Pliny, Mela, ll. cc.) flows into the lake of Tanis.
TANIS THE ROYAL CITY (ZOAN)
The pharaohs of the Twenty-First Dynasty ruled from Tanis,(Greek name for Dzann, Biblical Zoan)but were mostly active only in Lower Egypt which they controlled. This dynasty is described as ‘Tanite’ because its political capital was based at Tanis. Meanwhile, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes effectively ruled Middle and Upper Egypt in all but name. The later Egyptian Priest Manetho of Sebennytos states in his Epitome on Egyptian royal history that “the 21st Dynasty of Egypt lasted for 130 years”
THE HOLY CITY OF TANIS ,THE THEBES OF LOWER EGYPT (THE NORTH)
THE UNITED MONARCHY (THE TWO KINGDOMS OF THEBES AND TANIS)
Tanis was a city in ancient Egypt and served as a parallel religious center to Thebes in the Third Intermediate Period.The chief deities of Tanis were Amun, his consort, Mut, and their child Khonsu, forming the Tanite triad. This triad was, however, identical to that of Thebes, leading many scholars to speak of Tanis as the “northern Thebes”.
THE STAR APPEARING IN THE CITY OF ZOAN (THE NEW AVARIS)
No archaeological evidence from Tanis pre-dates the reign of Psusennes I (1039-991 BC, 21st Dynasty)
Psusennes I, or [Greek ???s?????], Pasibkhanu or Hor-Pasebakhaenniut I [Egyptian ?or-p3-sib3-???–niwt] was the third king of the Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt who ruled from Tanis (Greek name for Dzann, Biblical Zoan) between 1047 – 1001 BC. Psusennes is the Greek version of his original name Pasebakhaenniut which means “The Star Appearing in the City” while his throne name, Akheperre Setepenamun, translates as “Great are the Manifestations of Ra, chosen of Amun.”
Tanis’s creation was most likely due to the silting up of the Nile branch that ran by Pi-Ramesses, which forced people to seek another area with access to water. Later on, Tanis would become known as Thebes of Lower Egypt and became the northern capital of Egypt during the following Twenty-first Dynasty. It was the home city of Smendes, founder of the 21st dynasty. During the Twenty-second Dynasty Tanis remained as Egypt’s political capital (though there were sometimes rival dynasties located elsewhere in Upper Egypt).The kings at Tanis saw themselves as the legitimate successors on the throne of Upper and Lower Egypt. They used traditional titles and displayed their royalty in building work, although that was insignificant when compared to activity at the height of the New Kingdom
Tanis was an important commercial and strategic city until it was threatened with inundation by Lake Manzala in the 6th century AD, when it was finally abandoned.
There are ruins of a number of temples, including the chief temple dedicated to Amun, and a very important royal necropolis of the Third Intermediate Period (which contains the only known intact royal Pharaonic burials)
In 1866, Karl Richard Lepsius discovered at Tanis the Decree of Canopus — an inscription closely related to the Rosetta Stone, which was likewise written in Egyptian (hieroglyphic and demotic) and Greek.
AMEN RULES EGYPT
Amun represented the essential and hidden, whilst in Ra he represented revealed divinity. As the creator deity “par excellence”,he was the champion of the poor and central to personal piety. Amun was self created, without mother and father .His position as King of Gods developed to the point of virtual monotheism where other gods became manifestations of him. With Osiris, Amun-Ra is the most widely recorded of the Egyptian gods.
THE DUAL RULE OF AMEN-RA AND AMEN(-MIN)
THE FESTIVAL OF OPET
Pharaoh Amenemope (prenomen: Usermaatre) was the son of Psusennes I. Amenemope/Amenemopet’s birth name or nomen translates as “Amun in the Opet Festival.”
The Beautiful Feast of Opet (or Opet Festival) was an Ancient Egyptian festival, celebrated annually in Thebes, during the New Kingdom period and later in time. The statues of the gods of the Theban Triad — Amun, Mut and their child Khonsu — were escorted in a joyous procession, though hidden from sight in a sacred barque, from the temple of Amun in Karnak, to the temple of Luxor, a journey of around 2 miles, in a marital celebration. The highlight of the ritual is the meeting of Amun-Re of Karnak with the Amun of Luxor. Rebirth is a strong theme of Opet and there is usually a re-coronation ceremony of the pharaoh.
In earlier celebrations of the opet festival, the statues of the god proceeded down the avenue of sphinxes that connect the two temples, stopping at specially constructed chapels en route.These chapels would have been filled with offerings, providing for the gods themselves and the attending priests. At the end of the ceremonies in the Luxor Temple, the barques journeyed back by boat to Karnak.In later celebrations, the statues would be transported both to and from Karnak/Luxor by boat.The festival was celebrated in the second month of Akhet, the season of the flooding of the Nile.
A royal barque also sailed with the gods’ vessel, and the ceremonies in the ‘Chamber of the Divine King’ would reenact the coronation ceremonies and thus confirm kingship.
“in Thebes, his authority as king was undisputed–no less than nine burials of the Theban clergy had braces, pendants or bandages inscribed with the name of Amenemope as pharaoh and of Pinedjem as pontiff. Pen-nest-tawy, captain of the barge of Amun in Thebes, possessed a Book of the Dead dated to Year 5 of this king’s reign.”
Wilkinson 2000, The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt Thames & Hudson, pg.171
Bell 1997, “The New Kingdom ‘Divine’ Temple: The Example of Luxor” In: Shafer, B. E (ed) Temples of Ancient Egypt Cornell University Press, pg.174
Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1994. p.178
K.A. Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (c.1100-650 BC), Warminster, 3rd ed: 1996, p.272]
SIAMUN ,SON OF AMEN c.986BC -967BC
SIAMUN NOT SOLOMON IS RULER OF THE LEVANT (PROTO-ISRAEL)
Siamun’s prenomen, Netjerkheperre-Setepenamun, means “Like a God is The Manifestation of Re, Chosen of Amun” while his name means ‘son of Amen.’
On the basis of a Year 17 the first month of Shemu day [lost] inscription in fragment 3B, lines 3-5 dated to pharaoh Siamun from the Karnak Priestly Annals.It records the induction of Hori, son of Nespaneferhor into the Priesthood at Karnak.Year 17 of Siamun has been shown by the German Egyptologist Rolf Krauss to be equivalent to 970 BC. Hence, Siamun would have taken the throne about 16 years earlier in 986 BC.A stela dated to Siamun’s Year 16 records a land-sale between some minor priests of Ptah at Memphis.
SIAMUN THE FIRST PHARAOH
The Year 17 inscription is an important palaeographical development because it is the first time in Egyptian recorded history that the word pharaoh was employed as a title and linked directly to a king’s royal name: as in Pharaoh Siamun here. Henceforth, references to Pharaoh Psusennes II (Siamun’s successor), Pharaoh Shoshenq I, Pharaoh Osorkon I, and so forth become commonplace. Prior to Siamun’s reign and all throughout the Middle and New Kingdom, the word pharaoh referred only to the office of the king.
PHARAOH SIAMUN CONTROLLED THE LEVANT
Under Siamun, Egypt embarked upon an active foreign policy and he is the Pharaoh who would of formed an alliance with the fictious biblical new ruler of Israel, King Solomon against the Philistines.The ficticious biblical Solomon, the son of David, had just assumed power around 971 or 970 BC which was certainly around the middle of Siamun’s reign.
NO RECORD OF SOLOMON OR A TEMPLE OF SOLOMON OR AN ISRAELI EMPIRE OR A MARRIGE OF A DAUGHTER TO AN ISRAELI KING
unfortunately there is no record of Solomon or his Israeli empire in Pharaoh Siamun’s Egyptian records.
According to the French Egyptologist Nicolas Grimal, Siamun doubled the size of the Temple of Amun at Tanis and initiated various works at the Temple of Horus at Mesen.He also built at Heliopolis and at Piramesse where a surviving stone block bears his name.Siamun constructed and dedicated a new temple to Amun at Memphis with 6 stone columns and doorways which bears his royal name. Finally, he bestowed numerous favours onto the Memphite Priests of Ptah. In Upper Egypt, he generally appears eponymously on a few Theban monuments although Siamun’s High Priest of Amun at Thebes, Pinedjem II, organised the removal and re-burial of the New Kingdom royal mummies from the Valley of the Kings in several hidden mummy caches at Deir El-Bahari Tomb DB320 for protection from looting. These activities are dated from Year 1 to Year 10 of Siamun’s reign.
One fragmentary but well known surviving triumphal relief scene from the Temple of Amun at Tanis depicts an Egyptian pharaoh smiting his enemies with a mace. The king’s name is explicitly given as [(Neterkheperre Setepenamun) Siamun, beloved of Am(un)] in the relief and there can be no doubt that this person was Siamun as the eminent British Egyptologist, Kenneth Kitchen stresses in his book, On the Reliability of the Old Testament.Thus, Kitchen concludes Siamun’s foes were the Philistines who were descendants of the Aegean based Sea Peoples and that Siamun was commemorating his recent victory over them at Gezer by depicting himself in a formal battle scene relief at the Temple in Tanis. More recently Paul S Ash has put forward a detailed argument that Siamun’s relief portrays a fictitious battle.He also argues that there is nothing in the relief to connect it with Philistia or the Levant
K.A. Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt [TIPE] (1100–650 BC) 3rd ed., Warminster: Aris & Phillips Ltd, p.423
Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss & David Warburton (editors), Handbook of Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), Brill: 2006, p.474
Ash, Paul S (November 1999). David, Solomon and Egypt: A Reassessment (JSOT Supplement). Sheffield Academic Press. pp. 38–46. ISBN 978-1-84127-021-0.]
THE PRIEST KING OF UPPER AND LOWER EGYPT AND THE LEVANT
HIGH PRIEST OF AMEN AND PHARAOH
THE STAR OF THE CITY OF ZOAN II
PSUSENNES II 967 – 943 BC
Titkheperure or Tyetkheperre Psusennes II [Greek ???s?????] or Hor-Pasebakhaenniut II [Egyptian ?r-p3-sb3-???–n?wt], was the last king of the Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt. His royal name means “Image of the transformations of Re” in Egyptian. Psusennes II is often considered the same person as the High-Priest of Amun known as Psusennes III.The Egyptologist Karl Jansen-Winkeln notes that an important graffito from the Temple of Abydos contains the complete titles of a king Tyetkheperre Setepenre Pasebakhaenniut Meryamun “who is simultaneously called the HPA (ie. High Priest of Amun) and supreme military commander.”This suggests that Psusennes was both king at Tanis and the High Priest in Thebes at the same time meaning he did not resign his office as High Priest of Amun during his reign
“the evidence weighs heavily in favour of his (ie. Psusennes III) being one and the same man, who was first HP and then successor to King Siamun in Tanis, without giving up his Theban office.”
Peter Clayton, Chronology of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1994. p.178
Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss & David Warburton (editors), Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), Brill: 2006, p.221 ]
PHAROAH SHOSHENQ I C943-922
ANOTHER BIBLICAL PHAROAH
AND A NEW LIBYAN PHARAONIC DYNASTY TAKES EGYPT AND THE LEVANT
THIS DYNASTY SUPPORTS RA
THE 22ND DYNASTY ESTABLISHES ITSELF
The kings of the Twenty-Second Dynasty of Egypt were a series of Meshwesh Libyans who ruled from c. 943 BC until 720 BC. The 22nd dynasty is also known as the Bubastite Dynasty, since the pharaohs originally ruled from the city of Bubastis. Bubastis “House of Bast” served as the capital of the nome of Am-Khent, the Bubastite nome, the 18th nome of Lower Egypt. Bubastis was situated southwest of Tanis, upon the eastern side of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile. The nome and city of Bubastis were allotted to the Calasirian division of the Egyptian war-caste.In the biblical Book of Ezekiel 30:17, the town appears in the Hebrew form Pibeseth
Bubastis was a center of worship for the feline goddess Bast .Bastet was a goddess in ancient Egyptian religion, worshipped as early as the Second Dynasty (2890 BC). As Bast, she was the goddess of warfare in Lower Egypt, the Nile River delta region.During the Twenty-Second Dynasty (c. 945–715 BC), Bast had changed from a lioness warrior deity into a major protector deity represented as a cat.As protector, she was seen as defender of the pharaoh, and consequently of the later chief male deity, Ra, who was also a solar deity, gaining her the titles Lady of Flame and Eye of Ra.Bast also fought an evil snake named Apep,in the 22nd Dynasty Set now represented Apep the snake. In Upper Egypt, Sekhmet was the parallel warrior lioness deity to Bast.The cat was the sacred and peculiar animal of Bast, who is represented with the head of a cat or a lioness and frequently accompanies the deity Ptah in monumental inscriptions.The most distinguished features of the city and nome of Bubastis were its oracle of Bast, the splendid temple of that goddess and the annual procession in honor of her.The festival of Bubastis was the most joyous and gorgeous of all in the Egyptian calendar as described by Herodotus.
SHESHONQ TAKES CONTROL OF THEBES
Libyan concepts of rule allowed for the parallel existence of leaders who were related by marriage and blood. Sheshonq(k) and his immediate successors used that practice to consolidate their grasp on all of Egypt. Sheshonq terminated the hereditary succession of the high priesthood of Amun. Instead he and his successors appointed men to the position, most often their own sons, a practice that lasted for a century.He assigned his second son, Iuput A, the prominent position of High Priest of Amun at Thebes as well as the title of Governor of Upper Egypt and Commander of the Army to consolidate his authority over the Thebaid. Shoshenq I designated his third son, Nimlot B, as the “Leader of the Army” at Herakleopolis in Middle Egypt
c940 SHOSHENQ CONQUERS CLAIMED ISRAELLITE CITIES
Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (Egyptian ššnq), (reigned c.943-922 BCE) — also known as Sheshonk or Sheshonq I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq) — was a Meshwesh king of Egypt and the founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty. Of ancient Libyan ancestry, Shoshenq I was the son of Nimlot A, Great Chief of the Ma, and his wife Tentshepeh A, a daughter of a Great Chief of the Ma herself.His ancestors had settled in Egypt during the late New Kingdom, probably at Herakleopolis Magna, called Henen-nesut, Nen-nesu, or Hwt-nen-nesu in ancient Egyptian, meaning ‘house of the royal child.’ Shoshenq I had been the Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Army, and chief advisor to his predecessor Psusennes II, as well as the father-in-law of Psusennes’ daughter Maatkare. He also held his father’s title of Great Chief of the Ma or Meshwesh. He is perhaps mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as Shishaq, and his exploits are carved on the Bubastite Portal at Karnak.The Meshwesh (often abbreviated in ancient Egyptian as Ma) were an ancient Libyan tribe from beyond Cyrenaica where the Libu and Tehenu lived. Herodotus may have placed them in Tunisia and said of them to be sedentary farmers living in settled permanent houses. He also added them to be partly descended from Trojan refugees.
Herodotus (1.46) used ??ß?? Libue to indicate the African continent; the Libues proper were the light-skinned North Africans, while those south of the Ancient Egypt (and Elephantine on the Nile) were known to him as “Aethiopians”;this was also the understanding of later Greek geographers such Diodorus, Strabo, Pliny the Elder,etc.
SHOSHENQ I LED A MILITARY CAMPAIGN ALL THE WAY TO LEBENON
ALL THIS SHOWS THAT THE LEVANT AND THEBES HAD TO BE RECONQUERED BY THE 22ND DYNASTY
He pursued an aggressive foreign policy in the adjacent territories of the Middle East, towards the end of his reign. This is attested, in part, by the discovery of a statue base bearing his name from the Lebanese city of Byblos, part of a monumental stela from Megiddo bearing his name, and a list of cities in the region comprising Syria, Philistia, Phoenicia, the Negev and the claimed biblical Kingdom of Israel, among various topographical lists inscribed on the walls of temples of Amun at al-Hibah and Karnak. Unfortunately there is no mention of either an attack nor tribute from Jerusalem. The fragment of a stela bearing his cartouche from Megiddo has been interpreted as a monument Shoshenq erected there to commemorate his victory. Some of these conquered cities include the claimed Ancient Israelite fortresses such as Megiddo, Taanach and Shechem.
NO MENTION OF A KINGDOM OF ISRAEL c940BC
NO MENTION OF JERUSELUM OR SOLOMON OR HIS TEMPLE IN EGYPTIAN RECORDS
There are other problems with Sheshonq being the same as the biblical Shishak: Sheshonq’s Karnak list does not include Jerusalem—his biggest prize according to the Bible. His list focuses on places either north or south of Judah, as if he did not raid the center. The fundamental problem facing historians is establishing the aims of the two accounts and linking up the information in them.
As an addendum to his foreign policy, Sheshonq I carved a report of campaigns in Nubia and Palestine, with a detailed list of conquests in Palestine. This is the first military action outside Egypt formally commemorated for several centuries
K.A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament, William Erdsman & Co, 2003. pp.10, 32-34 & p.607 Page 607 of Kitchen’s book depicts the surviving fragment of Shoshenq I’s Megiddo stela
Jump up ^ de Mieroop, Marc Van (2007). A History of Ancient Egypt. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. p. 400. ISBN 9781405160711
The Bubastite Portal at Karnak, depicting a list of city states conquered by Shoshenq I in his Near Eastern military campaigns
The Relief of Shoshenq I’s campaign list at the southern exterior walls of the temple of Karnak, north of Luxor, Egypt.
A SEMI NOMADIC PRIMITIVE MALE FERTILITY CULT
“THE TEMPLE” ON TEMPLE MOUNT WOULD BE NOTHING MORE THAN SOME STANDING STONES
“And he set up the pillars in the porch of the temple: … the right pillar, called Jachin, and the left pillar, called Boaz.” – 2 Kings 7.21.
“An altar of earth thou shalt make unto me … And if thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone: for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast polluted it.” – Exodus 20:24,25.
The semi-nomadic pastoralists of the Levant – proto-Jews and Canaanites alike – marked their sanctuaries and cult centres with large stones, not mediaeval-style cathedrals. It was the obvious choice of early peoples throughout much of the world. The “theology” was not complex, nor dissimilar to that of any pagan sanctuary. The invoked god, honoured by a megalith or cairn in a chosen spot, took up residence in or about the commemorative structure and the place became sacred.
The Israelites adopted the practice of erecting standing stones and continued to worship at “pillars” throughout their history. Only after contact with their more civilized neighbours – Assyria and Babylon – did they copy the more sophisticated temple-style sanctuary.
The Bible actually relates that all the major Jewish heroes followed the practice of erecting, anointing and sacrificing at stones in “high places”:
“Abram … removed from thence unto a mountain on the east of Bethel, and pitched his tent … and there he builded an altar and called upon the name of the LORD.” – Genesis 12.7-8.
“And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it. And he called the name of that place Bethel.” – Genesis 28.18,19.
“Moses … got up early the next morning and built an altar at the foot of the mountain and set up twelve stone pillars representing the twelve tribes of Israel.” – Exodus 24.3-4.
“And those twelve stones, which they took out of Jordan, did Joshua pitch in Gilgal.” – Joshua 4.20.
“And the king went to Gibeon to sacrifice there; for that was the great high place: a thousand burnt offerings did Solomon offer upon that altar.” – 1 Kings 3.4.
Standing stones near Jerusalem
Gezer (Tel el-Jazari), A row of ten monoliths from a Canaanite cult centre on a hilltop 30 km west of Jerusalem.
CANAANITE HEBREWS LEARN FROM THE PHONECIANS AS THE PHONECIAN CULTURE AND WRITING SPREAD INLAND
Christopher A. Rollston, a professor at Emmanuel School of Religion and a budding paleographer, flatly states his view that the Gezer calendar is written in Phoenician letters rather than Old Hebrew letters: “I believe that it [the Gezer calendar] is written in the Phoenician script.”11 For Rollston, there is no room for debate. At the Jerusalem forgery trial Rollston also testified that the Gezer calendar was written in Phoenician letters. “We have a distinctive Hebrew script; we have a distinctive Phoenician script,” he told the court. Features of one are “not mixed,” he said, with features of the other. “No paleographer would confuse an Old Hebrew inscription with Phoenician script,” he claimed.
The Gezer Calendar
Johns Hopkins University professor Kyle McCarter The Gezer calendar script, like the Tel Zayit abecedary, did develop from the Phoenician tradition, but it would be wrong to call it simply Phoenician. The Gezer calendar (and the Tel Zayit abecedary) represent “an inland development of the mature Phoenician tradition of the early Iron Age, but in the tenth century [B.C.E.]it already exhibits characteristics that anticipate the distinctive features of the mature Hebrew national script.”
WITH THE FALL OF EGYPTIAN INFLUENCE IN THE LEVANT c900BC
THE RISE OF THE SYRO-HITTITE STATES
THANKS TO ARCHEOLOGY AND EGYPTIAN,ASSYRIAN ,HITTITE ,PERSIAN AND BABYLONIAN RECORDS
IN REALITY CANAAN WAS RULED BY ARAMAEAN KINGS AND A NEO-ASSYRIAN EMPIRE…..
THE SYRO-HITTITE STATES WITH DEITIES LIKE HADAD(A TITLE OF BAAL) AND EL
The Syro-Hittite states of the Early Iron Age were partly ruled by Aramaean kings. Some of these kingdoms persisted into the 9th or 8th century BC before being absorbed into the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
Some royal names are found in the Hebrew Bible.
Kings of Aram Damascus:
Tabrimmon, son of Hezion
Ben-Hadad I, son of Tabrimmon
Ben-Hadad II; Hadadezer, mentioned in the Tel Dan Stele may be identical to biblical Ben-Hadad II.
Ben-Hadad III, son of Hazael
Hadadezer bar Rehob, king of Zobah
IN REALITY AT THIS TIME IN THE LEVANT
WITH THE FALL OF EGYPTIAN POWER AND THE COLLAPSE OF THE HITTITE EMPIRE IN THE LEVANT
THE RISE OF THE NEO-ASSYRIAN EMPIRE C934
Map of the Assyrian Empire
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an empire in Mesopotamian history which began in 934 BC and ended in 609 BC.During this period, Assyria assumed a position as the most powerful nation on earth,successfully eclipsing Babylonia, Egypt, Urartu/Armenia. Assyria was originally an Akkadian kingdom which evolved in the 25th to 24th Centuries BC.
Ashurnasirpal II (883–859 BC), embarked on a vast program of expansion, first conquering the peoples to the north as far as Nairi near Lake Van, then conquering the Aramaeans and Neo Hittites between the Khabur and the Euphrates.
Shalmaneser took the neo Hittite state of Carchemish in 849 BC, and in 841 BC marched an army against Hazael, King of Damascus, besieging the city and forcing tribute, but not taking it. He also brought under tribute Jehu of Israel, and the Phoenician states of Tyre, and Sidon. His black obelisk, discovered at Kalhu, records many military exploits of his reign
THE NEO ASSYRIAN EMPIRE FAILS TO DEFEAT KING HAZAEL OF ARAM DAMASCUS BUT TAKES ISRAEL
THE POLYTHEISTIC AND CANAANITE OMRIDES CREATE ISRAEL C850
SAMARIA ITS CAPITAL NOT JERUSALEM
Omri (Hebrew: עמרי, Modern Omri Tiberian ʻOmrî; short for Hebrew: עָמְרִיָּה, Modern Omriyya Tiberian ʻOmriyyā ; “The Lord is my life”) (fl. 9th century BC)a successful military campaigner, and the founder of the House of Omri, an Israelite royal house which included other monarchs such as Ahab, Ahaziah, Joram, and Athaliah.
The term Omrides or the House of Omri refers to Omri and his descendants (particularly Ahab), who were according to the Bible kings of ancient Israel. In the Bible, Omride rulers include Omri, Ahab, and Ahab’s sons Ahaziah and Jehoram, all kings of Israel, and Ahab’s daughter (or perhaps sister) Athaliah, who became queen of Judah.
Israel Finkelstein’s The Bible Unearthed presents the Omrides as responsible for its military power,building works, wealth, and peace in Israel and Judah that the Bible credits to the much earlier(fictional)kings David and Solomon. According to Finkelstein, the reason for this discrepancy is the religious bias of the Biblical authors against the Omrides for their polytheist views and support of the Canaanite religion.
Mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as well as other extra-biblical sources such as the Mesha stele and the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, Omri is also credited with the construction of Samaria and establishing it as his capital.
ISRAEL FALLS TO THE NEO ASSYRIANS 841BC
The “Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III” is a black limestone Neo-Assyrian bas-relief sculpture from Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), in northern Iraq, commemorating the deeds of King Shalmaneser III (reigned 858-824 BC).
It is the most complete Assyrian obelisk yet discovered, and is historically significant because it is thought to display the earliest ancient depiction of a biblical figure – Jehu King of Israel. The traditional identification of “Yaw” as Jehu has been questioned by some scholars, who proposed that the inscription refers to another king, Jehoram of Israel.(BUT The reference to “YAW” definitely marks these Israelite kings as Canaanite and polytheistic!) Its reference to ‘Parsua’ is also the first known reference to the Persians.
The stele describes how Jehu brought or sent his tribute in or around 841 BC. Jehu severed Israel’s alliances with Phoenicia and became subject to Assyria
In 853 BC, at the hill top city of Qarqur in Syria, an alliance of petty Levantine kingdoms attempted to resist the advancing Assyrians. The ‘Kurkh Stela’ commemorates the Assyrian victory:
“I razed, destroyed and burned … 2,000 chariots, and 10,000 troops of Ahab, the Israelite …”
– Shalmaneser III
The Assyrians continued their advance in the next campaign season, defeating ‘Jehu,’ commemorated on the ‘Black Obelisk’.
Written in stone: Israel’s ‘Jehu, son of Omri’ falls to the ground before Shalmaneser III.
The second register from the top includes the earliest surviving picture of an Israelite: the Biblical Jehu, king of Israel. It describes how Jehu brought or sent his tribute in or around 841 BCE. Jehu severed Israel’s alliances with Phoenicia, and became subject to Assyria. The caption above the scene, written in Assyrian cuneiform, can be translated:
“The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears.”
THE FACT THAT A STAFF FOR A KING IS MENTIONED ,SUGGESTS EGYPTIAN SET INFLUENCE IN EARLY ISRAEL
THE BIBLICAL VERSION OF AN ISRAELLI EMPIRE IS A LIE
Shalmaneser’s artifacts confirm the existence of a small Israelite kingdom – but NOT of the biblical story:
2 Kings 9,10 has it that Jehu was not Omri’s son but an anointed assassin who had in fact murdered the ‘house of Omri’ on orders from Elisha!
Archaeology is unequivocal: there was never the wealth, population, political cohesiveness, or literacy in the tiny settlement around Jerusalem to have ever dominated its more developed northern neighbours.
KING OF MOAB RESISTS “NEO-ASSYRIAN ISRAELLI” EXPANSION C840
The Mesha Stele (also known as the “Moabite Stone”) is a stele (inscribed stone) set up around 840 BCE by King Mesha of Moab (a kingdom located in modern Jordan). Mesha tells how Kemosh, the God of Moab, had been angry with his people and had allowed them to be subjugated to Israel, but at length Kemosh returned and assisted Mesha to throw off the yoke of Israel and restore the lands of Moab. Mesha describes his many building projects.
ACTUALLY IT WAS KING HAZAEL AND HIS ARAM-DAMASCUS EMPIRE KICKING BUTT IN THE LEVANT AT THIS TIME
INCLUDING ISRAELLI BUTT!!
HAZAEL TAKES “NEO ASSYRIAN ISRAEL” C840
The Tel Dan Stele is a broken stele (inscribed stone) discovered in 1993-94 during excavations at Tel Dan in northern Israel. It consists of several fragments making up part of a triumphal inscription in Aramaic, left most probably by Hazael of Aram-Damascus, an important regional figure in the late 9th-century BCE.
The author of the inscription mentions conflict with the kings of Israel and the “House of David/Praise”
Hazael boasts of his victories over the king of Israel and his ally the king of the “House of David/Praise” (written as one word “bytdwd”),other possible meanings have been suggested: it may be a place-name, or the name of a god, or an epithet.But this interpretation of the fragments has been challenged, both by a realignment of the 3 fragments and a corrected rendering of the word “BYTDWD” – not “House of David” but a place-name meaning “House of Praise”.
“The desire to read the letters bytdvd as house of david is … a classic example of scholars working backwards from the Bible rather than forwards from the evidence.”
– M. Sturgis, It Ain’t Necessarily So, p129.
IF real it is the ONLY time the name David had been found outside of the Bible.
EVEN IF THE “HOUSE OF DAVID” WAS REAL AT THIS TIME.
AS CLEARLY DEMONSTRATED ,IT WOULD BE A “POLYTHEISTIC FERTILITY CULT” HOUSE OF DAVID
WORSHIPING ROUGHLY FASHIONED PILLARS AND STANDING STONES REPRESENTING GOD AND HIS WIFE.
WHILE PAYING TRIBUTE TO THEIR ASSYRIAN ,EGYPTIAN OR BABYLONIAN RULERS
NO TEMPLE OF SOLOMON ,NO ISRAELI EMPIRE OF DAVID
The author tells how Israel had invaded his country in his father’s day, and how the god Hadad then made him king and marched with him against Israel.The author then reports that he defeated seventy kings with thousands of chariots and horses. In the very last line there is a suggestion of a siege, possibly of Samaria, the capital of the kings of Israel.
Tel Dan stela fragments
In contrast to its heroics and intrigues of “King David”, the Bible avoids mentioning Aram’s 9th century conquest of much of Israel. Dan, Hazor, Jezreel and Megiddo were among the cities destroyed.
“Around 835 and 800 BC the kingdom of Aram-Damascus controlled the upper Jordan valley and significant areas in northeastern Israel – and devastated major Israelite administrative centres in the fertile Jezreel valley as well.”
– Finkelstein, Silberman,The Bible Unearthed, p202.
Curiously, King Hazael of Aram-Damascus (844-803) enjoyed a 40-year reign – just like that ascribed to the biblical ‘David’ (and, for that matter, also to his son ‘Solomon’!). The existence of Hazael is not in doubt, whereas outside of the biblical texts, there is as yet NO historical proof of a Hebrew king named David ruling an ’empire’.
David – Based on the King of Damascus
“Damascus reached its zenith during the reign of Hazael … Transjordanian regions were overrun … Hazael was able to cross Israelite territory to progress down the coastal plain to take Gath in Philistia …
In fact, Hazael appears to have established an empire or sphere of influence not unlike that ascribed to David.”
– B.S.J. Isserlin, The Israelites, p86.
Kingdom of Hazael c840BC
KING DAVID IS BASED ON KING HAZAEL c842BC
NO KINGDOM OF DAVID BUT A KINGDOM OF HAZAEL(HA-ZA-EL = IS-RA-EL?)
KING OF ARAM DAMASCUS CONQUERS ISRAEL AND JUDAH C842 AND DEFEATS THE ASSYRIANS
KINGS OF ISRAEL AND JUDAH ARE DEFEATED AND PAY TRIBUTE
AN EMPIRE OF HAZAEL OF ARAM DAMASCUS NOT DAVID OF ISRAEL
Aramaean king Hazael
The city of Methegammah (Tell es-Safi/ Gath) – hometown of Goliath! – was destroyed in the 9th century BC, not the 10th, and apparently after a siege.
According to archaeologists of Bar-Ilan University, the conqueror was none other than Hazael, King of Aram-Damascus !
Hazael (his full name meaning, “God has seen”) was a court official and later an Aramean king who is mentioned in the Bible. Under his reign, Aram-Damascus became an empire that ruled over large parts of Syria and Palestine
During his approximately 37-year reign (c. 842 BC-805 BC), King Hazael led the Arameans in battle against the forces of King Jehoram of Israel and King Ahaziah of Judah. After defeating them at Ramoth-Gilead, Hazael repelled two attacks by the Assyrians, seized Israelite territory east of the Jordan, the Philistine city of Gath, and sought to take Jerusalem as well (2 Kings 12:17). A monumental Aramaic inscription discovered at Tel Dan is seen by most scholars as having being erected by Hazael, after he defeated the Kings of Israel and Judah. Recent excavations at Tell es-Safi/Gath have revealed dramatic evidence of the siege and subsequent conquest of Gath by Hazael. The destruction of the settlement at Tell Zeitah during the ninth century may also be the result of Hazael’s campaign. King Joash of Judah forestalled Hazael’s invasion by bribing him with treasure from the royal palace and temple, after which he disappears from the Biblical account.
Decorated bronze plaques from chariot horse-harness taken from Hazael, identified by their inscriptions, have been found as re-gifted votive objects at two Greek sites, the Heraion of Samos and in the temple of Apollo at Eretria on Euboea. The inscriptions read “that which Hadad gave to our lord Hazael from ‘Umq in the year that our lord crossed the River”.
The river must be the Orontes. The triangular front pieces show a “master of the animals” gripping inverted sphinxes or lions in either hand, and with deep-bosomed goddesses who cup their breasts and stand on the heads of lions. When Tiglath-Pileser III took Damascus in 733/2, these heirlooms were part of the loot that fell eventually into Greek, probably Euboean hands
I. Eph’al and J. Naveh, “Hazael’s booty inscriptions”, Israel Exploration Journal 39 (1989:192-200).
Compare the Aegean “Mistress of the Animals”
Robin Lane Fox, Travelling Heroes in the Epic Age of Homer, 2008:109-11.
740 BC CANAANITE ISRAEL IS UNDER ASSYRIAN CONTROL
UNDER MALE FERTILITY CANAANITE OMRIDE “YAW” RULERS
Hoshea (Hebrew: ????, Modern Hoshea Tiberian Hôšea? ; “salvation”; Latin: Osee) was the last king of the Israelite Kingdom of Israel.Assyrian records basically confirm the Biblical account of how he became king. According to 2 Kings, Hoshea conspired against and slew his predecessor, Pekah (2 Kings 15:30), in whose army Hoshea had previously served as a captain. An undated inscription of Tiglath-Pileser III boasts of making Hoshea king after his predecessor had been overthrown:
Israel (lit. : “Omri-house” Bit-Humria)…overthrew their king Pekah (Pa-qa-ha) and I placed Hoshea (A-ú -si’) as king over them. I received from them 10 talents of gold, 1,000(?) talents of silver as their [tri]bute and brought them to Assyria
EGYPT STILL RULES SOUTH CANAAN(EGYPTIAN JUDAH)
AND ISRAEL DEFYS THE SUN WORSHIPING ASSYRIANS AND JOINS WITH A TANIS PHAROANIC DYNASTY
Hoshea eventually withheld the tribute he promised Shalmaneser, expecting the support of “So, the king of Egypt”.So dispatched no aid or troops.Kenneth Kitchen is correct in identifying “So” with Osorkon IV (730-715 BC)of the 22nd Dynasty.This again shows Israel’s connection with the Egyptian Amen/Set faction.Osorkon IV ruled from Tanis(Zoan/New Avaris)and was supported by the High Priests of Amen. A small aegis of Sekhmet with the name of Osorkon IV,is in the Louvre.Sekmet is the lion headed ,red linen wearing ,Amen protector of the Pharoah(Amen-Ra/Set),while Bast is the Cat headed Ra protector(Ra/Osiris/Isis/Horus).Unfortunately for Israel at this time Osorkon IV was defending Thebes from the Nubian invaders and loosing.
Osorkon’s reign was never recognized at Memphis, where documents were dated to the reign of 24th Saite dynasty king Bakenranef,his royal name, Wahkare, means “Constant is the Spirit of Re”. An Apis(Ra sun worship) stela dated to Year 6 of Bakenranef’s reign,was found in Saqqara.
During his time, Egypt was ruled concurrently by four dynasties – the 22nd, 23rd, 24th and the 25th. Shortly after Osorkon had ascended the throne, Upper Egypt was conquered by the Kushite king, Piye.The power of the High Priests of Amen falls to the Kushite king and Osorkon IV ended up ruling only the East Nile Delta region.Osorkon IV was the king whom Piye identified as ruler of Tanis and Bubastis in his Year 21 Victory stela.
EGYPT STILL RULES SOUTH CANAAN(EGYPTIAN JUDAH)
THE NUBIAN EGYPTIAN 25TH DYNASTY 760BC -656BC
The Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, known as the Nubian Dynasty or the Kushite Empire, was the last dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt.The 25th dynasty was a line of rulers originating in the Nubian Kingdom of Kush and most saw Napata as their spiritual homeland. They reigned in part or all of Ancient Egypt from 760 BC to 656 BC.The dynasty began with Kashta’s invasion of Upper Egypt. The reunited Nile valley empire of the 25th dynasty was as large as it had been since the New Kingdom. The 25th dynasty ushered in a renaissance period for Ancient Egypt.It was during the 25th dynasty that the Nile valley saw the first widespread construction of pyramids (many in modern Sudan) since the Middle Kingdom
EGYPT LOOSES CONTROL OF THE LEVANT C735BC
In 664 BC the Assyrians laid the final blow, sacking Thebes and Memphis. The 25th dynasty ended with its rulers retreating to their spiritual homeland at Napata. It was there (at El-Kurru and Nuri) that all 25th dynasty pharaohs are buried under the first pyramids that the Nile valley had seen in centuries. The Napatan dynasty led to the Kingdom of Kush, which flourished in Napata and Meroe until at least the 2nd century AD.
AND JUDAH GETS A FIRST MENTION
THIS SUGGEST JUDAH WAS JUST EAST NILE EGYPT UNTIL THIS TIME….UNFORTUNATELY, IT MENTIONS THEY GET DEPORTED
Tiglath-Pileser III (from the Hebraic form[Note 1] of Akkadian: Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, “my trust is in the son of Esharra”) was a prominent king of Assyria in the eighth century BCE (ruled 745–727 BCE) who introduced advanced civil, military and political systems into the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Tiglath-Pileser III subjugated much of the known world at the time; to the south, his fellow Mesopotamians in Babylonia and Chaldea, and further south still, the Arabs, Magan, Meluhha and Dilmunites of the Arabian Peninsula were conquered. In the south west, Israel, Judah, Philistia, Samarra, Moab, Edom, the Suteans and Nabatea fell. To the north, Urartu, Armenia and Scythia in the Caucasus Mountains, Cimmeria by the Black Sea, and Nairi were subjugated, and in the north west much of eastern and south western Asia Minor, including the Hittites, Phrygia, Cilicia, Commagene, Tabal, Corduenne and Caria. In the west, the Greeks of Cyprus and Aram (modern Syria), and the Mediterranean City States of Phoenicia/Caanan were subjugated. To the east he subjugated Persia, Media, Gutium, Mannea, Cissia and Elam, and later in his reign, Tiglath-Pileser III was crowned king in Babylonia.
Tiglath-Pileser III discouraged revolts against Assyrian rule with the use of forced deportations of thousands of people all over the empire. He is one of the greatest military captains in world history, conquering most of the world known to the Assyrians before his death.
Tiglath-Pileser III’s conquests and reforms led to the establishment of the Neo-Assyrian Kingdom as a true empire. He built a royal palace in Kalhu (the biblical Calah/Nimrud, the so-called “central palace”), later dismantled by Esarhaddon. He had his royal annals engraved across the bas-reliefs depicting his military achievements on the sculptured slabs decorating his palace.
On his death he was succeeded by his son Ululayu, who took the name Shalmaneser V and further campaigned in the Levant, defeated Egypt, and captured Samaria.
THE ARAMAIC LANGUAGE,ASSYRIAN LAW CODES AND MESOPOTAMIAN LEGENDS RE-ENTER THE CANAANITE CULTURE
Several of the most ancient works of Mesopotamian literature are best preserved in Neo-Assyrian copies. Thus, there are 7th-century copies of both the Epic ofGilgamesh and the Enûma Eliš from Ashurbanipal’s library in Nineveh, as well as Neo-Assyrian versions of the Atra-Hasis. The Aramaic language from the 8th century BC was adopted as the Lingua Franca of the Assyrian Empire and continued by the Achaemenid Empire. Assyrian scribes are often depicted in pairs: one writing in Akkadian on the cuneiform tablet, the other writing in Aramaic on the parchment or papyrus.The Assyrian law code was compiled during this period.
The main cities that existed in Assyria itself were Nineveh, Ashur, Kalhu (Calah, Nimrud), Sippar, Opis, Arrapkha (Kirkuk), Harran, Arbela (Erbil) and Ekallatum.Outside of Assyria proper, major cities at various times under Assyrian domination were Babylon, Damascus (Dimashq), Thebes, Memphis, Tyre, Sidon, Ecbatana, Hattusa,Jerusalem, Susa, Persepolis, Carchemish, Sardis, Ur, Uruk, Nippur and Antioch.
JUDAH ,AN ASSYRIAN NEO-BABYLONIAN KINGDOM CREATED 733BC
JUDAH/DJEUJTE “LORD” IS A TITLE OF SET ,LIKE EDOM REFERS TO RED ,THE COLOUR OF SET
Kingdom of Judah.
Nimrud Tablet K.3751, dated c.733 BCE, is the earliest known record of the name Judah (written in Assyrian cuneiform as Yaudaya or KUR.ia-ú-da-a-a).
The name originates from the neo-Babylonian and Persian name “Yehud” for the biblical tribe of Judah (Yehudah) and associated Kingdom of Judah.The name of the region continued to be incorporated through the Babylonian conquest, Persian, Hellenistic, and Roman periods as Babylonian Judea, Persian Judea, Hasmonean Judea, and consequently Herodian Judea and Roman Judea, respectively. As a consequence of the Bar Kokhba revolt, in 135 CE the region was renamed and merged with Roman Syria to form Syria Palaestina by the victorious Roman Emperor Hadrian.
“Judah, Kingdom of”. Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2014-04-10.]
THE DEPORTATIONS CONTINUE UNDER ASSYRIAN RULE
THE KINGDOM OF ISRAEL ENDS 722BC
Sargon II, 721–705 BC
Shalmaneser V died suddenly in 722 BC, while laying siege to Samaria, and the throne was seized by Sargon II, the Turtanu (commander-in-chief of the army, which the Old Testament refers to as Tartan), who then quickly took Samaria, effectively ending the northern Kingdom of Israel and carrying 27,000 people away into captivity into the Israelite diaspora. (2 Kings 17:1–6, 24; 18:7, 9).
689BC ISRAEL AND JUDAH ARE STILL ASSYRIAN VASSAL STATES
The prisms contain six paragraphs of cuneiform written Akkadian. They are hexagonal in shape, made of red baked clay, and stand 38.0 cm high by 14.0 cm wide, and were created during the reign of Sennacherib in 689 BC.The Taylor prism is thought to have been found by Colonel Robert Taylor (1790-1852) in 1830 Nineveh, which was the ancient capital of the Assyrian Empire under Sennacherib.
It is one of three accounts discovered so far which have been left by Sennacherib of his campaign against the Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah, giving a different perspective on these events from that of the Book of Kings in the Bible.
Some passages in the Old Testament agree with at least a few of the claims made on the prism. The Bible recounts a successful Assyrian attack on Samaria, as a result of which the population was deported, and later recounts that an attack on Lachish was ended by Hezekiah suing for peace, with Sennacherib demanding 300 talents of silver and 30 talents of gold, and Hezekiah giving him all the silver from his palace and from the Temple in Jerusalem, and the gold from doors and doorposts of the temple.
Compared to this, the Taylor Prism proclaims that 46 walled cities and innumerable smaller settlements were conquered by the Assyrians, with 200,150 people, and livestock, being deported, and the conquered territory being dispersed among the three kings of the Philistines instead of being given back. Additionally, the Prism says that Sennacherib’s siege resulted in Hezekiah being shut up in Jerusalem “like a caged bird”, Hezekiah’s mercenaries and ‘Arabs’ deserting him, and Hezekiah eventually buying off Sennacherib, having to give him antimony, jewels, ivory-inlaid furniture, his own daughters, harem, and musicians. It states that Hezekiah became a tributary ruler.
On Sennacherib’s prism, he says this of Hezekiah: “As for the king of Judah, Hezekiah, who had not submitted to my authority, I besieged and captured forty-six of his fortified cities, along with many smaller towns, taken in battle with my battering rams . . . I took as plunder 200,150 people, both small and great, male and female, along with a great number of animals including horses, mules, donkeys, camels, oxen, and sheep. As for Hezekiah, I shut him up like a caged bird in his royal city of Jerusalem. I then constructed a series of fortresses around him, and I did not allow anyone to come out of the city gates. His towns which I captured I gave to the kings of Ashod, Ekron, and Gaza.”
The tribute given by Hezekiah is then mentioned
ASSYRIAN EGYPT STARTS 685BC RULED BY RA
The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt (also written Dynasty XXVI or Dynasty 26) initially a puppet dynasty installed by and vassals of the Assyrians,was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC (although others followed).This dynasty traced its origins to 24th dynasty. Psamtik I was probably a descendant of Bakenrenef, and following the Assyrians’ invasions during the reigns of Taharqa and Tantamani, he was recognized as sole king over all of Egypt.
EGYPT RISES AGAIN UNDER OSIRIS AND ISIS 612BC
Psammetichus threw off his ties to the Assyrians, and formed alliances with Gyges, king of Lydia, and recruited mercenaries from Caria and Greece to resist Assyrian attacks.With the sack of Nineveh in 612 BC and the fall of the Assyrian Empire, both Psamtik and his successors attempted to reassert Egyptian power in the Near East, but were driven back by the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar II.
AND THE LAST EGYPTIAN DYNASTY OF RA RULES FROM SAIS,HOME OF OSIRIS AND ISIS C685BC
The dynasty’s reign (c. 685–525 BC) is also called the Saite Period after the city of Sais, where its pharaohs had their capital.Sais (Ancient Greek: S???) or Sa el-Hagar was an ancient Egyptian town in the Western Nile Delta on the Canopic branch of the Nile. It was the provincial capital of Sap-Meh, the fifth nome of Lower Egypt and became the seat of power during the Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt (c. 732–720 BC) and the Saite Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (664–525 BC) during the Late Period. Its Ancient Egyptian name was Zau.
Herodotus wrote that Sais is where the grave of Osiris was located and that the sufferings of the god were displayed as a mystery by night on an adjacent lake.Sais is the city in which Solon (Solon visited Egypt in 590 B.C.) receives the story of Atlantis, its military aggression against Greece and Egypt, its eventual defeat and destruction by gods-punishing catastrophe, from an Egyptian priest.
Plutarch said that the shrine of Athena, which he identifies with Isis, in Sais carried the inscription “I am all that hath been, and is, and shall be; and my veil no mortal has hitherto raised”.
The Temple of Sais had a medical school associated with it, as did many ancient Egyptian temples. The medical school at Sais had many female students and apparently women faculty as well.An inscription from the period survives at Sais, and reads, “I have come from the school of medicine at Heliopolis, and have studied at the woman’s school at Sais, where the divine mothers have taught me how to cure diseases”. Moses and his wife, Zipporah, were said to have studied in Heliopolis
The city’s patron goddess was Neith, whose cult is attested as early as the 1st Dynasty, ca. 3100- 3050 BCE
NECHO I WAS AN ASSYRIAN PUPPET 672 – 664 BCE
NECHO I REBELLED AGAINST ASSYRIA WITH THE SUPPORT OF KUSH
HE WAS DEFEATED AND JOINED THE ASSYRIANS AGAIN
HE WAS THEN OVERTHROWN BY THE KING OF KUSH
In 672 BCE Necho became ruler of Sais, assuming the pharaonic titulary, and just a year later the Assyrians led by Esarhaddon invaded Egypt.The Assyrians appointed Necho I as king and left Egypt. Necho became one of Esarhaddon’s vassals, and the latter confirmed Necho’s office and his possessions, as well as giving him new territories, possibly including the city of Memphis.
In 669 BCE king Taharqa of the 25th Dynasty was advancing from the south toward the Nile Delta principalities which were formally under Assyrian control.The counteroffensive planned by his father took place in 667/666 BCE.Taharqa was defeated and driven back to Thebes, but Ashurbanipal found that the fleeing king and some of the rulers of Lower Egypt – named Pekrur of Pishaptu (Per-Sopdu), Sharruludari of Ṣinu (maybe Pelusium) and Niku (Necho I) – were plotting against him. The Assyrian king captured the conspirators, killed part of the population of the cities they governed, and deported the prisoners to Nineveh.
Unexpectedly, Necho was pardoned by the Assyrian king, and was reinstated at Sais with his previous possessions as well as many new territories as a gift, while his son Psamtik (called Nabusezibanni in Akkadian) was made mayor of Athribis.
NECHO I ,JOINS THE ASSYRIANS AGAINST THE KUSHITES AND IS KILLED
Tantamani marched down the Nile from Nubia and reoccupied all of Egypt including Memphis.Tantamani (Assyrian UR-daname) or Tanwetamani (Egyptian) or Tementhes (Greek) (d. 653 BC) was a Pharaoh of Egypt and the Kingdom of Kush located in Northern Sudan and a member of the Nubian or Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt. His prenomen or royal name was Bakare which means “Glorious is the Soul of Re.”
Necho I, the Assyrians’ representative, was killed in Tantamani’s campaign,according to historical records Necho I was slain in 664 BCE near Memphis while defending his realms from a new Kushite offensive led by Taharqa’s successor Tantamani while Psamtik(his son) fled to Nineveh(Assyria).This Nubian invasion into the Egyptian Delta was subsequently (664/663 BCE) repelled by the Assyrians who proceeded to advance south into Upper Egypt and performed the infamous sack of Thebes.The Assyrian reconquest effectively ended Nubian control over Egypt.
Kenneth Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 BC), 3rd ed., Aris & Phillips Limited, Warminster 1996, ISBN 0-85668-298-5.
Daniela Picchi, Il conflitto tra Etiopi ed Assiri nell’Egitto della XXV dinastia (The war between Kushites and Assyrians in Egypt during the 25th Dynasty), La Mandragora, Imola 1997, ISBN 88-86123-34-5.]
KING JOSIAH JOINS A POWER STRUGGLE FOR THE THRONE OF EGYPT
HE SUPPORTS THE BABYLON FACTION MARDUK/BEL/BAAL/SET/AMEN
WE SEE KING JOSIAH OF JUDAH,SON OF KING AMON(AMEN),THE LAST SET RULER OF CANAAN ,TAKE ON THE RULING ISRAELI/ASSYRIAN/EGYPTIAN RULERS AT THIS TIME TOO.
ATTACKING THE POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS CENTRES OF THE NEW ISRAELI ASSYRIAN RULERS
Possibly King Josiah was trying to impose an Egyptian Amen-Ra/Set rule over Canaan and Lower Egypt,taking on the Canaanite Assyrian male fertility ruling elite,or opposing the spread of Assyrian sun worship.We do see Hoshea,the last Israelite king, ask for help from “Os,King of Egypt”.This again shows Israel’s connection with the Egyptian Amen/Set faction.Osorkon IV was ruling Tanis(Avaris/Zoan) and the East Nile Delta and in league with the High Preists of Amen.Osorkon IV’s Egypt was struggling with sun worship Assyria at the time in Canaan and with the Nubians threatening and taking Thebes in the south.This is why no help arrived.
(Alternatively King Josiah could be a local puppet backed by Egyptian or Assyrian sun worshipers which are fighting for control of the region.)
WITH THE WEAKENING OF ASSYRIAN AND EGYPTIAN SUN WORSHIP POWER IN CANAAN
KING JOSIAH OF JUDAH ,A VASSAL STATE TO ASSYRIA AND EGYPT,KICKS OFF THE OLD RULERS AND IMPOSES A NEW RELIGIOUS CENTRALISED AUTHORITY C630BC
KING JOSIAH OF JUDAH,SON OF KING AMON(AMEN), IS PROBABLY OF SHASU(AMEN(-RA)/SET) EGYPTIAN INFLUENCE
MAKING CANAAN THE LAND OF SET AGAIN(POSSIBLY SET AS HERO OF RA)
ALLIED WITH BABYLON
CHALLENGING THE CANAANITE ISRAELI ASSYRIAN RULERS IN CANAAN AND LATER CHALLENGING THE EGYPTIAN SUN WORSHIPERS FOR THE THRONE OF EGYPT
Josiah is credited by most historians with having established or compiled important Hebrew Scriptures during the Deuteronomic reform that occurred during his rule.
Historical-critical biblical scholarship generally accepts that this scroll — an early predecessor of the Torah — was written by the priests driven by ideological interest to centralize power under Josiah in the Temple in Jerusalem.
On the other hand, recent European theologians posit that most of the Torah and Deuteronomistic History was composed and its form finalized during the Persian period, several centuries later
Josiah became king of Judah at the age of eight, after the assassination of his father, King Amon(AMEN), and reigned for thirty-one years, from 641/640 to 610/609 BC ,2 Kings 22:1, 21:23-26, 21:26
Edwin Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, (1st ed.; New York: Macmillan, 1951; 2d ed.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965; 3rd ed.; Grand Rapids: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983). ISBN 0-8254-3825-X, 9780825438257, 217.
Konrad Schmid, The Persian Imperial Authorization as a Historical Problem and as a Biblical Construct,in G.N.Knoppers and B.M.Levison(eds.): The Pentateuch as Torah, New Models for Understanding its Promulgation and Acceptance, Eisenbrauns 2007]
KING AMON(AMEN) RULED THE LAND OF SET.
HIS SON JUST LIKE HIS FATHER,IS A DEDICATED EGYPTIAN AMEN/SET WORSHIPER (AMEN/SET)
PROBABLY KILLED BY ASSYRIAN SUN WORSHIPERS OR ISRAELITE “YAW” WORSHIPERS
Josiah, whose death at the hands of Pharaoh Necho II occurred in the summer of 609. Josiah’s death, which is independently confirmed in Egyptian history,places the end of Amon’s reign, 31 years earlier, in 641 or 640 and the beginning of his rule in 643 or 642.
THE TORAH RECALLS HIS NEGLECT OF THE CANAANITE TEMPLES
The Hebrew Bible records that Amon continued his father Manasseh’s practice of idolatry and set up pagan images as his father had done. II Kings states that Amon “did that which was evil in the sight of YAWEH, as did Manasseh his father. And he walked in all the way that his father walked in, and served the idols that his father served, and worshipped them. “Similarly, II Chronicles records that “…he did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, as did Manasseh his father; and Amon sacrificed unto all the graven images which Manasseh his father had made, and served them.” The Talmudic tradition recounts that “Amon burnt the Torah, and allowed spider webs to cover the altar [through complete disuse] … Amon sinned very much.”
HE IS OVERTHROWN IN A FAILED PLOT BY ASSYRIAN EGYPTIAN OR ISRAELITE FACTIONS WHO THEMSELVES ARE KILLED
After reigning two years, Amon was assassinated by his servants, who conspired against him, and was succeeded by his son Josiah, who at the time was eight years old. After Amon’s assassination his murderers became unpopular with the people, and were ultimately killed.
KING JOSIAH ,EGYPTIAN AMEN/SET WORSHIPER STRIKES BACK
HE MAKES HIS BID FOR THE THRONE OF EGYPT
A BLOODBATH BEGINS AT THE SITE OF SOLOMONS TEMPLE
WHICH IS JUST A GROVE OF STANDING STONES DEDICATED TO BAAL AND ASTARTE AND OTHER CANAANITE PAGAN FERTILITY GODS
THE JUDEAN SHASU EGYPTIAN ATTEMPT TO IMPOSE RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL AUTHORITY OVER CANAAN AND PROBABLY LOWER EGYPT TOO
AND MAKE IT AN INDEPENDENT STATE ,ALLIED TO BABYLON AND DEDICATED TO EGYPTIAN SET/BAAL AMEN-RA/YWH STARTS
An indication that standing stones and a “sacred grove” really graced Temple Mount is found in the campaign of desecration and murder so gleefully attributed by the books of Chronicles and Kings to king Josiah of Judah.
The regency of this young, 7th century BC king provided the priests of Yahwism with the opportunity to eradicate rivals to the Yahweh cult and at the same time impose an exclusive, Jerusalem-based theocracy. Even rural priests of the Yahweh cult were to be compelled into service with the sacerdotal hierarchy in Jerusalem.
Josiah “did that which was right in the sight of the LORD” and waged a fierce campaign of terror against rivals of Yahweh worship. Priests were murdered and burnt on their own altars, images were smashed, sacred groves destroyed and even the graves of children defiled. All God’s work.
The biblical account may well exaggerate the success of Yahwism’s violent program of religious purification but it certainly confirms that a plethora of gods, groves and altars in “high places” peppered the Palestinian landscape.
So tenacious was the appeal of other deities that even even after the iconoclasm of Josiah most of the kings of Judah continued to embrace a multiplicity of gods and even rebuilt the “high places”.
“But the high places were not taken away: the people still sacrificed and burnt incense in the high places.” – 2 Kings 12.3.
It seems that even the “house of the Lord” in Jerusalem was shared by a number of deities. Josiah’s brutal reformation apparently included an assault on a polytheistic cult centre on “Temple Mount” itself – apostasy had gone that far, despite Yahweh’s not infrequent intercession in Jewish affairs!
“And the king commanded … to bring forth out of the Temple of the LORD all the vessels that were made for Baal, and for the grove, and for all the host of heaven: and he burned them without Jerusalem in the fields of Kidron …
And he brought out the grove from the House of the LORD … and burned it at the brook Kidron, and stamped it small to powder, and cast the powder thereof upon the graves of the children of the people. And he brake down the houses of the sodomites, that were by the house of the LORD, where the women wove hangings for the grove … ” – 2 Kings 23.4-20.
Whatever else, there is little to suggest that the Yahweh sanctuary ravaged by Josiah had much in common with the fabulous “Temple of Solomon” of later fame. The site evidently featured a grove and altars to Baal, Ashtoreth (Astarte/Ishtar) and other gods. To the priests of Yahweh this was surely “the mount of corruption” (2 Kings 23:13) – not the Mount of Olives.
Astarte figurines are found in ancient sites throughout the Levant. The ubiquitous Asherah worship – more popular than the vengeful god Yahweh.Why were the chosen people so reluctant to embrace the warrior god Yahweh? What was it that made the alternative gods so agreeable? The phallic symbolism of many standing-stones makes abundantly clear that much of the religious impulse was directed at fertility
Yahwah Gezer phallic stone
SO NO TEMPLE OF SOLOMON C600BC
BUT EGYPT AND ASSYRIA ALLY AGAINST THE NEW BABYLONIAN THREAT
ANOTHER BIBLICAL PHARAOH APPEARS
THE EGYPTIAN 26TH DYNASTY OF THE SUN c610-595BC
Necho II(sometimes Nekau,Neku, Nechoh, or Nikuu; Greek: Νεχώς Β’ or Νεχώ Β’) of Kemet was a king of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (c. 610 BC – c. 595 BC) and was the son of Psammetichus I by his Great Royal Wife Mehtenweskhet. His prenomen or royal name Wahem-Ib-Re means “Carrying out [the] Heart (i.e., Wish) [of] Re.Necho played a significant role in the histories of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, the Neo-Babylonian Empire and the Kingdom of Judah. Necho II is most likely the pharaoh mentioned in several books of the Bible.
Necho was faced with the chaos created by the raids of the Cimmerians and the Scythians, who had not only ravaged Asia west of the Euphrates, but had also helped the Babylonians shatter the Assyrian Empire.That once mighty empire was now reduced to the troops, officials, and nobles who had gathered around a general holding out at Harran, who had taken the throne name of Ashur-uballit II.Coincidently Ashur is the god that rivals Marduk in Babylon.
KING JOSIAH OF JUDAH.
OPPOSSER OF SUN WORSHIP EGYPT AND ASSYRIA
THE LION OF JUDAH ,LOYAL VASSEL OF BABYLON
AND THIER GOD MARDUK,(BEL or BEL RABIM)
Necho II attempted to assist this remnant immediately upon his coronation.In the spring of 609 BC, Necho personally led a sizable force to help the Assyrians. At the head of a large army, consisting mainly of his mercenaries, Necho took the coast route Via Maris into Syria, supported by his Mediterranean fleet along the shore.At the great Jezreel Valley, he found his passage blocked by the Judean army. Their king, Josiah, sided with the Babylonians and attempted to block his advance at Megiddo, where a fierce battle was fought and Josiah was killed (2 Kings 23:29, 2 Chronicles 35:20-24).
THE ISRAELITES OPPOSE GOD AGAIN
Necho is quoted as saying:
“What quarrel is there between you and me, O king of Judah? It is not you I am attacking at this time, but the house with which I am at war. God has told me to hurry; so stop opposing God, who is with me, or he will destroy you.”
Notice again ,it is the Egyptian sun worshiper Necho II ,that speaks of God in a monotheistic term.
Herodotus reports the campaign of the pharaoh in his Histories, Book 2:159:
“Necos, then, stopped work on the canal and turned to war; some of his triremes were constructed by the northern sea, and some in the Arabian Gulf (Red Sea), by the coast of the Sea of Erythrias. The windlasses for beaching the ships can still be seen. He deployed these ships as needed, while he also engaged in a pitched battle at Magdolos with the Syrians, and conquered them; and after this he took Cadytis (Kadesh), which is a great city of Syria. He sent the clothes he had worn in these battles to Branchidae of Miletus and dedicated them to Apollo(Ra the sun).”
KING JOSIAH’S REIGN IS DEFEATED BY EGYPTIAN SUN WORSHIPERS AND JUDAH ADDED TO THE EGYPTIAN OSIRIS EMPIRE C609
THEN EGYPT FALLS TO THE NEO-BABYLONIAN EMPIRE C605
Josiah’s days of iconoclastic glory quickly passed. The Egyptian Pharaoh Nekau II moved his army north to assist his Assyrian ally against the rising power of Babylon and eliminated this minor Jewish king along the way. Judah returned to the Egyptian empire.The defeat of Josiah at Megiddo essentially represents the end of the rule of the Davidic line, since not only were Josiah’s successors short-lived, but also Judah’s relative independence had crumbled in the face of a resurgent Egypt. But four years later, in 605 BC, Nekau was himself defeated and soon after Judah – and then Egypt itself – became provinces of a neo-Babylonian empire.
THIS ACT OF LOYALTY BY KING JOSIAH IS REWARDED LATER BY THE BABYLONIANS
THEY ARE INVITED TO LIVE IN BABYLON
SAFE FROM THE EGYPTIAN PHARAOHS OF THE SUN
THE HOME OF HYKSOS ABRAHAM
Babylon (/ˈbæbələn, -ˌlɒn/; Akkadian: Bābili(m);Sumerian logogram: KÁ.DINGIR.RAKI;Hebrew: בָּבֶל, Bavel;Ancient Greek: Βαβυλών Babylṓn; Old Persian: 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 Bābiru; Arabic: بابل, Bābil)a city with obvious Baal connections was originally a Semitic Akkadian city dating from the period of the Akkadian Empire c. 2300 BC.Historical resources suggest that Babylon was at first a small town which had sprung up by the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC (c. 2000 BC). The town attained independence as a small city state with the rise of the First Amorite Babylonian Dynasty in 1894 BC.Under Nabopolassar, a Chaldean king, Babylon eventually threw off Assyrian rule, and in an alliance with Cyaxares, king of the Medes and Persians together with the Scythians and Cimmerians, the Assyrian Empire was finally destroyed between 612 BC and 605 BC. Babylon thus became the capital of the Neo-Babylonian (sometimes and possibly erroneously called Chaldean) Empire. Claiming to be the successor of the more ancient Sumero-Akkadian city of Eridu, Babylon, hitherto a minor city, eclipsed Nippur as the “holy city” of Mesopotamia around the time an Amorite king named Hammurabi first created the short lived Babylonian Empire in the 18th century BC. Babylon grew and South Mesopotamia came to be known as Babylonia.
With the recovery of Babylonian independence, a new era of architectural activity ensued, and his son Nebuchadnezzar II (604–561 BC) made Babylon into one of the wonders of the ancient world.Nebuchadnezzar ordered the complete reconstruction of the imperial grounds, including rebuilding the Etemenanki ziggurat and the construction of the Ishtar Gate – the most spectacular of eight gates that ringed the perimeter of Babylon.Nebuchadnezzar is also credited with the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon (one of the seven wonders of the ancient world).
THE POWER OF THE SUN(SET) OR SEKMET THE LIONESS PROTECTOR GODDESS OF THE HIGH PRIESTS OF AMEN
THE LION OF JUDAH GUARDS THE GATES OF BABYLON
The Ishtar Gate and the Babylon_relief becomes the lion of Judah
RULED BY BEL RABIM/MARUK (BAAL/SET)
Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU 𒀫𒌓 “solar calf”; perhaps from MERI.DUG; Biblical Hebrew מְרֹדַךְ Merodach; Greek Μαρδοχαῖος,Mardochaios) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon.He is normally referred to as Bel “Lord”, also bel rabim “great lord”.Probably the root of the title Rabbi.
CONSORT OF MARDUK/BEL(BAAL/SET)
ISHTAR(ASHERAH, ALSO CONSORT OF SET AND BAAL AND SHEMESH)
QUEEN OF THE NIGHT
EGYPT STRIKES BACK 606BC
The second of Necho’s campaigns was aimed was Asiatic conquest,to contain the Westward advance of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, and cut off its trade route across the Euphrates.The Babylonian king was planning on reasserting his power in Syria. In 609 BC, the old and infirm King Nabopolassar captured Kumukh, which cut off the Egyptian army, then based at Carchemish. Necho responded the following year by retaking Kumukh after a four-month siege, and executed the Babylonian garrison.In 606 BC the Egyptians attacked the leaderless Babylonians (probably then led by the crown prince Nebuchadrezzar) who fled their position.
EGYPTIAN POWER RETURNS TO THE LEVANT/CANAAN
At this point, the aged Nabopolassar, passed command of the army to his son Nebuchadnezzar II, who led them to a decisive victory over the Egyptians at Carchemish, and pursued the fleeing survivors to Hamath. Necho’s dream of restoring the Egyptian Empire in the Middle East, as under the New Kingdom, was destroyed as Nebuchadnezzar conquered Egyptian territory from the Euphrates to the Brook of Egypt (Jeremiah 46:2; 2 Kings 23:29) down to Judea and were barely able to repel a Babylonian attack on their eastern border in 601 BC. When he did repel the Babylonian attack, Necho II managed to capture Gaza while pursuing the enemy. Necho II turned his attention in his remaining years to forging relationships with new allies: the Carians, and further to the west, the Greeks.
Necho II initiated but never completed the ambitious project of cutting a navigable canal from the Pelusiac branch of the Nile to the Red Sea. Necho’s Canal was the earliest precursor of the Suez Canal.It was in connection with a new activity that Necho founded a new city of Per-Temu Tjeku which translates as ‘The House of Atum of Tjeku’ at the site now known as Tell el-Maskhuta, about 15 km west of Ismailia. The waterway was intended to facilitate trade between the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean.
Necho also formed an Egyptian navy by recruiting displaced Ionian Greeks.The navy which Necho created operated along both the Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts.Necho II constructed warships,including questionably triremes.
Necho II sent out an expedition of Phoenicians, which in three years sailed from the Red Sea around Africa to the mouth of the Nile.The belief in Herodotus’ account, handed down to him by oral tradition,is primarily because he stated with disbelief that the Phoenicians “as they sailed on a westerly course round the southern end of Libya (Africa), they had the sun on their right” – to northward of them (The Histories 4.42) in Herodotus’ time it was not generally known that Africa was surrounded by an ocean
A History of Egypt, from the XIXth to the XXXth Dynasties. By Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie.
The Historians’ History of the World: Prolegomena; Egypt, Mesopotamia. Edited by Henry Smith Williams.
Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames and Hudson, 1994. p.195]
IT COULD BE A LOT OF THE DEPORTATIONS WHERE IN FACT MIGRATIONS TO THE SAFTEY AND WEALTH OF BABYLON,THE HYKSOS AMORITE HOMELAND
WHERE BAAL/BEL/MARDUK RULES SUPREME AND THE LION OF JUDAH STANDS GUARD
AND FLEEING THE RETURN OF EGYPTIAN SUN RULE PHARAOHS AS THE JUDAH KINGSHIP SEEMS DEFEATED AND POWERLESS.
The Battle of Carchemish in 605 BCE, Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem, resulting in tribute being paid by King Jehoiakim.Jehoiakim refused to pay tribute in Nebuchadnezzar’s fourth year, which led to another siege in Nebuchadnezzar’s seventh year, culminating with the death of Jehoiakim, and the exile of King Jeconiah, his court and many others; Jeconiah’s successor Zedekiah and others were exiled in Nebuchadnezzar’s eighteenth year; a later deportation occurred in Nebuchadnezzar’s twenty-third year. These deportations are dated to 597 BCE, c. 587 BCE, and c. 582 BCE, respectively.
THE BABYLONIAN EXILE/MIGRATION?
IT SEEMS ALL COMMUNITIES EXCEPT FOR THE FANATICAL STRONGHOLDS, BETH SHEMESH(SET AS HERO OF RA)WHICH WILL BECOME A LEVITE CITY AND THE AMMON(AMEN)COMMUNITIES ARE REMOVED/MIGRATE FROM CANAAN TO BABYLON
“From 604 B.C.E. to 538 B.C.E.—there is a complete gap in evidence suggesting occupation. … I do not mean to imply that the country was uninhabited during the period between the Babylonian destruction and the Persian period. There were undoubtedly some settlements, but the population was very small. Many towns and villages were either completely or partly destroyed. The rest were barely functioning. International trade virtually ceased. Only two regions appear to have been spared this fate—the northern part of Judah (the region of Benjamin) and probably the land of Ammon, although the latter region awaits further investigation.”
Nebuchadnezzar’s siege of Jerusalem,an Assyrian sun city, his capture of King Jeconiah, his appointment of Zedekiah in his place, and the plundering of the city in 597 BCE as described in 2 Kings in the Bible are confirmed by a passage in the Babylonian Chronicles:293
In the seventh year, in the month of Kislev, the king of Akkad mustered his troops, marched to the Hatti-land, and encamped against the City of Judah and on the ninth day of the month of Adar he seized the city and captured the king. He appointed there a king of his own choice and taking heavy tribute brought it back to Babylon.
Ephraim Stern (November–December 2000). “The Babylonian Gap”. Biblical Archaeology Review 26]
THE ASSYRIAN SUN CITY OF JERUSALEM IS COMPLETELY DESTROYED
Tablets describing ration orders for a captive King of Judah, identified with King Jeconiah, have been discovered during excavations in Babylon, in the royal archives of Nebuchadnezzar.One of the tablets refers to food rations for “Ya’u-kīnu, king of the land of Yahudu” and five royal princes, his sons.
Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonian forces returned in 588/586 BCE and rampaged through Judah, leaving clear archaeological evidence of destruction in many towns and settlements there.:294 Clay ostraca referred to as the Lachish letters from this period were discovered during excavations; one, which was probably written to the commander at Lachish from an outlying base, describes how the signal fires from nearby towns are disappearing:This correlates with the book of Jeremiah,which states that Jerusalem, Lachish and Azekah were the last cities to fall to the Babylonians. Archaeological finds from Jerusalem testify that virtually the whole city within the walls was burnt to rubble in 587 BCE and utterly destroyed
Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2001). The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-86912-4.
Thomas, David Winton (1958). Documents from Old Testament Times (1961 ed.). Edinburgh and London: Thomas Nelson. p. 84.
Cf. 2Kings 24:12, 24:15–24:16, 25:27–25:30; 2Chronicles 36:9–36:10; Jeremiah 22:24–22:6, 29:2, 52:31–52:34; Ezekiel 17:12.
“Babylonian Ration List: King Jehoiakhin in Exile, 592/1 BCE”. COJS.org. The Center for Online Judaic Studies. Retrieved 23 August 2013. “Ya’u-kīnu, king of the land of Yahudu”]
THE BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY AND THE BABYLONIANS BRING EDUCATION c520BC
The Babylonian Captivity had a number of serious effects on Judaism and the Jewish culture, including changes to the Hebrew alphabet and changes in the fundamental practices and customs of the Jewish religion. This period saw the last high-point of Biblical prophecy in the person of Ezekiel, followed by the emergence of the central role of the Torah in Jewish life. according to many historical-critical scholars, it was edited and redacted during this time, and saw the beginning of the canonization of the Bible, which provided a central text for Jews. This process coincided with the emergence of scribes and sages as Jewish leaders (see Ezra and the Pharisees).
The Babylonian calendar was a lunisolar calendar with years consisting of 12 lunar months,The calendar is based on a Sumerian (Ur III) precedecessor preserved in the Umma calendar of Shulgi (ca. 21st century BC).During the 6th century BC Babylonian exile of the Hebrews, the Babylonian month names were adopted into the Hebrew calendar.
The Hebrew calendar (Hebrew: ???? ????? ha’luach ha’ivri) or Jewish calendar is a lunisolar calendar used by Jews, now predominantly for religious purposes. It is used to reckon the Jewish New Year and dates for Jewish holidays, and also to determine appropriate public reading of Torah portions,
THE PERSIANS TAKE BABYLON AND BRING MONOTHEISM!
ZOROASTRIAN MONOTHEISM ARRIVES IN BABYLON
RATHER THAN KEEP ENSLAVED HILL TRIBES AND MERCENARIES IN CIVILISED BABYLON
CYRUS THE GREAT CONVERTS THE ENSLAVED SET/BAAL WORSHIPPING CANAANITES TO MONOTHEISM
Pasargades_winged_man Cyrus the Great
CYRUS THE GREAT THE ZORAOSTRAIN SUN WORSHIPING HORNED JEWISH MESSIAH C600/576AD-530AD
Cyrus II of Persia (Old Persian: KUURUUSHA Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش بزرگ ; c. 600 or 576 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great and also known as Cyrus the Elder,was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire.Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East,expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia and the Caucasus. From the Mediterranean Sea and Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen.
His regal titles in full were The Great King, King of Persia, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, and King of the Four Corners of the World. He also proclaimed what has been identified by scholars and archaeologists to be the oldest known declaration of human rights, which was transcribed onto the Cyrus Cylinder sometime between 539 and 530 BC. It is said that in universal history, the role of the Achaemenid Empire founded by Cyrus lies in its very successful model for centralized administration running the established imperial local governments.
BABYLON FALLS TO PERSIA AND CYRUS THE GREAT 539AD
By the year 540 BC, Cyrus captured Elam (Susiana) and its capital, Susa.The Nabonidus Chronicle records that, prior to the battle(s), Nabonidus had ordered cult statues from outlying Babylonian cities to be brought into the capital, suggesting that the conflict had begun possibly in the winter of 540 BC.The Babylonian army was routed, and on October 10, Sippar was seized without a battle, with little to no resistance from the populace.
CYRUS THE GREAT IS PLEASING TO BAAL/SET(BEL/MARDUK)
After taking Babylon, Cyrus the Great proclaimed himself “king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four corners of the world” in the famous Cyrus cylinder, an inscription deposited in the foundations of the Esagila temple dedicated to the chief Babylonian god, Marduk. The text of the cylinder denounces Nabonidus as impious and portrays the victorious Cyrus pleasing the god Marduk.
Marduk with wings
Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU 𒀫𒌓 “solar calf”; perhaps from MERI.DUG; Biblical Hebrew מְרֹדַךְ Merodach; Greek Μαρδοχαῖος,Mardochaios) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon.He is normally referred to as Bel “Lord”, also bel rabim “great lord”, bêl bêlim “lord of lords”, ab-kal ilâni bêl terêti “leader of the gods”, aklu bêl terieti “the wise, lord of oracles”, muballit mîte “reviver of the dead”, etc.
The only serious rival to Marduk after ca. 1750 BCE was the god Aššur (Ashur) (who had been the supreme deity in the northern Mesopotamian state of Assyria since the 25th century BC) which was the dominant power in the region between the 14th to the late 7th century BC. In the south, Marduk reigned supreme.Just like Set in Egypt and Baal in Canaan ,Marduk is shown killing the snake with a “vajra” weapon in his right hand, while in the left hand he is holding “the four winds”.
FOR THE SECOND TIME “MONOTHEISM” ARRIVES IN HEBREW CULTURE
LATER A RETURNING PERSIAN/JEWISH/EGYPTIAN ELITE TAKE OVER CANAAN IN THE NAME OF PERSIA AND CYRUS THE GREAT
THEY BRING MONOTHEISM(YAHWEH) AND THEIR BOOKS(TORAH) AND SUN WORSHIP
THEY REBUILD JERUSALEM STAMP OUT POLYTHEISM AND MALE FERTILITY BELIEFS AND KILL THOSE THAT OPPOSED THEIR MESSIAH CYRUS THE GREAT
THEY SET UP A CENTRALISED RELIGIOUS AUTHORITY TO CONTROL THEIR NEWLY CREATED RELIGIOUS WARRIORS
HE GETS HIS ZOROASTRIAN MONOTHEIST SCRIBES TO WRITE A HOLY BOOK JOINING CANAANITE/AMORITE MYTHOLOGY WITH HABIRU/EGYPTIAN SET WORSHIP AND MYTHS
…….AND MAKES HIMSELF THE MESSIAH/GOD OF THIS NEW BELIEF
HE HAS JUST CREATED A RELIGIOUS FANATICAL WARRIOR TRIBE TO DEFEAD HIS PERSIAN EMPIRE
AND HE SENDS THEM BACK TO RUN A PUPPET STATE FOR HIM IN CANAAN.
MONOTHEISM ARRIVES THANKS TO CYRUS THE GREAT …THE JEWISH MESSIAH
ONE GOD ,ONE EMPIRE ,ONE EMPEROR
Symbol of Cyrus the Great with horns.
MONOTHEISTIC SUN WORSHIP COMBINED WITH MALE FERTILITY AGAIN(AMEN-RA/SET)…AND CYRUS THE GREAT IS SHOWN “HORNED” ,JUST LIKE “MOSES” AND THE “PHAROAHS OF SET”!
CYRUS THE GREAT ,DIVINE SPIRITUAL HERO OF THE SUN(RA)
The ancient Greek historians Ctesias and Plutarch noted that Cyrus was named from Kuros, the Sun, a concept which has been interpreted as meaning “like the Sun” (Khurvash) by noting its relation to the Persian noun for sun, khor, while using -vash as a suffix of likeness.
PHYSICALLY STRONG AND FERTILE(SET,THE HERO OF RA)
..AND A VERY FAMILIAR SYMBOLISM FOR THE ENSLAVED HEBREWS((AMEN-RA/SET)
ESPECIALLY FOR THE JUDEAN SHASU EGYPTIAN HEBREWS
Cyrus the Greats Persian Empire, with the Levant as its border
The Achaemenid Persian Empire (c. 550–330 BCE),
The impact of Cyrus the Great’s Edict of Restoration is mentioned in Judeo-Christian texts and the empire was instrumental in the spread of Zoroastrianism as far east as China.
Sometimes known as First Persian Empire, was an Iranian empire in Western Asia, founded in the 6th century BCE by Cyrus the Great who overthrew the Median confederation. It expanded to eventually rule over significant portions of the ancient world which at around 500 BCE stretched from the Indus Valley in the east, to Thrace and Macedon on the northeastern border of Greece making it the biggest empire the world had yet seen. The Achaemenid Empire would eventually control Egypt as well. It was ruled by a series of monarchs who unified its disparate tribes and nationalities by constructing a complex network of roads.
Calling themselves the Pars after their original Aryan tribal name Parsa, Persians settled in a land which they named Parsua (Persis in Greek), bounded on the west by the Tigris River and on the south by the Persian Gulf. This became their heartland for the duration of the Achaemenid Empire. It was from this region that eventually Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II of Persia) would advance to defeat the Median, the Lydian, and the Babylonian Empires, opening the way for subsequent conquests into Egypt and Asia minor.
Diodorus 1.94.2, where Zarathushtra is said to have preached Ahura Mazda’s laws “among the Arianoi”
Zoroastrianism /ˌzɒroʊˈæstriənɪzəm/, also called Zarathustraism, Mazdaism and Magianism, is an ancient monotheistic Iranian religion and a religious philosophy. It was once the state religion of the Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires.Darius I was a devotee of Ahura Mazda, as attested to several times in the Behistun inscription.
Achaemenid era (648–330 BCE) Zoroaster was a reformer who exalted the deity of Wisdom, Ahura Mazda, to the status of Supreme Being and Creator.Zoroastrianism developed the abstract concepts of heaven and hell, as well as personal and final judgment.Zoroaster’s ideas led to a formal religion bearing his name by about the 6th century BCE and have influenced other later religions including Judaism, Gnosticism, Christianity and Islam.
ZOROASTRIAN FIRE ALTERS
Darius I and later Achaemenid emperors, though acknowledging their devotion to Ahura Mazda in inscriptions, appear to have permitted other religions to coexist.When the Sassanid dynasty came into power in 224 CE, they often built fire temples there to promote their religion.According to later Zoroastrian legend (Denkard and the Book of Arda Viraf), many sacred texts were lost when Alexander the Great’s troops invaded Persepolis and subsequently destroyed the royal library there. Diodorus Siculus’s Bibliotheca historica, which was completed circa 60 BCE, appears to substantiate this Zoroastrian legend (Diod. 17.72.2–17.72.6). According to one archaeological examination, the ruins of the palace of Xerxes bear traces of having been burned (Stolze, 1882)
Schmitt, R. (1986). “Aria”. Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2013-05-10
Zoroastrianism: History, Beliefs, and Practices retrieved 13 June 2014
Hinnel, J (1997), The Penguin Dictionary of Religion, Penguin Books UK
FIRE ALTARS GO BACK TO PROTO-VEDIC INDIA 3500BC
Lal notes that at Kalibangan (at the Ghaggar river) the remains of what some writers claim to be fire altars have been unearthed that are claimed to have been used for Vedic sacrifices, although the presence of animal bones does not seem consistent with Vedic rites. S.R. Rao found similar “fire altars” in Lothal which he thinks could have served no other purpose than Vedic ritual.The sites in Kalibangan are dated back to pre-Harappan times i.e. 3500 BC.
B.B. Lal. Frontiers of the Indus Civilization. 1984:57-58
S.R. Rao. The Aryans in Indus Civilization.1993:175]Although older (roughly early first millennium BCE, see Zoroaster),]
Zoroastrianism only enters recorded history in the mid-5th century BCE. Herodotus’ The Histories (completed c. 440 BCE) includes a description of Greater Iranian society with what may be recognizably Zoroastrian features.Such as …
There is one universal and transcendental God, Ahura Mazda, the one Uncreated Creator to whom all worship is ultimately directed.
In the final renovation, all of creation — even the souls of the dead that were initially banished to “darkness” — will be reunited in Ahura Mazda.
At the end of time a savior-figure [a Saoshyant] will bring about a final renovation of the world, and in which the dead will be revived
THE MAGI (3 Wise Men etc..)
According to Herodotus i.101, the Magi were the sixth tribe of the Medians (until the unification of the Persian empire under Cyrus the Great, all Iranians were referred to as Mede or Mada by the peoples of the Ancient World), who appear to have been the priestly caste of the Mesopotamian-influenced branch of Zoroastrianism
After the overthrow of Babylonia by the Persian Empire, in 537 BCE the Persian ruler Cyrus the Great gave the Jews permission to return to their native land, and more than 40,000 are said to have availed themselves of the privilege, as noted in the Biblical accounts of Ezra, and Nehemiah. The Persians had a different political philosophy of managing conquered territories than the Babylonians or Assyrians: under the Persians, local personages were put into power to govern the local populace.
CYRUS THE GREAT ,A ZOROASTRIAN
PRACTICED RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE THROUGH HIS PERSIAN EMPIRE AND PROMOTED AYRAN BELIEFS
The Cyrus Cylinder (Persian: منشور کوروش) is an ancient clay cylinder, now broken into several fragments, on which is written a declaration in Akkadian cuneiform script in the name of the Persia’s Achaemenid king Cyrus the Great. It dates from the 6th century BC and was discovered in the ruins of Babylon in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) in
The text on the Cylinder praises Cyrus, sets out his genealogy and portrays him as a king from a line of kings. The Babylonian king Nabonidus, who was defeated and deposed by Cyrus, is denounced as an impious oppressor of the people of Babylonia and his low-born origins are implicitly contrasted to Cyrus’s kingly heritage.
It extols Cyrus as a benefactor of the citizens of Babylonia who improved their lives, repatriated displaced people and restored temples and cult sanctuaries, the text identifies only Mesopotamian sanctuaries, and makes no mention of Jews, Jerusalem, or Judea.
MANY DIVERSE ANCIENT ARYAN BELIEFS THRIVED
REDHEADED “CHOSEN ONES OF SET” GET REPLACED WITH ARYAN CASTE SYSTEM CHOSEN ONE. THANKS TO CYRUS THE GREAT.
THE JEWISH “CHOSEN ONE” IDEOLOGY COMES FROM ARYAN SUPREMACY AND CASTE SYSTEM BELIEFS, PASSED DOWN FROM CYRUS THE GREAT
Encyclopaedia Britannica: ” …the Sanskrit term arya (“noble” or “distinguished”), the linguistic root of the word (Aryan)…”
Vedic SanskritThe term Arya is used 36 times in 34 hymns in the Rigveda. According to Talageri (2000, The Rig Veda. A Historical Analysis) “the particular Vedic Aryans of the Rigveda were one section among these Purus, who called themselves Bharatas.” Thus it is possible, according to Talageri, that at one point Arya did refer to a specific tribe. “Brahma of glory is he to whom both the Aryans and the Dasas belong” (RV 8.8.9).
There is no universally accepted theory about the origins of the Indian caste system. The Indian classes and Iranian classes (“pistras”) show similarity, wherein the priests are Brahmins, the warriors are Kshatriya, the merchants are Vaishya, and the artisans are Shudras.
From the Bhakti school, the view is that castes were originally created by Krishna. “According to the three modes of material nature and the work associated with them, the four divisions of human society are created.”
Although generally identified with Hinduism, the castee system was also observed among followers of other religions in the Indian subcontinent, including some groups of Muslims and Christians,most likely due to inherited cultural traits. Theoretically, all foreigners are considered to be casteeless and hence outcast; meaning that orthodox upper castee families would not touch or invite them to their homes
THE “JEWISH”RELIGIOUS CASTES
The historian Josephus relates the division of the Jews of the Second Temple period into three orders: the Sadducees, the Pharisees, and the Essenes. The Sadducees included mainly the priestly and aristocratic families; the Pharisees constituted the Jay circles; and the Essenes were a separatist group, part of which formed an ascetic monastic community that retreated to the wilderness. The exact political and religious affinities of each of these groups, as well as their development and interrelationships, are still relatively obscure and arc the source of widely disparate scholarly views
THE TITLE OF MARDUK IS BEL RABIM “GREAT LORD”
THE TITLES OF THE PRIESTS OF THE NEW RELIGION IS “RABBI”
CYRUS THE GREAT ATTEMPTS TO REBUILD THE KNOWN WORLD IN HIS “MONOTHEISTIC” IMAGE
IT IS AT THIS STAGE WITH THE REWRITING THAT TOOK PLACE THAT WE END UP WITH THE JUDAIC MONOTHISISM TORAH/OLD TESTAMENT WE KNOW TODAY
THIS REWRITTING WOULD BE BASED ON THE ORIGINAL CANONICAL BOOK
The Sanskrit word véda “knowledge, wisdom” is derived from the root vid- “to know”. This is reconstructed as being derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *u̯eid-, meaning “see” or “know”
The Vedas (Sanskrit véda वेद, “knowledge”) are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature.Hindus consider the Vedas to be apauruṣeya (“not of human agency”).They are supposed to have been directly revealed, and thus are called śruti (“what is heard”). The Vedic texts or śruti are organized around four canonical collections of metrical material known as Saṃhitās,
It is one of the oldest extant texts in any Indo-European language. Philological and linguistic evidence indicate that the Rigveda was composed in the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent, most likely between c. 1500–1200 BCE,though a wider approximation of c. 1700–1100 BCE has also been given.
Some writers out of the mainstream claim to trace astronomical references in the Rigveda, dating it to as early as 4,000 BC, a date well within the Indian Neolithic.
Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press
Radhakrishnan & Moore 1957, p. 3; Witzel, Michael, “Vedas and Upaniṣads”, in: Flood 2003, p. 68; MacDonell 2004, pp. 29–39; Sanskrit literature (2003) in Philip’s Encyclopedia. Accessed 2007-08-09
Sanujit Ghose (2011). “Religious Developments in Ancient India” in Ancient History Encyclopedia.
Radhakrishnan & Moore 1957, p. 3; Witzel, Michael, “Vedas and Upaniṣads”, in: Flood 2003, p. 68
e.g. Michael Witzel, The Pleiades and the Bears viewed from inside the Vedic texts, EVJS Vol. 5 (1999), issue 2 (December) ; Elst, Koenraad (1999). Update on the Aryan Invasion Debate. Aditya Prakashan. ISBN 81-86471-77-4.; Bryant, Edwin and Laurie L. Patton (2005) The Indo-Aryan Controversy, Routledge/Curzon.
YHWH IS BORN
YHWH “I AM WHO I AM”
Exodus 3:14 (New International Version)
14 God said to Moses, “I am who I am .This is what you are to say to the Israelites: ‘I AM has sent me to you.’ “
The Complete Jewish Bible by author David H. Stern, proposes that the Tetragrammaton be pronounced letter for letter in Hebrew and that the name of God should be rendered by spelling out the four letters, “Yud He Vav He”, the meaning assumed to be “I am that I am” or “I am Who I am”, as revealed to Moses in the Torah
“I AM” A TITLE FOR SHIVA
In Vedic Sanskrit “I AM” is a title of Shiva ,as in “I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds” Shiva the destroyer.
verse 32 from chapter 11 of the Bhagavad Gita
WE EVEN SEE THE ANCIENT DRUIDIC/VEDIC/ARYAN ESUS/ESA AND HIS TREE OF LIFE IN JUDAIC BELIEFS
THE VERY TYPE OF BELIEFS CYRUS THE GREAT PROMOTES ON HIS CYLINDER
Jesse was the Old Testament patriarch of royal lineage. He was the father of King David. This line of descent is known to Christians as the “Tree of Jesse.” Of course we understand what is being concealed behind the name of the spurious ancestor and the imagery of the tree. Jesse is a rendition of the Druidic Iesa, or Esa, the first sun “fertility” god and the image of the “Tree of Jesse”.
The “burning bush” of Moses is a cryptic reference to the tree, as is the Tree of Life (or Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil) motif found in the Book Genesis.
Book of Isaiah (The Book of Esa)
The Biblical Isaac – Son of Abraham,his name is apparently a variant of Iesa, the Druidic god of light.
The Levites – The ancient name Levi comes from the Gaelic Lewi or Luis, that can be rendered Lewis or Louis. Luis was the third letter of the Irish alphabet. It referred to the Rowan Tree that was the most sacred of all trees in Druidism.Each berry of the Rowan tree bears a minute pentagram.The worshippers or keepers of the Rowan were known as the Lewi. This is where the word Levite originated. The Levites were priests, teachers, instructors.
The tribes of Dan(the tribes of Danu,Druidic mother goddess)
the tribes of Simeon(the tribes of SiAmen,Pharaoh of Amen,as male fertility)
In the Talmud Jeschu or Yeschu (from Yeschu bar Panthera). We can see that if the “J” and “Y” are silent the syllable Esu stands out. The Jewish Jeschu is none other than the Druidic/Vedic Esus or Esa or Ushas.
THE EXODUS/CREATION FABLE IS WRITTEN
Though the colourful story of the Hebrew Exodus from Egypt is known to everyone the legend itself is a complete fantasy, a re-write of a story learned in Babylon. In Exodus, Yahweh creates a people, not the cosmos:
“Instead of splitting the carcass of a sea-monster to create the world, as Marduk did, Yahweh divided the Sea of Reeds to let his people escape from Pharaoh and the pursuing army. Instead of slaying the demonic hordes, like Marduk, Yahweh drowned the Egyptians.”
– K. Armstrong, A History of Jerusalem, p31.
In the fantasy ‘history’ (chapter 1 of the Book of Numbers) 603,550 ‘males of military age’ fled Egypt at the time of the Exodus,this multitude supposedly wandered the wilderness for forty years, contriving to leave not a trace of their passing for posterity.
AND THE TALES OF SOLOMONS FANATSY TEMPLE AND DAVIDS FANTASY EMPIRE
SOLOMON MEANS PEACE PEACE FROM DIVINE WISDOM(DYEUS VID OR DAVID)
Shalem was a Syrian sun god – later to be honoured in the name Jeru’salem.Jerusalem in 10th century BC had been barely a village of huts and cave dwellings. Kings David and Solomon are purely mythical characters – warrior/priest heroes, invented in the 6th century BC.
From the “Tree of Jesse”,a reference to the pagan tree of life, comes David Or “Dyeus Ved”.In Vedic Sanskrit,Dyeus Vid would translate as “divine Shining Knowledge” and from Divine Shining Knowledge comes Solomon(Shalom/Peace)
“It was at this time [the Babylonian exile] that some of the traditions associated with Solomon were also invented … In the biblical account the reign of Solomon is presented as a golden age of peace. His name in Hebrew – Shlomo – is written slm, the same three letters as also would be used to spell shalom or peace. It is at least possible that he is a story figure – an idealized version of an historical personage.” – Matthew Sturgis, p163.
(the historical figure in question is Pharaoh SiAmen ruling from Tanis(Zoan))
Daniel was written during the 2nd century BC Maccabean revolt when various “beasts from the sea” posed a dire threat to Jewish intransigence.The yarn is actually based on a much earlier (14th century BC) Canaanite text found at Ugarit, Syria. This Tale of Aqhat stars Dan’il (dn’il), a righteous king and judge.
TALES OF A MONOTHEISTIC GOD THAT DWELLS IN THICK DARKNESS
…..AND DESIRES GOLD AND SILVER ARE WRITTEN IN BABYLON
A house for Yahweh ,a god that dwells in thick darkness.
“And let them make me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them.” – Exodus 25.8.
God had very exacting requirements for his earthly residence. Bizarrely, he wrote his plans for the temple, including its dimensions and furnishings, onto David himself (1 Chronicles 28.19). This included a punctilious listing of candlesticks, bowls, shewbread tables, fleshhooks and even a “chariot of the cherubims” – all in pure gold, of course. Supposedly, this grandiose temple was actually built and, true to his promise, a godly presence took up residence:
“Then the house was filled with a cloud, even the house of the LORD. So that the priests could not stand to minister by reason of the cloud: for the glory of the LORD had filled the house of God.” – 2 Chronicles 5.13,14.
“Then spake Solomon, The LORD said that He would dwell in the thick darkness. I have surely built thee an house to dwell in, a settled place for thee to abide in forever.” – 1 Kings 8.12,13.
Endless dynasty, endless gold?
“The silver is mine! And the gold is mine! said the LORD of hosts.” – Haggai 2.8.
YHWH NOW APPEARS WITH THE OLD STORIES REWRITTEN.
THE OLD GODS “SET AND BAAL” ARE REPLACED WITH “A ZOROASTRAIN MONOTHEISTIC GOD” AND “AMEN AND EL” ARE REPLACED BY A “ZOROASTRIAN UNIVERSAL UNCREATED CREATOR GOD” AHURA MAZDA (BUT STILL WITH THE SET/BAAL BAN ON MENTIONING HIS NAME.)
CYRUS THE GREAT IS THE MESSIAH
THE LAW OF GOD?
LOOK AT IT,IT’S A PACK OF LIES FROM THE LYING PEN OF SCRIBES
Jeremiah chapter 8 verse 8
DEUTERONOMY A FANATICAL RELIGIOUS WARRIOR CODE
“If your brother, son, daughter, wife or friend … say, Let us go and serve other gods …the gods of the people round about you… you shall surely kill him; your hand shall be first upon him to put him to death.” – Deuteronomy 13.6-10.
“‘When the LORD your God brings you into the land you are to possess and casts out the many peoples living there, you shall then slaughter them all and utterly destroy them…You shall make no agreements with them nor show them any mercy…You shall destroy their altars, break down their images, cut down their groves and burn their graven images with fire. For you are a holy people unto the LORD thy God and He has chosen you to be a special people above all others upon the face of the earth…’ –Book of Deuteronomy, 7:1-8”
The new scripture – Deuteronomy – introduced rules on everything from cross-dressing to war brides. Seventeen times the text warns against “going after false gods” and graven images. Fourteen times it makes reference to the exclusive privileges of the “place which the Lord your God shall choose to put his name”. The Levites are endorsed as an elevated priesthood. The cult of kingship, although endorsed, is now circumscribed by “Mosaic Law” as interpreted by a privileged priesthood
With God’s blessing, misogynistic Jewish/zoroastrain scribes encoded a raft of sex crimes which sanctified cultural ambition. The sacred mission was to populate and subdue the earth in the name of Cyrus the Great thier Messiah. (Judaism bequeathed its unfortunate mix of ignorance and intolerance to a wayward faction of heretics later known to the world as “Christians”.)
The first five books – Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, book of Numbers and Deuteronomy – comprise the Torah, the story of Israel from the Genesis creation narrative to the death of Moses. Few scholars today doubt that it reached its present form in the Persian period (538–332 BC), and that its authors were the elite who controlled the Temple at that time. As we know it was Cyrus the Great,Darius the great and his Zoroastrain scribes that controlled the Temple at this time.
The books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings follow, forming a history of Israel from the Conquest of Canaan to the Siege of Jerusalem c. 587 BC. There is a broad consensus among scholars that these originated as a single work (the so-called “Deuteronomistic history”) during the Babylonian exile of the 6th century BC. The two Books of Chronicles cover much the same material as the Pentateuch and Deuteronomistic history and probably date from the 4th century BC.These books where written in Babylon ,by Babylonian zoroastrian scribes.
Chronicles links with the books of Ezra and Nehemiah, which were probably finished during the 3rd century BC.Catholic and Orthodox Old Testaments contain two (Catholic Old Testament) to four (Orthodox) Books of Maccabees, written in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC.
The history books make up around half the total content of the Old Testament. Of the remainder, the books of the various prophets – Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel and the twelve “minor prophets” – were written between the 8th and 6th centuries BC, with the exceptions of Jonah and Daniel, which were written much later. The “wisdom” and other books – Job, Proverbs and so on – date from between the 5th century BC and the 2nd or 1st BC, with the exception of some of the Psalms
Blenkinsopp 1998, p. 184.
Rogerson 2003, pp. 153–54.
Coggins 2003, p. 282.
Grabbe 2003, pp. 213–14.
Miller 1987, pp. 10–11.
MORE BORROWED WISDOM URGING GLOBAL DOMINATION
TO PRAISE GOD AT HIS HORNED ALTER
“Bind the festal procession with branches, up to the horns of the altar,”
The Book of Psalms (Hebrew: תְּהִלִּים or תהילים Tehillim meaning “Praises”), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or “the Psalms”, is the first book of the Ketuvim (“Writings”), the third section of the Hebrew Bible
Most individual psalms involve the praise of God – for his power and beneficence, for his creation of the world, and for his past acts of deliverance for Israel. The psalms envision a world in which everyone and everything will praise God.
There exists a generic similarity between Egyptian hymns and biblical psalms.The Egyptian Great Hymn to the Aten (14th century BC) is frequently cited as a predecessor to Psalm 104
Psalm 29, is adapted from early Canaanite worship, and others which are clearly from the post-Exilic period.
The Septuagint bible,(Greek), present in Eastern Orthodox churches, includes a Psalm 151
The Peshitta (the bible used in Syriac churches in the Middle East) include Psalms 152–155.
The Psalms of Solomon, which are a further 18 psalms surviving only in Greek and Syriac translation.
It is admitted by all that Pss. 9 and 10 were originally a single acrostic poem; they have been wrongly separated by Massorah(Hebrew),while rightly united by the Septuagint(Greek) and Vulgate(Latin).
These and other indications suggest that the current Western Christian and Jewish collection of 150 psalms were selected and adapted from a wider original set.
Pritchard, James B. “The Ancient Near East, An anthology of Texts and Pictures”, Princeton University Press, 1958, page 227.
Kselman, John S. (2007). “Psalms”. In Coogan, Michael D.; Newsom, Carol Ann. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books. Oxford UNiversity Press.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psalms#Origins%5D
Between the 10th century BC and the beginning of their exile in 586 polytheism was normal throughout Israel it was only after the exile that worship of Yahweh alone became established, and possibly only as late as the time of the Maccabees (2nd century BC) that monotheism became universal among Jews.
Even in the Torah Solomon builds temples to many Gods during his reign and Josiah is reported as cutting down the statues of Asherah in the temple Solomon built for Yahweh. (Josiah’s grandfather, Manasseh, had erected this statue. 2 Kings 21:7) Further evidence includes, for example, an 8th-century combination of iconography and inscriptions discovered at Kuntillet Ajrud in the northern Sinai desert where a storage jar shows three anthropomorphic figures and an inscription that refers to “Yahweh … and his Asherah”.Further evidence includes the many female figurines unearthed in ancient Israel, supporting the view that Asherah functioned as a goddess and consort of Yahweh and was worshiped as the Queen of Heaven
The word “Elohim” has the Hebrew plural ending “-īm”, which some Biblical scholars have taken as support for the general notion that the ancient Hebrews were polytheists in the time of the patriarchs.
Finkelstein, Israel, and Silberman, Neil Asher, The Bible Unearthed : Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, Simon & Schuster, 2002, pp. 241-42.
“BBC Two – Bible’s Buried Secrets, Did God Have a Wife?”. BBC. 2011-12-21
Ze’ev Meshel, Kuntillet ‘Ajrud: An Israelite Religious Center in Northern Sinai, Expedition 20 (Summer 1978), pp. 50–55]
CYRUS THE GREAT BECOMES THE JEWISH MESSIAH AND THE SECOND TEMPLE BUILDER
A NEW PERSIAN RULING CLASS IS IMPOSED PROBABLY MIXED WITH THE EGYPTIAN SHASU YWA FACTION
WE ALSO SEE IN BABYLON THE HEBREW LEADERS ARE CHANGED FROM WARRIOR CHIEFS(OF SETH)
TO SAGES OF A ONE UNIVERSAL AND TRANSCENDENTAL GOD TO INSTRUCT THE NEW PERSIAN/BABYLONIAN INSPIRED RELIGION ,THE LEVITES.
In Jewish tradition, a Levite (/’li?va?t/, Hebrew: ?????, Modern Levi Tiberian Lewî ; “Attached”) is a member of the Hebrew tribe of Levi.Law enforcement had been the inheritance of the Levitical priesthood and the “order of Aaron” but they were not allowed to be landowners “because the Lord the God of Israel Himself is their inheritance” (Deuteronomy 18:2)The Levites are endorsed as an elevated priesthood. The cult of kingship, although endorsed, is now circumscribed by “Mosaic Law” as interpreted by a privileged priesthood (Deuteronomy 17.15-20).Somewhat similar to Druids and Brahims.
As a result of Cyrus’ policies, the Jews honored him as a dignified and righteous king. He is the only Gentile to be designated as a messiah, a divinely-appointed king, in the Tanakh (Isaiah 45:1-6).
THE HEBREWS HAVE REPLACED AN ARYAN BERBER/EGYPTIAN RULING CASTE WITH AN ARYAN PERSIAN RULING CASTE.
SO THESE SET WORSHIPPING HABIRU PEOPLE INVADED SUMERIA(UR) AND EGYPT ,AND DID NOT BRING CIVILISATION TO THEM.
THE STATE OF ISRAEL/JUDAH WAS PROMISED BY SET(SETH) CREATED FROM MALE FERTILITY BELIEFS AND GENOCIDE
AND WAS OVERTHROWN BY THE ASSYRIANS AND THEN THE BABYLONIANS AND THEN REINVENTED AS A PERSIAN PUPPET STATE AFTER THEY CONVERT TO THE NEW PERSIAN/ZOROASTRIAN/BABYLONIAN THEME RELIGION.
CYRUS THE GREAT HAVING NEWLY CREATED HIS LOYAL PERSIAN/JEWISH RELGIOUS YAHWEH MONOTHEISTS
HE SENDS THEM OFF TO RUN CANAAN IN HIS NAME AND COLLECT TRIBUTE AND TO DEFEND HIS PERSIAN EMPIRE
The sojourn of the elite of Judah in exile proved crucial. A half-century of acculturation transformed the priesthood and its Yahweh cult. With the accession of Cyrus, it seems a force of Persian-sponsored returnees were charged with a temple building project in Jerusalem, beginning with an altar. The book of Ezra credits both the Jewish god and a succession of Persian kings for the “reconstructed” temple:
“And the elders of the Jews builded … and finished it, according to the commandment of the God of Israel, and according to the commandment of Cyrus, and Darius, and Artaxerxes king of Persia.” – Ezra 6.14.
THE SECOND TEMPLE WAS BUILT TO PREFORM CYRUS THE GREATS RELIGIOUS RITUALS
According to the Book of Ezra, rebuilding of the Temple was authorized by Cyrus the Great and ratified by Darius the Great.Construction of a new temple was begun in 537 BCE; after a hiatus, work resumed 520 BCE, with completion occurring in 516 BCE and dedication in 515BCE
THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE “SECOND TEMPLE” UNDER DARIUS SHOWS A FOREIGN POWER IMPOSING ITS RELIGION AND MAKING THE LOCALS PAY FOR IT AND BUILD IT
On the invitation of Zerubbabel, the governor, who showed them a remarkable example of liberality by contributing personally 1,000 golden darics, besides other gifts, the people poured their gifts into the sacred treasury with great enthusiasm. First they erected and dedicated the altar of God on the exact spot where it had formerly stood, and they then cleared away the charred heaps of debris which occupied the site of the old temple; and in the second month of the second year (535 BCE),
Darius I of Persia became king (522 BCE). In the second year of this monarch the work of rebuilding the temple was resumed and carried forward to its completion, under the stimulus of the earnest counsels and admonitions of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah. It was ready for consecration in the spring of 516 BCE, more than twenty years after the return from captivity. The Temple was completed on the third day of the month Adar, in the sixth year of the reign of King Darius, amid great rejoicings on the part of all the people although it was evident that the Jews were no longer an independent people, but were subject to a foreign power.A wide interest was felt in this great movement, although it was regarded with mixed feelings by the spectators
AS THE OLD AMEN/SET WORSHIPPING RULING CASTE HAS BEEN REPLACED WITH A NEW ZOROASTRIAN ABRHAMIC MONOTHEISTIC RULING CASTE THE SECOND TEMPLE IS DIFFERENT AS IT IS NOT A TEMPLE OF SET
THE OLD SET HOLY RELICS DISAPPEAR
Temple lacked the following holy articles:
The Ark of the Covenant(Anubis Chest), containing the Tablets of Stone, the pot of manna, and Aaron’s rod (Set Staff)
The Urim and Thummim (divination objects contained in the Hoshen)
The holy oil
The sacred fire.
THE GOD SET DISAPPEARS
According to Jewish tradition, however, the Temple lacked the Shekinah/Ruach HaKodesh, the dwelling or settling divine presence of God, present in the first.
Jewish Encyclopedia, temple The Second Temple
THE SECOND NON-EXISTANT FANATSY TEMPLE IS CONSTRUCTED IN THE JEWISH CULTURAL IMAGINATION
However, because of “local resistance” worked stalled almost as soon as it had begun and resumed only sixteen years later, in the second year of Darius the Great (520 BC). The “Persian temple” apparently took four years to complete. To expedite matters an existing Yahweh temple on Mount Gerizim was pillaged and even the traditions of the Samaritan sanctuary transferred wholesale to Jerusalem. Thus a modest structure on Temple Mount dating from the late 6th century BC is more certain than any earlier Solomonic edifice, although nothing of this temple has been found either.
A comparison from Egypt
An Egyptian pylon , a very hard thing to make completely disappear
Ceremonial entrance porch, Egyptian style
The Temple of Edfu, Egypt, was the work of the Ptolemaic kings over more than a century. The famous “pylon” was built between 116-71 BC. It’s depth is similar to that claimed for Herod’s temple porch but its width is almost double. However at a height of 36 metres the pylon is barely half the height of the fantasy ascribed to Herod and said to have been built in 18 months. Fat chance.
Pylon at Edfu – 79 m wide, 11 m deep, 36 m high. – The Encyclopaedia of Ancient Egyptian Architecture, D Arnold, N. & H. Strudwick, p 183]
JUST LIKE THE STORIES OF SOLOMONS FANTASY TEMPLE WHICH IS BASED ON THE TEMPLE TO AMEN BUILT BY RAMOSES III IN CANAAN TO RECIEVE TRIBUTE PAYMENTS FROM SUBJECT PEOPLES OR THE 21ST DYNASTY TEMPLE OF AMEN IN TANIS.
THE SECOND TEMPLE IS ACTUALLY BASED ON A PERSIAN TEMPLE OF ESHMUN IN SIDON WHERE THE KINGS OF ASSYRIA AND PERSIA WOULD RECIEVE TRIBUTE PAYMENTS FROM SUBJECT PEOPLES
Some idea of this “second” temple may be gleaned from the remains of another Persian-sponsored sanctuary from the same time: the Sidonian temple of Eshmun. Almost certainly the two temples shared design features. But unlike impoverished Jerusalem, Sidon was a wealthy, cosmopolitan trading city with a powerful fleet in the service of the Persian empire.
The Temple of Eshmun (Arabic: معبد أشمون) is an ancient place of worship dedicated to Eshmun, the Phoenician god of healing. It is located near the Awali river, 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) northeast of Sidon in southwestern Lebanon. The site was occupied from the 7th century BCE to the 8th century CE, suggesting an integrated relationship with the nearby city of Sidon.Originally constructed by Sidonian king Eshmunazar II in the Achaemenid era (c. 529–333 BCE) to celebrate the city’s recovered wealth and stature.The healing attributions of Eshmun were combined with his divine consort Astarte’s fertilizing powers; the latter had an annex chapel with a sacred paved pool within the Eshmun sanctuary.Pilgrims from all over the ancient world flocked to the Eshmun Temple leaving votive traces of their devotion and proof of their cure.
Throne of Astarte at the Eshmun Temple
When Assyrian king Sargon II died in 705 BCE, the Sidonian king Luli joined with the Egyptians and Judah in an unsuccessful rebellion against Assyrian rule, but was forced to flee to Kition (modern Larnaca in Cyprus) with the arrival of the Assyrian army headed by Sennacherib, Sargon II’s son and successor. Sennacherib instated Ittobaal on the throne of Sidon and reimposed the annual tribute.
Sidon was stripped of its territory, which was awarded to Baal I, the king of rival Tyre and loyal vassal to Esarhaddon. Baal I and Esarhaddon signed a treaty in 675 in which Eshmun’s name features as one of the deities invoked as guarantors of the covenant.
BUT NOT ONE TRACE OF A TEMPLE OF SOLOMON OR CYRUS THE GREATS YAHWEH TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM
But for all the adventure, and considerable baloney, in reality, not a single stone of the Temple – nor the entire Solomonic theme park for that matter – has ever been unearthed.Whether in the conflagration of the Jewish war or in later development of the concourse, the holy edifice was destroyed so completely that not even today’s forensics can identify the footprint of the building, let alone cast a light on the true form of its purported monumental structure.
The partisan texts suggest a formidable structure but unlike the great sanctuaries of paganism, no non-Jewish source was moved to comment on this “wonder of theworld.”
Could it all be grossly exaggerated?
Why the deceit? For the priesthood of Judaism the grand illusion of a Temple of Solomon was a necessary one: it supported both the myth of God’s patronage of the chosen people and the comforting dream of a once and future empire. This simple tale of fantasy and fraud leads rapidly to mass murder. But then, we are talking of religion.
The inspiration for the biblical fable of a Solomonic temple, with its elaborate paraphernalia of sacrifice and ritual, was drawn – not from God – but from the courts of Assyria and Babylon and from a time later than any 10th century king.
They also draw on the older stories of Hyksos Pharoanic Egyptian rule and the ancient Egyptian temples of Set and possibly the Egyptian 21st Dynasty rule from Tanis ,with its Temple to Amen.
Lipiński, Edward (1995). Dieux et déesses de l’univers phénicien et punique. Peeters Publishers. pp. 120–496. ISBN 978-90-6831-690-2. (French)
Stearns, Peter; William Leonard Langer (2001). The Encyclopedia of world history: ancient, medieval, and modern, chronologically arranged (6, illustrated ed.). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-395-65237-4.
Bromiley, Geoffrey (1995).
The international standard Bible encyclopedia: Q-Z. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia 4 (reprint, revised ed.). Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 502, 934. ISBN 978-0-8028-3784-4.
Hoffmeier, James Karl; Alan Ralph Millard. “The future of biblical archaeology: reassessing methodologies and assumptions”. The future of biblical archaeology: reassessing methodologies and assumptions: the proceedings of a symposium, August 12–14, 2001 at Trinity International University. The future of biblical archaeology. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 270. ISBN 978-0-8028-2173-7. Retrieved 2009-09-03.]
27TH PERSIAN DYNASTY
WITH THE RETURN OF PERSIAN RULE IN EGYPT 525 BC
UNDER CYRUS AND DARIUS WE SEE THE RETURN OF THE RULE OF SET AND AMEN
SET AS HERO OF AMEN-MIN
SET NOW HAS SUN ATTRIBUTES AND BECOMES THE HORUS
THE SET-HORUS RETURNS TO EGYPT
The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt also known as the First Egyptian Satrapy was effectively a province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 525 BC to 402 BC. In the Persian Period temple at Hibis in the Khargah Oasis, Set was represented in this role with a falcon’s head, taking on the guise of Horus.
The Temple of Hibis (Egyptian: Hebet meaning the plough), Persian – c. 500s BCE, is the largest and most well preserved temple in the Kharga Oasis.