Before the arrival of Druidic , Hindu and Buddhist Aryan beliefs , mankind worshipped the Bear and the Snake. These beliefs are OLDER THAN MODERN MAN!
NEANDERTAL MAN CREATES GOD THE BEAR AND HOMO ERECTUS/SAPIENS CREATES GOD THE SNAKE
Archeological evidence from Middle Paleolithic caves,shows that a widespread Middle Paleolithic Neanderthal bear cult existed (Wunn, 2000, p. 434-435).
78,000BC: About 1962, French archaeologists at Regourdou find the remains of what might have been a “bear cult” conducted by Neandertals. The bones of a brown bear have been carefully arranged. (Shreeve, Neandertal)
Bear worship (also known as the Bear Cult or Arctolatry) is the religious practice of the worshiping of bears found in many North American and North Eurasian ethnic circumpolar religions such as the Sami, Nivkhs, Ainu, and pre-christian Finns. There are also a number of deities from Celtic Gaul and Britain associated with the bear and the bear is featured on many totems throughout northern cultures that carve them. Bear worship may have been practiced as far back as the Middle paleolithic period amongst Neanderthal societies c.300,000 to 30,000 BC
Additional evidence in support of Middle Paleolithic animal worship originates from the Tsodilo Hills (c 70,000BCE) in the African Kalahari desert where a giant rock resembling a python that is accompanied by large amounts of colored broken spear points and a secret chamber has been discovered inside a cave. The Broken spear points were most likely sacrificial offerings and the python is also important to and worshipped by contemporary Bushmen Hunter-gatherers who are the descendants of the of the people who devised the ritual at the Tsodilo Hills and may have inherited their worship of the python from their distant Middle Paleolithic ancestors.
THE CELTIC/DRUIDIC VEDIC/INDIAN PERSIAN/ARYAN LINK
There is some strong evidence linking the Indo-European Celtic peoples with the Aryans of the Indus Valley and the Persian people(The name Iran is a cognate of Aryan, and means “Land of the Aryans”.)
The first such study dates back to 1999 and was conducted by the Estonian biologist Toomas Kivisild, a pioneer in the field, with fourteen co-authors from various nationalities (including M. J. Bamshad). It relied on 550 samples of mtDNA and identified a haplogroup called “U” as indicating a deep connection between Indian and Western-Eurasian populations.In other words, there is a genetic connection between India and Europe, but a far more ancient one than was thought and the flow was out of, not into, India.
“indeed, nearly all Europeans — and by extension, many Americans — can trace their ancestors to only four mtDNA lines, which appeared between 10,000 and 50,000 years ago and originated from South Asia.”
The most basic division of the Indian society is of Aryans and Dravidians. According to this division, nearly 72% of Indians are Aryans and 28% are Dravidians. The north Indians are the descendants of Aryans and the south Indians are Dravidians. The languages spoken in five states of south India are considered Dravidian languages and most of the languages spoken in the north are considered Aryan languages.
The Vedic Period (or Vedic Age) is the period during which the Vedas, the oldest sacred texts of Indo-Iranians, were being composed. Scholars place the Vedic period in the second and first millennia BCE continuing up to the 6th century BCE based on literary evidence.Texts starting c.2000BC!!! That is alot earlier than any Torah/Old Testament story.
The existence of similarities among the deities and religious practices of the Indo-European (IE) peoples allows glimpses of a common Proto-Indo-European (PIE) religion and mythology. Reconstruction is based on the comparative method. Archaeological evidence is difficult to match to any specific culture in the period of early Indo-European culture in the Chalcolithic
*Dyēus Ph2tēr is the god of the day-lit sky and the chief god of the Indo-European pantheon. The name survives (p. 409, 431, Oxford Intro.) in Greek Zeus with a vocative form Zeu patēr; Latin Jūpiter (from the archaic Latin Iovis pater), Dispater, Sanskrit Dyáus Pitā, and Illyrian Dei-pátrous.Today God the Father
*Deh2nu- ‘River goddess’ is reconstructed (p. 434, Oxford Intro.) from Sanskrit Danu, Irish Danu; Welsh Dôn, and a masc. form Ossetic Donbettys. The name has been connected with the Dan rivers which run into the Black Sea (Dnieper, Dniester, Don, and Danube) and other river names in Celtic areas.
*H2eusos is the name of certain specific gods, usually the sun, the stars, especially the planet Venus or hearth fires; a class of gods (`those that shine with a golden light’); and a general word for `a god, any god’. These gods are also general to the Indo-Europeans.
- *H2eus(os), is believed to have been the goddess of dawn (p. 409, 410, 432, Oxford Intro.), continued in Greek mythology as Eos, in Rome as Aurora, in Vedic as Ushas, in Lithuanian mythology as Aušra ‘dawn’ or Auštaras (Auštra) ‘the god (goddess) of the northeast wind’, Latvian Auseklis, the morning star (Lithuanian Aušrinė, ‘morning star’); Ausera, and Ausrina, goddesses of dawn or of the planet Venus; Hittite, assu ‘lord, god'; Gallic Esus, Today Jesus
This is the ROOT belief of ALL European and Middle Eastern belief sysytems. Judaism ,and other forms of monotheism, is just stolen from the Sumerian and Egyptian versions of this Indo-European religion.
The religion of the Vedic period (also known as Vedism or Vedic Brahmanism or, in a context of Indian antiquity, simply Brahmanism) is the historical predecessor of Hinduism. Its liturgy is reflected in the Mantra portion of the four Vedas, which are compiled in Sanskrit. The religious practices centered on a clergy administering rites that often involved sacrifices. This mode of worship is largely unchanged today within Hinduism; however, only a small fraction of conservative Shrautins continue the tradition of oral recitation of hymns learned solely through the oral tradition.
The associated culture, sometimes referred to as Vedic civilization, was centered in the northern and northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent. Its early phase saw the formation of various kingdoms of ancient India.
THE ORIGINAL CANONICAL BOOK
The Sanskrit word véda “knowledge, wisdom” is derived from the root vid- “to know”. This is reconstructed as being derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *u?eid-, meaning “see” or “know”
The Vedas (Sanskrit véda ???, “knowledge”) are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature.Hindus consider the Vedas to be apauru?eya (“not of human agency”).They are supposed to have been directly revealed, and thus are called sruti (“what is heard”). The Vedic texts or sruti are organized around four canonical collections of metrical material known as Sa?hitas,
The canonical division of the Vedas is fourfold (turiya)
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ?????? ?gveda, a compound of ?c “praise, verse” and veda “knowledge”) is a sacred Indo-Aryan collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns still being used in India. It is counted among the four canonical sacred texts (sruti) of Hinduism known as the Vedas.
It is one of the oldest extant texts in any Indo-European language. Philological and linguistic evidence indicate that the Rigveda was composed in the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent, most likely between c. 1500–1200 BCE,though a wider approximation of c. 1700–1100 BCE has also been given.
Some writers out of the mainstream claim to trace astronomical references in the Rigveda, dating it to as early as 4,000 BC, a date well within the Indian Neolithic.
The Rigvedic hymns are dedicated to various deities, chief of whom are Indra, a heroic god praised for having slain his enemy Vrtra; Agni, the sacrificial fire; and Soma, the sacred potion or the plant it is made from. Equally prominent gods are the Adityas or Asura gods Mitra–Varuna and Ushas (the dawn). Also invoked are Savitr, Vishnu, Rudra, Pushan, Brihaspati or Brahmanaspati, as well as deified natural phenomena such as Dyaus Pita (the shining sky, Father Heaven), Prithivi (the earth, Mother Earth), Surya (the sun god), Vayu or Vata (the wind), Apas (the waters), Parjanya (the thunder and rain), Vac (the word), many rivers (notably the Sapta Sindhu, and the Sarasvati River). The Adityas, Vasus, Rudras, Sadhyas, Ashvins, Maruts, Rbhus, and the Vishvadevas (“all-gods”) as well as the “thirty-three gods” are the groups of deities mentioned.
THE SEPERATION OF THE VEDIC MALE TRADITION AND THE DRUIDIC FEMALE IS MENTIONED
The hymns mention various further minor gods, persons, phenomena and items, and contain fragmentary references to possible historical events, notably the struggle between the early Vedic people (known as Vedic Aryans, a subgroup of the Indo-Aryans) and their enemies, the Dasa or Dasyu and their mythical prototypes, the Pani (the Bactrian Parna)
THE CELTS CALL THEMSELVES “THE CHILDREN/DAUGHTERS OF DANU”
THEY WHERE ALSO THE BRITONS(BRACTRIAN) AND PICTI(PARNA)
The Vedics of India referred to Britain as Britashtan – the ?seat of religion.In fact, India was once named Bharat (hence the word Mahabharata).
Brigid (or Brithid or Brigit) was the supreme goddess of the Megalithic Druids. This is where we derive the word Bride. Her name meant “Shining One.” She was also known as Danu, Ana, or Danae, and was known throughout the world as a major Druidic divinity. In India she was known as Brit-Ana or Barat-Ana. By this name she was worshipped as the supreme goddess of the Phoenicians. Indeed India was once named after her. The word barat means ?fortunate,?joyous,or ?blessed.
IN A LATER EVENT ,
ACCORDING TO THE CELTIC BOOK OF INVASIONS THE CELTIC EXODUS FROM EGYPT
WHICH IS AT THE TIME OF THE EXPULSION OF SET
IS REFERRED TO BY THE GREEKS AS THE DAUGHTERS OF DANOS(CELTS) AND THE EXPLUSION OF TYPHON(SET)C1000BC
Dhatupatha 28.19. Monier-Williams translates “a Veda of Praise or Hymn-Veda”
p. 126, History of British Folklore, Richard Mercer Dorson, 1999, ISBN 9780415204774
Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press
summarized by Klaus Klostermaier in a 1998 presentation
e.g. Michael Witzel, The Pleiades and the Bears viewed from inside the Vedic texts, EVJS Vol. 5 (1999), issue 2 (December) ; Elst, Koenraad (1999). Update on the Aryan Invasion Debate. Aditya Prakashan. ISBN 81-86471-77-4.; Bryant, Edwin and Laurie L. Patton (2005) The Indo-Aryan Controversy, Routledge/Curzon.]
HOW ANCIENT IS THE DRUIDIC/HINDU/BUDDIST RELIGION ….18,000 YEARS OR OLDER?
The Yew Tree – One of the most sacred of all trees in Druidism. The taller and thinner variety of yew (similar to the cypress), known as fastigiata, grew abundantly throughout Western Ireland and was sacred to the ancient warrior queen and goddess of the Tuatha de Danann, Banbha, after whom Ireland was once named. Botanists believe all other Yews in the world to be descended from two Irish trees. County “Mayo” comes from the word meaning “yew forest.” The oldest implements in the world, dating to over 50,000 years ago were made of yew wood. The tree may have been considered sacred because it poisoned all animals that ate of its bark or leaves except the stag and deer. The deer and stag were supremely sacred to the Irish Druids. The Yew can still frequently be found in British churchyards. Given that the Yews are older than Christian churches, it follows that Christian churches and cathedrals were deliberately positioned near to the tree for symbolic purposes The last letter of the Irish Ogham alphabet “I” was connected to the yew tree. The letter turns up as the Hebrew Yod, the first letter of the name of god.
THE BEGININGS OF CIVILISATION
Recent archeological work on the Chang Tang plateau finds evidence of an Iron Age culture which some have tentatively identified as the Zhangzhung. This culture is notable for the following characteristics:
a system of hilltop stone forts or citadels, likely used as a defense against the steppe tribes of Central Asia, such as the Scythians
burial complexes which use vertical tombstones, occasionally in large arrays, and including up to 10,000 graves in one location
stone temples located in the mountains adjacent to the plains, characterized by windowless rooms, corbelled stone roofs, and round walls
evidence of a stratified social structure, as indicated by royal or princely tombs
petroglyphs which shows the culture was a warrior horse culture
These characteristics more closely match the Iron Age cultures of Europe and the Asian steppes.
In Tibetan Buddhist tradition, Shambhala (also spelled Shambala or Shamballa; Tibetan: bde ‘byung, pron. De-jung) is a mythical kingdom hidden somewhere in Tibet. It is mentioned in various ancient texts, including the Kalachakra Tantra and the ancient texts of the Zhang Zhung culture which predated Tibetan Buddhism in western Tibet. The Bön scriptures speak of a closely related land called Olmolungring.
Bön (Tibetan: ????; Wylie: bon; Lhasa dialect IPA: [p?ø~`(n)]) is the oldest spiritual tradition of Tibet.
The Bön canon comprises more than two hundred volumes, classified in four categories: the Sutras (mdo), the Perfection of Wisdom Teachings (‘bum), the Tantras (rgyud) and Knowledge (mdzod). Besides these, the Bön canon includes material on rituals, arts and crafts, logic, medicine, poetry and narrative. It is interesting to note that the “Knowledge” section concerning cosmogony and cosmology, though in some respects unique to Bön, shares a more than passing resemblance to Nyingma (rnying ma) doctrines.
The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug). “Nyingma” literally means “ancient,” and is often referred to as the “school of the ancient translations” or the “old school” because it is founded on the first translations of Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Tibetan
It is noteworthy that the Bönpo tradition was founded by a buddha like figure named Tonpa Shenrab Miwoche whose teachings are similar in scope to the teaching espoused by the historical Buddha. Bönpos claim that Tonpa Shenrab Miwoche lived some 18,000 years ago, and visited Tibet from the land of Tagzig Olmo Lung Ring, or Shambhala. Bönpos also suggest that during this time Lord Shenrab Miwoche’s teaching permeated the entire subcontinent and was in part responsible for the development of the Vedic religion. An example of this link is that Mount Kailash, as the center of Zhang Zhung culture, is also the most sacred mountain to Hindus. In turn, Buddhism evolved from the spiritual teachings of the Vedic religion. As a result, the Bönpos claim that the much later teaching at least indirectly owes its origin to Tonpa Shenrab Miwoche.
The Irish/Celtic Origins of Civilization
Michael Tsarion’s DVD Series: The Irish Origins of Civilization.
Visit Michael at unslaved.com and make a donation.
Druid – The Druids were suppressed in Gaul by the Romans under Tiberius (reigned AD 14-37) and probably in Britain a little later. In Ireland they lost their priestly functions after the coming of Christianity and survived as poets, historians, and judges (filid, senchaidi, and brithemain). Many scholars believe that the Hindu Brahman in the East and the Celtic Druid in the West were lateral survivals of an ancient Indo-European priesthood.” – Britannica.com
The easiest of parallels to be drawn between the Celtic and Vedic peoples must be that of the Druids and the Brahmins. The Druids and the Brahmins were both the priests and philosophers of their respective cultures. Both orders of priests were the wise ones of their lands, the seers and teachers, to whom warriors and kings turned for counsel and advice. They were free to wander the lands, as many of India’s holy men still do, and, according to Caesar’s writings, the Druids were “held with great honour by the people”.
The name ‘Druid’ is considered by some to have originated the mediterranean and the East. The first syllable of the word ‘Druid’, according to Pliny the Elder (1 CE), is related to the Greek word for the Oak tree, ‘drus’. The root of which is ‘dr’ and it is to be found in several Aryan languages. More likely its the Celtic root dru which means “immersion”,which also appears in Sanskrit.(the Greek word drus, a later reference to the oak and Druids)The second syllable is thought to have originated from the sanskrit word ‘vid’, meaning ‘knowledge’, which is also the root of the term ‘Vedas’. If this is accurate then the Druids would have been those who possess the ‘knowledge of the Oak tree’ to a Greek. The Oak tree in Celtic myth and legend was closely associated with knowledge and wisdom, or more correctly, a Druid was one “immersed in knowledge.”
The scholars of the Greek Alexandrian school clearly described them as a parallel caste to the brahmins of Vedic society.Tacitus, a Greek historian, commented on the striking similarity of the bathing Druids to the Brahmins, suggesting they were “so emblematic of the brahmins.”
If the Celtic Druidic and Indus Vedic share the same root, these myths must of been in the cultures before the split of these people,as later different cultures would seperate them and we would expect a see this beleif spread through these cultures as well .If these stories are found in Scottish ,Irish and Welsh Western European Celtic cultures.That means they must be from c.10,000 BC at very latest if these peoples DNA is going to cross the land bridge still joining Britian to Continental Europe!!! This would make this belief system at leat 12,000 years old but probably much older.But this is nothing compared to the Northern Bear Cults and Southern Snakes Cults which would be at least over 70,000 years old. Even older than man.
The Druids & the Brahmins
Interestingly the term for soul (I use the term soul for reasons of simplicity) in Vedic literature is ‘atman’, whereas the Celtic term for soul is ‘anam’.”Due to the cessation of the Druids a vast wealth of knowledge and wisdom has been lost. As part of an oral tradition, like the Brahmins of old, nothing was ever wrote down, all myths, laws and teachings were held to memory.The Celts had a large pantheon of which about 300 to 400 names are known to us today.This also stands true for the Vedic pantheon.It is interesting to note that the Celtic term for the Gods is ‘Deuos’ and the Vedic term is ‘Devas’, both terms meaning “Shining Ones”.
Danu in Celtic & Vedic Myth
One of the most striking comparisons to be found between the Celtic and Vedic pantheon is that of a Goddess named Danu and the myths surrounding her (also known in Celtic traditions as Don, Dana , Ana, Anu or Danae,she was also the Brigid (or Brithid or Brigit) was the supreme goddess of the Megalithic Druids. This is where we derive the word Bride. Her name meant “Shining One”, and was known throughout the world as a major Druidic divinity. In India she was known as Brit-Ana or Barat-Ana. By this name she was worshipped as the supreme goddess of the Phoenicians. Indeed India was once named after her. The word barat means ?fortunate,?joyous,or ?blessed.The Vedics of India referred to Britain as Britashtan – the ?seat of religion.In fact, India was once named Bharat (hence the word Mahabharata).
A Goddess named Danu appears both in Celtic and Vedic mythology. She features heavily in Celtic mythology as the Mother Goddess (and a river Goddess). She is one of the most ancient known of all Celtic Goddesses, from whom the hierarchy of Gods received it’s name of Tuatha De Danann, “Folk of the Goddess Danu” Among the ancient Celts, Danu was regarded as the “Mother Goddess.” The Irish Gods and Goddesses were the Tuatha De Danaan (“Children of Danu”). Danu was the “divine waters” falling from heaven and nurturing Bíle, the sacred oak from whose acorns their children sprang. Moreover, the waters of Danu went on to create the great Celtic sacred river–Danuvius, today called the Danube.
Not only is the story of Danu and the Danube a parallel to that of Ganga and the Ganges but a Hindu Danu appears in the Vedic story “The Churning of the Oceans,” a story with parallels in Irish and Welsh mytholgy. Danu in Sanskrit also means “divine waters” and “moisture.”.
Whereas in Vedic mythology the Goddess Danu ,a red headed goddess ,who gives birth to the seven Danvanas, the dark ones of the ocean.
Surrounding the Goddess Danu in each culture’s mythology is a similar tale of battle,
SIMILAR TO THE MESOPOTAMIAN CREATION MYTH ,CREATION FROM DEEP DARK WATERS ,BUT POSSIBLY c.10,000 YEARS OLDER
In the earliest of Celtic documents there is the battle of Moytur fought between the people of the Goddess Danu and the Fomors. The Fomors being Celtic deities of death, darkness and the sea. They were the offspring of “Chaos and Old Night”, their name being derived from two Gaelic words meaning “under sea”. The Fomers were born from another Mother Goddess called Domnu whose name seems to have signified the abyss or deep sea. The battle between the Fomors and the Tuatha De Danann began at the end of summer and the beginning of winter, on the eve of Samhain (the Celtic festival of the dead or Halloween as its called today). During the course of the bloody battle many were killed, including many of the chieftains. Of all the Fomors the deadliest was Balor, with his eye that could slay by merely looking upon an individual. However during the later stages of the war Lugh shouted on him and before Balor could look upon Lugh, Lugh had thrown a magickal stone at Balor. the stone struck Balor, forcing his deadly eye out through the back of his head. On falling to the ground the eye then gazed on many of the Fomors, killing them, and turning the tide of the battle toward the Tuatha De Danann. Eventually the Fomors were driven away and the people of Danu were victorious.
A similar struggle between opposing forces is to be found in Vedic mythology. This struggle was between the Adityas, the children of the Goddess Aditi, and the Danavas, the children of the Goddess Danu. The Danavas where the antithesis of all that is symbolised by the earth, the sky and the sun. This myth is referred to throughout the Rig Veda and focuses primarily on the God Indra in his victory over the Danavan God Vrtra. In the Rig Veda Vrtra is described as being a limbless dragon and the source of a great drought. When Indra slays him (Vrtra) with his thunder bolt the seven waters are released. It reads in the Rig Veda (Griffith Translation) “He slew the Dragon, then disclosed the waters, and cleft the channels of the mountain torrents.” (Rig I.32.1)”Then humbled was the strength of Vrtra’s mother: Indra hath cast his deadly bolt against her. The mother was above, the son under, and like a cow beside her calf lay Danu.” (Rig I.32.9)
Danu in the Vedic myth is bondage and restraint and her son Vrtra is the constrictor. Whereas the Goddess Aditi is the Boundless and the Infinite, and Indra by using his tapas, which is represented by his lightening bolt, becomes the “winner of the light”.It is the macrocosmic struggle between light and dark, order and chaos. While on the microcosmic level it is knowledge over ignorance.
In the Celtic myth the Goddess Domnu is regarded as being of “Chaos and Old Night”, the abyss, from whence came the Fomors the deities of the dark waters who were conquered by Lug, the Celtic Sun God, and the Tuatha De Danann. Again it is the light conquering the darkness. The two myths are fundamentally the same, both tell of the primordial waters, that undifferentiated state of being before the time of creation, and light emerging in triumph over darkness to allow life to flow. This theme seems to be repeated in a rather abstract creation hymn in the Rig Veda, “Darkness there was: at first concealed in darkness this All was indiscrimated chaos. All that existed then was void and formless: by the great power of Warmth was born that unit” (X.129).
Here we also find a possible root of the mesotopamian creation myth, creation from a chaotic deep watery abyss.
Is it also possible that the Celtic Vedic split was caused by a socio/religious disputes? In this case the role of women in society.Danu is a Good goddess in Celtic myths and female Druids and Warriors and Queens are common in Celtic society ,not so in Hinduism where Danu is the Mother of chaos and women tend to be subserviant in society.
; Crone of Beare. Great Goddess in her Destroyer aspect; called “Veiled One”. Another name is , from which Scotland comes. Originally Scotland was called Caledonia, or land given by Caillech ,Cali’s Domain and Ireland was refered to as Scotland.
In parts of Britain she is the Goddess of Winter. Depicted as a blue-faced hag, who is reborn October 31 (Samhain) She brings the snow until the Goddess Brigit deposes her and she eventually turns to stone April 30 (Beltaine). In later times the mythical witch like figure of “Black Annis” is believed to have derived from her.
She was an ancient Goddess of the pre-Celtiberian peoples of Ireland. She controlled the seasons and the weather; and was the goddess of earth and sky, moon and sun.
She is a Tutelary Goddess to southwest Munster, and appears in tales describing a knight being importuned by an old hag for love, acceptance of which transforms her into a beautiful maiden.
, also known as Kalika (Bengali: কালী, Kālī / কালিকা Kālikā ; Sanskrit: काली), is a Hindu goddess associated with eternal energy. The name Kali means “black”, but has by folk etymology come to mean “force of time (kala)”. Despite her negative connotations, she is today considered the goddess of time and change. Although sometimes presented as dark and violent, her earliest incarnation as a figure of annihilation still has some influence.
She is the foremost among the Dasa-Mahavidyas, ten fierce Tantric goddesses
According to David Kinsley, Kali is first mentioned in Hinduism as a distinct goddess, related to war, around 600 CE. Scriptures like Agni Purana and Garuda Purana describe her terrible appearance and associate her with corpses and war.
The Horned God Pashupati
Mythological reference to the Horned God Pashupati can be found in ancient Indian and Nepalese scriptural texts. The legend of Pashupati can be found in reference to the Indian God Shiva, of whom Pashupati is referred to as being the proto-type. In the Skanda Purana it tells how the God Shiva used to love a great forest called the ‘Sleshmantaka Forest’ . It was here that Shiva spent so much time being emersed in ‘the wilderness of this forest in merry-making assuming Himself the form of a deer’ . It reads in the Skanda Purana –
As I reside here in the forest of Sleshmanta in the form of a beast,
My name will hence be known as the Pashupati the world over.
To this day the Sleshmantaka forest remains sacred and is known as ‘Mrigasthali’, ‘the abode of deers’. The name Pashupati means ‘ Lord of Animals’ (Pashu – animal, Pati -Lord) and was later taken to mean (Lorrd of Souls).
In the Indus Valley many seals have been found which show images of the Horned God with many animals surrounding him the figure is sitting in a traditional cross-legged yoga pose with its hands resting on its knees.On the seals is what has became known as the Indus script. This is a written language which looks similar to runes and other ancient scripts, however academics have been struggling for many years to correctly decipher it. Although several decipherings have been made in the last 50 years none have gained complete approval by scholars and academics.
What the Indus Valley seals of the horned God suggest is that there is an undeniable connection between the horned God Pashupati and the horned God of the Celts,
The Horned God Cernunnos.
Cernunnos (also Cernenus) is a pagan Celtic god whose representations were widespread in the ancient Celtic lands of western Europe. As a horned god, Cernunnos is associated with horned male animals, especially stags and the ram-horned snake; this and other attributes associate him with produce and fertility.He is usually portrayed seated and cross-legged, in a position which some have interpreted as meditative or shamanic This connection between the two is best illustrated by comparing a couple of the Indus Valley seals to the depiction of Cernunnos on the Gundestrup Cauldron (dated between 4th – 1st Century BCE).
CELTIC LUG AND VEDIC INDRA THE SUN GODS
Successful comparisons may also be drawn between Lug and Indra.Throughout the Rig Veda there are many hymns to Indra (more than any other God or Goddess) and many of these contain references that associate Indra with the Sun and light. Another parallel between Lug and Indra is that they were both not the original leaders of their respective groups.Indra has also been connected with the Celtic myth of Tain Bo Cuailgne. Here Indra’s symbolic animal representation, the bull, is compared with the Celtic bull of Quelgny. Again what is found is a solar association in both Celtic and Vedic myth.
OTHER FAMILIAR DRUIDIC VEDIC GODS
The Druidic knowledge of astromancy was transcribed by the Bards (Poets), Ovates (Speakers), and Minstrels (Singers) into songs, tales, and legends of “historical” personalities with no physical existence. The idea was always that mortals should model themselves on these fictional but archetypal renditions. The Crios (like the Hindu Creeshna or Krishna and the Christ) was the exemplar of the perfected man, the divine Androgyne, the nucleation of opposites. The Christians of later times adopted this icon and used it for their own purposes, adding the name “Jesus Christ” to their fraudulent scripture.Deity is from the Latin “Deus,”which is also traceable to its Vedic/Druidic roots Deuys which is traceable to “dies,” a day – a period of time measured by the sun; Jesus is from “Jes”…which means “the one great fire from the sun,” and Christ is derived from “Chris,” a Chaldean term for the sun – Kersey Graves (Bible of Bibles, 1863 AD)
Esa,who is the Vedic Ushas,was the third deity of the Druidic Trinity, of Bel, Taranis, and Esa. His name meant “The Raised One.” His element was the wind. This was picked up by the Gnostics and Christians and turned into the “Ruach,” the “Pneuma,” and finally as the “Holy Spirit.”
Esa was commonly shown “hovering” in the sky, cutting from a tree in the form of a carpenter or, even more suggestively, hanging from a great tree while being stabbed to death. According to Druidic tradition his life-blood healed the Earth. It purified and revivified the land allowing a new season’s abundance. The Druids understood the land to be literally born again from the blood of the sacrificed god Esa. The earth is the central creative principle in the universe that lies beneath the feat of the mortal, within which resides the god of the underworld. Through the intercession of Esus, the renewal of life is achieved every spring with the sprinkling of the blood of his raised victims – Gregory A. Clouter (The Lost Zodiac of the Druids)
– J. A. MacCulloch (Religion of the Ancient Celts)
Places of Worship
Some of the most auspicious places of worship for the Celtic and Vedic peoples were rivers.Many European rivers bear the name of Danu–the Rhône (ro- Dhanu, “Great Danu”) and several rivers called Don. Rivers were sacred in the Celtic world, and places where votive offerings were deposited and burials often conducted. The Thames, which flows through London, still bears its Celtic name, from Tamesis, the dark river, which is the same name as Tamesa, a tributary of the Ganges.In both Celtic and Vedic cultures offerings were often placed in rivers and those of the Celts were especially elaborate.
Another of the sacred dwellings was that of specific areas of woods and groves. According to Tacitus the “Woods and groves are the sacred depositories; and the spot being consecrated to those pious uses, they give to that sacred recess the name of the divinity that fills the place, which is never profaned by the steps of man. The gloom fills every mind with awe; revered at a distance and never seen but with the eye of contemplation.” The Druids and their daily activities of bathing in rivers is a mirror image of the Vedic Brahmins, who bathe during the first hours of sun rise in rivers such as the Ganges Similarly there are many Indian tales of Brahmans and holy men who lived in forests of which some were especially sacred spaces A selection of Vedic texts written after the four main Samhitas (the Rig, Sama, Yajur and Artharva Vedas) are the Aranyakas, meaning ‘forest treatise’. Indicating that these were composed in the reclusive depths of the forests.
Celtic & Vedic Fairies
Celtic stories are well known for their fairy folk, the little people who inhabit trees and hills. Sometimes they were the source of mischief or misfortune, other times the were advantageous and benevolent. The stories tell us that they delight in music and loved to dance. The Celtic fairies (also called Sidhes) often blended in myth with the Gods and like the Gods the fairies knew magick, fought wars and married amongst themselves.
Vedic nature spirits are yaksas, the favourite of the yaksas’ locations is in a rural village’s sacred tree. Here they would be safe from harms way and it was believed that having the yaksas there was prosperous for the village. Offerings and tiny gifts would be laid at the trunk of the tree, while flower garlands would be hung from the branches. There was also a fertility association with the yaksas in the sacred tree. As were there also associations of treasure buried at the tree roots, again like some of the Celtic fairies.
CELTIC AND VEDIC LANGUAGE AND CUSTOMS
Professor Calvert Watkins of Harvard, one of the leading linguistic experts in his field, has pointed out that of all the Celtic linguistic remains, Old Irish represents an extraordinarily archaic and conservative tradition within the Indo-European family.
Its nominal and verbal systems are a far truer reflection of the hypothesized parent tongue, from which all Indo-European languages developed, than are Classical Greek or Latin. The structure of Old Irish/Gaelic, says Professor Watkins, can be compared only with that of Vedic Sanskrit or Hittite of the Old Kingdom.
The vocabulary is amazingly similar. The following are just a few examples:
Gaelic- arya (freeman),Sanskrit – aire (noble)
Gaelic – naib (good), Sanskrit – noeib (holy)
Gaelic – badhira (deaf), Sanskrit – bodhar (deaf)
Gaelic – names (respect), Sanskrit – nemed (respect)
Gaelic – righ (king), Sanskrit – raja (king)
This applies not only in the field of linguistics but in law and social custom, in mythology, in folk custom and in traditional musical form. The ancient Irish law system, the Laws of the Fénechus, is closely parallel to the Laws of Manu. Many surviving Irish myths, and some Welsh ones, show remarkable resemblances to the themes, stories and even names in the sagas of the Indian Vedas.
For some time, especially through the work of D. A. Binchy, the laws were held to be conservative and useful primarily for reconstructing the laws and customs of the Proto-Indo-Europeans just as linguists had reconstructed the Proto-Indo-European language. For instance, Historians have seen comparisons between Irish and Indian customs of fasting as a method of shaming a wrongdoer, in order to recover a debt or to demand the righting of a wrong. Other legal institutions prominent in early Irish law but foreign to most contemporary legal systems, such as the use of sureties have been considered as survivals from earlier periods.. There is still the possibility to suggest a past for a certain legal topic based on Irish legal terms being cognate with terms in other Celtic languages, although that information does not mandate that the practice described by the legal term has not changed.There is, however, one area where scholars have found material that is clearly old. A number of legal terms have been shown to have originated in the period before the Celtic Languages split up because they are preserved in both Old Irish and in the Welsh legal texts.
WHY DID DRUIDS PAINT THIER WARRIORS BLUE FOR PROTECTION AND USE RELIGIOUS PICTOGRAMS IN BATTLE.IS IT COINCIDENCE THAT THE HEAD DEITIES IN HINDUISM ARE ALSO BLUE WITH PICTOGRAMS?
Vishnu (IAST vi??u, Devanagari ??????), (honorific: Bhagavan Vishnu), is the Supreme God in Vaishnavite tradition of Hinduism. Smarta followers of Adi Shankara, among others, venerate Vishnu as one of the five primary forms of God,and his supreme status is declared in the Hindu sacred texts like Yajurveda, the Rigveda and the Bhagavad Gita
According to various Purana, Vishnu is the ultimate omnipresent reality, is shapeless and omnipresent. However, a strict iconography governs his representation, whether in pictures, icons, or idols:
He is to be depicted as a four-armed male-form: The four arms indicate his all-powerful and all-pervasive nature. The physical existence of Vishnu is represented by the two arms in the front while the two arms at the back represent his presence in the spiritual world. The Upanishad titled Gopal Uttartapani describes the four arms of Vishnu. THE CELTIC HAVE A HEAD DEITY AS WELL
The color of his skin has to be new-cloud-like-blue: The blue color indicates his all-pervasive nature, blue being the color of the infinite space as well as the infinite ocean on which he resides. THE CELTS WEAR BLUE WOAD
He has the mark of sage Bhrigu’s feet on his chest. AND PICTOGRAMS
Around his neck, he wears the auspicious “Kaustubha” jewel, and a garland of flowers (vanamaalaa). It is in this jewel, on Vishnu’s chest that Lakshmi dwells. AND THE CELTIC TORQUE REPRESENTS THE DIVENE FEMALE Depictions of the gods and goddesses of Celtic mythology frequently show them wearing torcs The famous Roman copy of the original Greek sculpture The Dying Gaul depicts a wounded Gallic warrior naked except for a torc
Also on his chest is the srivatsa mark, symbolising his consort Lakshmi. It is on the chest of Vishnu, where Lakshmi resides.AND MORE PICTOGRAMS
A crown should adorn his head: The crown symbolizes his supreme authority. OLDEST CROWN IN EUROPE IS SCOTTISH
He is to shown wearing two earrings: The earrings represent inherent opposites in creation — knowledge and ignorance; happiness and unhappiness; pleasure and pain. CELTS ARE REKNOWN FOR THIER JEWELRY
He rests on Ananta: the immortal and infinite snake THE SNAKE AGAIN
Krishna (????? in Devanagari, k???a in IAST, pronounced [‘kr????] in classical Sanskrit) is a deity worshiped across many traditions of Hinduism in a variety of different perspectives. While many Vaishnava groups recognize him as an avatar of Vishnu, other traditions within Krishnaism consider Krishna to be svayam bhagavan, or the supreme being
The Sanskrit word k???a has the literal meaning of “black”, “dark” or “dark-blue” and is used as a name to describe someone with dark skin. Krishna is often depicted in murtis (images) as black, and is generally shown in paintings with a blue skin THE BLUE CELTIC PICTS
In the Brahmasambandha mantra of the Vallabha sampradaya, the syllables of the name Krishna are assigned the power to destroy sin relating to material, self and divine causes
THE CELTS ARE THE INDIGINOUS EUROPEANS.THEY ARE AN ANCIENT PEOPLE WHO HAVE HAD GREAT INFLUNCES ON CIVILISATION
There is absolutely no evidence of war or of any conquest of an earlier, pre Celtic people at the time the Druids supposedly arrived in Western Europe, making it difficult for archaeologists to explain how they could have peacefully imposed their language, religion, and culture on this hypothetical earlier people. Even more embarrassing is the fact that geneticists claim that modern British people are related to the Spanish, and DNA from human remains of supposedly pre-Celtic times in Britain have shown that many modern British people are related to these early people as well. More and more it is beginning to appear that the Celts (and their Druid priests) may have been in the West all along, and may, indeed, have built Stonehenge after all.
James Wilson and Prof David Goldstein of University College London, with colleagues at Oxford University and the University of California, “The findings provide the first direct evidence of a close relationship between the people known as Celts and the Basques. The gene patterns of three races passed down through the male line are all strikingly similar, researchers concluded. Basques can trace their roots back to the Stone Age and are one of Europe’s most distinct people, fiercely proud of their ancestry and traditions.
The team looked for similarities between the Y chromosomes (which are only carried by men) they sampled DNA from; 88 “Celtic fringe” individuals from Anglesey, North Wales, 146 from Ireland with Irish Gaelic surnames, and 150 Basques, revealing “remarkable’ similarities. On the other hand, he and his colleagues compared Celtic and Norwegian populations and found them to be quite different.
The Celts carried the early Y chromosome, which provides the first clear evidence of a close relationship in the paternal heritage of Basque and Celtic speaking populations. “They were statistically indistinguishable’, we also noticed that there’s something quite striking about the Celtic populations, and that is that there’s not a lot of genetic variation on the male Y-chromosome, We conclude that both the Basques and Celts are reflecting pre-farming Europe. Somehow these people have remained in isolation from the rest of Europe up until the Bronze age where their genes begin to indicate an influx of female genes from mainland Europe” said Prof Goldstein.
Geneticist Prof Steve Jones, who recently published a book called Y – The Descent of Man, said;
“Genetics provided more reliable clues to the distant past than language did”. He and colleagues at University College, London, have spent years creating a genetic map of the Y chromosome, which is passed by males from generation to generation. The results show that the Welsh are related to the Basques of northern Spain and southern France and to native Americans. He said: “There has been much less interbreeding in Wales than you might expect. Wales and Ireland have the most homogenous group of males of anywhere in the world, from the research that’s been done so far”.
He said; “The Y chromosome common among Welsh males was an ancient one. Most native Americans have the same one
CELTS ARRIVE IN THE AMERICA’S c.18,000 BC
Recent studies of the tool kits of the first Americans suggest an entry from Spain and not from Siberia. Not only this, but paleolithic Caucasian genes appear to form the basal layer of the genetic makeup of many native Americans, helping to confirm a trans-Atlantic entry into Central America between 18,000 and 12,000 years ago. Recent discoveries of three 13,000 year old Cro magnon man skeletons in an underwater cave in the Bahamas suggests that the above is true and correct.
Almost all archaeology to date has been based on the discovery of sites that are above sea level. Sea levels rose to present day levels about 6,000 years ago, therefore there has to be a great deal hidden underwater prior to this event,
During the most recent ice age (at its maximum about 20,000 years ago) the world’s sea level was about 130 m lower than today, due to the large amount of sea water that had evaporated and been deposited as snow and ice, mostly in the Laurentide ice sheet. The majority of this had melted by about 10,000 years ago.
The Solutreans of Spain are now believed to have crossed the Atlantic using the southern Equatorial current and the edge of the Ice age glaciers, and entered the Caribbean and Central America between 18,000 and 12,000 years ago to become known as the Clovis hunters of America, when they meet the Ainu – an isolated ethnic group in northern Japan who look quite unlike modern Japanese. . Recent genetic findings suggest that the people now known as Gaelic speaking Celts (including Irish, Welsh, Scots, Basques and Berbers) are a remnant of a group of people who also left Spain between 1,8000 and 12,000 years ago
ANCIENT CELTIC INFLUENCES INCLUDE ANCIENT CELTIC MUMMIES IN CHINA c.2000BC CELTS ENTER CHINA c.3500BC
At their peak, the influence of the Celts stretched from Ireland in the west to the south of Spain and across to Italy’s Po Valley, and probably extended to parts of Poland and Ukraine and the central plain of Turkey in the east. These mummies seem to suggest, however, that the Celts penetrated well into central Asia, nearly making it as far as Tibet (and probably much further)
Solid as a warrior of the Caledonii tribe, the man’s hair is reddish brown flecked with grey, framing high cheekbones, a long nose, full lips and a ginger beard. When he lived three thousand years ago, he stood six feet tall, and was buried wearing a red twill tunic and tartan leggings. He looks like a Bronze Age European. In fact, he’s every inch a Celt. Even his DNA says so.
But this is no early Celt from central Scotland. This is the mummified corpse of Cherchen Man, unearthed from the scorched sands of the Taklamakan Desert in the far-flung region of Xinjiang in western China,
The burial sites of Cherchen Man and his fellow people were marked with stone structures that look like dolmens from Britain, ringed by round-faced, Celtic figures, or standing stones. Among their icons were figures reminiscent of the sheela-na-gigs, wild females who flaunted their bodies and can still be found in mediaeval churches in Britain. A female mummy wears a long, conical hat which has to be a witch or a wizard’s hat. Or a druid’s, perhaps? The wooden combs they used to fan their tresses are familiar to students of ancient Celtic art.
Even older than the Cherchen find is that of the 4,000-year-old Loulan Beauty, who has long flowing fair hair and is one of a number of mummies discovered near the town of Loulan. One of these mummies was an eight-year-old child wrapped in a piece of patterned wool cloth, closed with bone pegs.
The Loulan Beauty’s features are Nordic. She was 45 when she died, and was buried with a basket of food for the next life, including domesticated wheat, combs and a feather.
The new finds are also forcing a reexamination of old Chinese books that describe historical or legendary figures of great height, with deep-set blue or green eyes, long noses, full beards, and red or blond hair. Scholars have traditionally scoffed at these accounts, but it now seems that they may be accurate
The Tocharians were the Tocharian-speaking inhabitants of the Tarim Basin, making them the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity
The Tocharians, living along the Silk Road, had contacts with the Chinese, Persians, Indian and Turkic tribesThe Tocharians who remained in the Tarim Basin adopted Buddhism, which, like their alphabet, came from northern India(Aryan) .Commonalities between the Tocharian languages and various other Indo-European language families (as with Celtic) are suggested but are still “controversial”.
.In the 6th century AD fresco, Qizil, Tarim Basin.
“Tocharian donors”, possibly the “Knights with Long Swords” of Chinese accounts, depicted with light hair and light eye color. Graphical analysis reveals that the third donor from left is performing a Buddhist Vitarka Mudra gesture. These frescoes are associated with annotations in Tocharian and Sanskrit made by their painters.
The Tarim mummies suggest that precursors of these easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language may have lived in the region of the Tarim Basin from around 1800 BC until finally they were assimilated by Uyghur Turks in the 9th century AD
Afanasevo (or Afanasievo) culture, 3500—2500 BC, an archaeological culture of the late copper and early Bronze Age
It became known from excavations in the Minusinsk area of the Krasnoyarsk Krai, southern Siberia, but the culture was also widespread in western Mongolia, northern Xinjiang, and eastern and central Kazakhstan, with connections or extensions in Tajikistan and the Aral area.
The economy seems to have been semi-nomadic pastoralism, with cattle, ovicaprids and horse remains being documented, along with those of wild game
This early extreme outlier of presumably Indo-European culture makes it an automatic candidate for being the earliest attested representative for speakers of the Tocharian stock.
CELTS CROSS INTO EUROPE OVER THE DANUBE AS THE GLACIERS MELT c.11,000BC
The Danube,East Europe, is the longest river in the European Union .Its name is Celtic.( Celtic *danu, meaning “to flow, run”,)
Both Homer (Odyss. XII. 1) and Hesiod ,(Theogonia, v.242. 959) in their theogonic legends exclusively refer to the lower Danube as the Okeanos Potamos(Great Ocean River God).At the end of the Okeanos Potamos, is the holy island of Alba (Leuke, Pytho Nisi, Isle of Snakes). sacred to the Pelasgian. (and later, the Greek) Apollo, greeting the sun rising in the east.,Alba is the Gaelic name of Scotland
THE LEGEND OF ALBA, THULE AND HYPERBORIA
ARE THE BRITISH ISLES OR SCOTLAND, ALBA? THE HYPERBOREAN THE HIBERNIAN?
Pious legend credits Patrick with banishing snakes from the island of Ireland, though all evidence suggests that post-glacial Ireland never had snakes;one suggestion is that snakes referred to the serpent symbolism of the Druids of that time and place, as shown for instance on coins minted in Gaul (see Carnutes),
Historically,the Island of Anglesey(Wales) has long been associated with the Druids.Anglesey is rich in prehistoric remains. The first evidence of humans on the island comes from the Mesolithic period, about 7000 BC
As the only poisonous snake in the British Isles the adder has a reputation for wisdom and sly cunning. The amulets said to have been carried by the druids, ‘gloine nathair’ (the glass of the serpent), were really adder stones.
It was an adder which caused the Battle of Camlan; while the armies of Mordred and Arthur were drawn up during a parley in which the battle might have been averted, an adder darted out from the scrub, so startling one of Arthur’s men that he drew his sword to slay it. Taking the flash of his sword as an instance of Arthur’s treachery, Mordred’s army attacked.
In the Highlands of Scotland, the adder or serpent is supposed to represent the CAILLEACH’S power,. See: SAMHAIN, and OIMELC
In partnership with the goddess Brìghde, the Cailleach is seen as a seasonal deity or spirit, ruling the winter months between Samhuinn (November 1) and Bealltainn (May 1), while Brìghde rules the summer months between Bealltainn and Samhuinn
THE CELTIC GREEK CONNECTION
Or that it could have referred to beliefs such as Pelagianism,(the Pre-Greek barbarian belief) symbolized as “serpents”
“Pelasgian” has come to mean more broadly all the autochthonous inhabitants of the Aegean lands and their culture before the advent of the Greek language the Pelasgians used to speak a Barbarian language.There are, indeed, various names affirmed to designate the ante-Hellenic inhabitants of many parts of Greece — many seem similar to known Celtic names.
the Pelasgi, the Leleges,(Vellavi -from Ruessium) the Curetes, the Kaukones,(The Carnutes (Latin Carnuti), a powerful Celtic people in the heart of independent Gaul, in the P-Celtic form Picts where “Cruithne”,Welsh Cymru) the Aones,(Aryans) the Temmikes, the Telchines,(Tocharians or Tuatha De Danann) the Boeotian Thracians,(Hyperborean)
Hecateus Abderitas refers to Apollo’s island from the region of the Hyperboreans, in the Okeanos.(Great Ocean)
Alone among the Twelve Olympians, Apollo was venerated among the Hyperboreans, the Hellenes thought: he spent his winter amongst them(CAILLEACH with the power of the snake?).In Greek mythology, according to tradition, the Hyperboreans were a mythical people who lived far to the north of Thrace. The Greeks thought that Boreas, the North Wind,lived in Thrace, and that therefore Hyperborea was an unspecified region in the northern lands that lay beyond Scythia. Their land, called Hyperborea or Hyperboria — “beyond the Boreas” Hesiod mentioned the Hyperboreans, Herodotus reported, though the text is now lost, “and Homer also in the Epigoni, if that be really a work of his”.
Also, the sun was supposed to rise and set only once a year in Hyperborea, which would place it at or near the North Pole. i.e. North of Scotland Alba ,Orkney? (Could the flooding of the North Sea basin c.7000-4000 BC be a flood myth or Atlantis sinking?)
For their part the Hyperboreans sent mysterious gifts, packed in straw, which came first to Dodona
Dodona (from Doric Greek ??d??a, Ionic Greek: ??d???,Dòdònè) in Epirus in northwestern Greece, was a prehistoric oracle devoted to the Mother Goddess identified at other sites with Rhea or Gaia, but here called Dione and later, in historical times also to the Greek god Zeus.The shrine of Dodona was the oldest Hellenic oracle, according to the fifth-century historian Herodotus and in fact dates to pre-Hellenic times, perhaps as early as the second millennium BCE.(eariler in my opinion) Aristotle considered the region to have been the most ancient part of Greece and where the Hellenes originated.Priestesses and priests in the sacred grove interpreted the rustling of the oak (or beech) leaves to determine the correct actions to be taken.
and then were passed from people to people until they came to Apollo’s temple on Delos (Pausanias). Abaris, Hyperborean priest of Apollo, was a legendary wandering healer and seer.(Druid?)
Abaris the Hyperborean (Greek: ?ßa??? ?pe?ß??e???, Abaris Hyperboreios),was a legendary sage, healer, and priest of Apollo known to the Ancient Greeks. He was supposed to have learned his skills in his homeland of Hyperborea,
As the patron of Delphi (Pythian Apollo), Apollo was an oracular god — the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. Medicine and healing were associated with Apollo, when it was a major site for the worship of the god Apollo after he slew the Python, a deity who lived there and protected the navel of the Earth.
HERE WE FIND THE SNAKE GOD AND HEALER AGAIN PYTHIA APOLLO AND HE APPEARS TO BE A CELT!!
WE ALSO SEE CELTIC SCOTLAND REFERED TO AS THULE. AN ANCIENT SEAT OF LEARNING EVEN IN ANTIQUITY!
Early in the fifth century AD Claudian, in his poem, On the Fourth Consulship of the Emperor Honorius, Book VIII, rhapsodizes on the conquests of the emperor Theodosius I, declaring that the “Orcades [Orkney Islands] ran red with Saxon slaughter; Thule was warm with the blood of Picts; ice-bound Hibernia [Ireland] wept for the heaps of slain Scots.” This implies that Thule was Scotland. But in Against Rufinias, the Second Poem, Claudian writes of “Thule lying icebound beneath the pole-star.”
Thule (pronounced /’?u?li/, us: thoo’·le; Greek T????, Thoule; also spelled in various sources Thile, Tile, Tilla, Toolee, Tylen, Thula, Thyle, Thylee, Thila, and Tila) is, in classical literature, a place, usually an island. Ancient European descriptions and maps locate it either in the far north, often Iceland, possibly the Orkney Islands or Shetland Islands or Scandinavia, or in the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance Iceland or Greenland.
Thule as Tile on the Carta Marina of 1539 by Olaus Magnus, where it is shown located to the north west of the Orkney Islands,
Nearly a half century later, in 77, Pliny the Elder published his Natural History in which he also cites Pytheas’ claim (in Book II, Chapter 75) that Thule is a six-day sail north of Britain. Then, when discussing the islands around Britain in Book IV, Chapter 16, he writes: “The farthest of all, which are known and spoke of, is Thule; in which there be no nights at all, as we have declared, about mid-summer, namely when the Sun passes through the sign Cancer; and contrariwise no days in mid-winter: and each of these times they suppose, do last six months, all day, or all night.” Finally, in refining the island’s location, he places it along the most northerly parallel of those he describes, writing in Book VI, Chapter 34,: “Last of all is the Scythian parallel, from the Rhiphean hills into Thule: wherein (as we said) it is day and night continually by turns (for six months).”
ANCIENT CELTIC MYTHS LIKE KING ARTHUR PENDRAGON
or KING “GUARDIAN OF THE BEAR” “CHIEF-WARRIOR DRAGON” SAVIOUR OF THE CELTS
The origin of the Welsh name Arthur a derivation from Welsh arth (earlier art), meaning “bear”, suggesting art-ur (earlier *Arto-uiros), “bear-man”, is the original form.An alternative theory links the name Arthur to Arcturus, the brightest star in the constellation Boötes, near Ursa Major or the Great Bear. The name means “guardian of the bear”or “bear guard”
Uther’s epithet Pendragon means “Chief Dragon” in a figurative sense, referring to his status as “foremost leader” or “chief of warriors”.Uther acquires the epithet when he witnesses a portentous dragon-shaped comet, which inspires him to use dragons on his standards. According to the Grail cycle, it was Uther’s older brother (elsewhere called Ambrosius Aurelianus) who sees the comet and receives the name “Pendragon”; Uther takes his epithet in his honor after his death.
The 12th-century French writer Chrétien de Troyes, who added Lancelot and the Holy Grail to the story, began the genre of Arthurian romance that became a significant strand of medieval literature. In these French stories, the narrative focus often shifts from King Arthur himself to other characters, such as various Knights of the Round Table
THE ARTHUR LEGEND IS ANCIENT.IT SEEMS TO EVEN PRE-DATE THE DRUIDIC BELIEFS.IT CELEBRATES THE BEAR AND THE SNAKE!!
DRUIDISM SEEMS TO BE WESTERN HINDUISM AT LEAST 18,000 YEARS OLD BUT IT HAS BEEN JOINED WITH THE EVEN MORE ANCIENT SNAKE AND BEAR RELIGIOUS CULTS THAT ARE OLDER THAN MODERN MAN.
NOW THAT’S AN OLD BELIEF AND AN EXTREMELY ANCIENT CULTURE!!!