There is absolutely no evidence of war or of any conquest of an earlier, pre Celtic people at the time the Druids supposedly arrived in Western Europe, making it difficult for archaeologists to explain how they could have peacefully imposed their language, religion, and culture on this hypothetical earlier people. Even more embarrassing is the fact that geneticists claim that modern British people are related to the Spanish, and DNA from human remains of supposedly pre-Celtic times in Britain have shown that many modern British people are related to these early people as well. More and more it is beginning to appear that the Celts (and their Druid priests) may have been in the West all along, and may, indeed, have built Stonehenge after all.
In Central Europe, the archaeological evidence shows continuous linear development, with no marked external influences. Archaeological continuity can be supported for every Indo-European-speaking region of Eurasia, and India. Several historically documented migrations, such as those of the Helvetii to Switzerland, the Huns into Europe, or Gaelic-speakers into Scotland are not attested in the archaeological record.
Bryant, Edwin (2001), The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture: The Indo-Aryan Migration Debate, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-513777-9.
Mallory, J.P. (1989), In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language, Archaeology, and Myth, London: Thames & Hudson, ISBN 0-500-27616-1.
The first such study dates back to 1999 and was conducted by the Estonian biologist Toomas Kivisild, a pioneer in the field, with fourteen co-authors from various nationalities (including M. J. Bamshad).9 It relied on 550 samples of mtDNA and identified a haplogroup called “U” as indicating a deep connection between Indian and Western-Eurasian populations. However, the authors opted for a very remote separation of the two branches, rather than a recent population movement towards India; in fact, “the subcontinent served as a pathway for eastward migration of modern humans” from Africa, some 40,000 years ago:
“We found an extensive deep late Pleistocene genetic link between contemporary Europeans and Indians, provided by the mtDNA haplogroup U, which encompasses roughly a fifth of mtDNA lineages of both populations. Our estimate for this split [between Europeans and Indians] is close to the suggested time for the peopling of Asia and the first expansion of anatomically modern humans in Eurasia and likely pre-dates their spread to Europe.”
In other words, there is a genetic connection between India and Europe, but a far more ancient one than was thought.
So the southward gene flow that had been imprinted on our minds for two centuries was wrong, after all: the flow was out of, not into, India.
“indeed, nearly all Europeans — and by extension, many Americans — can trace their ancestors to only four mtDNA lines, which appeared between 10,000 and 50,000 years ago and originated from South Asia.”
c. 40 thousand years ago, Europe was first reached by modern humans,genetically my Celtic ancestors!! They are probably dark haired and olive skinned.
43,000BC: A flute-like instrument made of bear bone was found by archaeologist Janez Dirjec at the Divje Babe site in the valley of the Idrijca River in Slovenia. It was believed to be about 45,000 years old.
Thier beliefs are “animistic” with the Bear Cult and the Snake cults being the most prominent.
What may be the world’s oldest known cave paintings have been discovered in northern Italy. They are between 32,000 and 36,500 years old.
Archaeologists have found tablets of stone showing images of an animal and a human-like creature.
The discovery adds to evidence that people living when Europe was in the grip of the last Ice Age were more sophisticated than was once thought.
The painted slabs were discovered in Fumane Cave, near Verona. Previously this cave has provided stone tools and other evidence of occupation.
Apparently, the slabs on which the drawings were found had fallen from the cave roof and become embedded in the floor.
Last summer some of the Fumane calcite was removed, revealing strange images done in red ochre. One of the images was of an animal-headed human. It may be a depiction of a “sorcerer” — perhaps the tribe’s magician, dancing with an animal-head mask in the firelight, evoking the tribal gods.
Stone slabs bearing images of an animal and a half-human, half-beast figure were uncovered during excavations by an Italian team at the Fumane Cave northwest of Verona. The images are believed to be at least as ancient as some found in the Grotte Chauvet in southern France–the current record holder at 32,000 years–and possibly even older. More important, cave art experts say, the new paintings bolster other evidence that humans engaged in sophisticated symbolic expression much earlier than once thought.
Alberto Broglio of the University of Ferrara said the paintings were covered with calcite that made the original red ochre finish difficult to see. Archaeologists have now removed much of the calcite.
Like many stone drawings from the distant past, they are enigmatic and difficult to interpret. On one of the slabs is an unknown, probably symbolic, four-legged beast. A human figure with the head of an animal is depicted on another slab.
The current record-holder for the oldest images are from the Grotte Chauvet in southern France, dated at about 32,000 years old.
ALL HUMANITY STARTS IN AFRICA
Genetic anthropology is an emerging discipline that combines DNA and physical evidence to reveal the history of ancient human migration. It seeks to answer the questions, “Where did we come from, and how did we get here?”
DNA studies indicate that all modern humans share a common female ancestor who lived in Africa about 140,000 years ago, and all men share a common male ancestor who lived in Africa about 60,000 years ago
Additional evidence in support of Middle Paleolithic animal worship originates from the Tsodilo Hills (c 70,000BCE) in the African Kalahari desert where a giant rock resembling a python that is accompanied by large amounts of colored broken spear points and a secret chamber has been discovered inside a cave. The Broken spear points were most likely sacrificial offerings and the python is also important to and worshipped by contemporary Bushmen Hunter-gatherers who are the descendants of the of the people who devised the ritual at the Tsodilo Hills and may have inherited their worship of the python from their distant Middle Paleolithic ancestors.
The worship of serpent deities is present in several old cultures, particularly in religion and mythology, where snakes were seen as entities of strength and renewal.
Snake worship refers to the high status of snakes or (nagas) in Hindu mythology. Nāga (Sanskrit:नाग) is the Sanskrit and Pāli word for a deity or class of entity or being, taking the form of a very large snake, found in Hinduism and Buddhism.
Ancient Mesopotamians and Semites believed that snakes were immortal because they could infinitely shed their skin and appear forever youthful, appearing in a fresh guise every time. Before the arrival of the Israelites, snake cults were well established in Canaan in the Bronze Age, for archaeologists have uncovered serpent cult objects in Bronze Age strata at several pre-Israelite cities in Canaan: two at Megiddo, one at Gezer, one in the sanctum sanctorum of the Area H temple at Hazor, and two at Shechem.
in the surrounding region, serpent cult objects figured in other cultures. A late Bronze Age Hittite shrine in northern Syria contained a bronze statue of a god holding a serpent in one hand and a staff in the other. In sixth-century Babylon a pair of bronzer serpents flanked each of the four doorways of the temple of Esagila. At the Babylonian New Year’s festival, the priest was to commission from a woodworker, a metalworker and a goldsmith two images one of which “shall hold in its left hand a snake of cedar, raising its right [hand] to the god Nabu”. At the tell of Tepe Gawra, at least seventeen Early Bronze Age Assyrian bronze serpents were recovered.
Ancient Egyptians worshiped snakes, especially the cobra. The cobra was not only associated with Ra, but also many other deities such as Wadjet, Renenutet, and Meretseger. Serpents could also be evil and harmful such as the case of Aapep.Wadjet was the patron goddess of Upper Egypt, and was represented as a cobra with spread hood, or a cobra-headed woman. She later became one of the protective emblems on the pharaoh’s crown once Upper and Lower Egypt were united. She was said to ‘spit fire’ at the pharaoh’s enemies, and the enemies of Ra.
Serpents figured prominently in archaic Greek myths. According to some sources, Ophion (“serpent”, a.k.a. Ophioneus), ruled the world with Eurynome before the two of them were cast down by Cronus and Rhea. The oracles of the Ancient Greeks were said to have been the continuation of the tradition begun with the worship of the Egyptian cobra goddess, Wadjet.
Python was the earth-dragon of Delphi, she always was represented in the vase-paintings and by sculptors as a serpent. Pytho was the chthonic enemy of Apollo, who slew her and remade her former home his own oracle, the most famous in Classical Greece.
Typhon the enemy of the Olympian gods is described as a vast grisly monster with a hundred heads and a hundred serpents issuing from his thighs, who was conquered and cast into Tartarus by Zeus
The Minoan Snake Goddess brandished a serpent in either hand, perhaps evoking her role as source of wisdom, rather than her role as Mistress of the Animals (Potnia theron), with a leopard under each arm. It is not by accident that later the infant Heracles, a liminal hero on the threshold between the old ways and the new Olympian world, also brandished the two serpents that “threatened” him in his cradle. Classical Greeks did not perceive that the threat was merely the threat of wisdom. But the gesture is the same as that of the Cretan goddess.
Serpent worship was well known in ancient Europe.On the Iberian Peninsula there is evidence that before the introduction of Christianity, and perhaps more strongly before invasions of the Romans, Serpent worship was part of local religion.
Jörmungandr, alternately the Midgard Serpent or World Serpent, of the Norse mythology, is the middle child of Loki and the giantess Angrboða. He tossed Jörmungandr into the great ocean that encircles Midgard. The serpent grew so big that he was able to surround the Earth and grasp his own tail, and as a result he earned the alternate name of the Midgard Serpent or World Serpent. Jörmungandr’s arch enemy is the god Thor.
Snake Cults Dominated Early Arabia
Pre-Islamic Middle Eastern regions were home to mysterious snake cults, according to two papers published in this month’s Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy journal.
From at least 1250 B.C. until around 550 A.D., residents of what is now the Persian Gulf worshipped snakes in elaborate temple complexes that appear to have been built for this purpose, the studies reveal.
The first paper, by archaeologist Dan Potts of the University of Sydney, describes architecture and relics dating to 500 B.C. from Qalat al-Bahrain in Bahrain.
c.40,000 BC ARYANS ARRIVE IN EUROPE ANOTHER BELIEF SYSTEM APPEARS
Archeological evidence from Middle Paleolithic caves,shows that a widespread Middle Paleolithic Neanderthal bear cult existed (Wunn, 2000, p. 434-435).
Bear worship (also known as the Bear Cult or Arctolatry) is the religious practice of the worshiping of bears found in many North American and North Eurasian ethnic circumpolar religions such as the Sami, Nivkhs, Ainu, and pre-christian Finns. There are also a number of deities from Celtic Gaul and Britain associated with the bear and the bear is featured on many totems throughout northern cultures that carve them. Bear worship may have been practiced as far back as the Middle paleolithic period amongst Neanderthal societies c.300,000 to 30,000 BC.
Ancient bear bones have been discovered in several different caves and are believed by some archaeologists to be evidence of a bear cult during the paleolithic era. It was not the mere presence of these bones that intrigued archaeologists, but their peculiar arrangement .
Emil Bächler, a main supporter of the argument for the presence of an ancient bear cult, found bear remains in Switzerland and at Mornova Cave in Slovenia. Along with Bächler’s discovery, bear skulls were found by André Leroi-Gourhan arranged in a perfect circle in Saône-et-Loire. The discovery of designs such as those found by Leroi-Gourhan suggests that these bear remains were placed in their arrangement intentionally; an act which has been attributed to H. Neanderthalensis and is assumed to have been a part of some sort of ceremony
Throughout all of Celtic Gaul and Britain, Artio, the goddess of wildlife, appears as a bear along with similar deities such as Artaius, Andarta and Matunos. The Christian Saint Ursula may be a holdover from these traditions.
THE BEAR IS ALSO IMPORTANT TO ANCIENT STAR GAZERS
Arcturus is the brightest star in the constellation Boötes and the northern celestial hemisphere.The name of the star derives from Ancient Greek Αρκτοῦρος (Arktouros) and means “Guardian of the Bear”, ultimately from ἄρκτος (arktos), “bear” + οὖρος (ouros), “watcher, guardian”. It has been known by this name since at least the time of Hesiod.
As one of the brightest stars in the sky, Arcturus has been significant to observers since antiquity. In Mesopotamia, it was linked to the god Enlil, and also known as Shudun, “yoke”, or SHU-PA of unknown derivation in the Three Stars Each Babylonian star catalogues and later MUL.APIN around 1100 BC
Rogers, John H. (1998). “Origins of the Ancient Constellations: II. The Mediterranean Traditions”. Journal of the British Astronomical Association 108 (2): 79–89. Bibcode 1998JBAA..108…79R.
Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
THE ICE AGE BEGINS c.36,000 BC
The Ice Age (starts c.36,000 ends c.13,000 years ago),ends c. 11 300 BC. Ice sheets extended to about 45 degrees north latitude. These sheets were 3 to 4 km thick
The change of environment and compition for the limited resourses in Ice Age Europe ,causes the Neanderthals to die out.
No definite specimens younger than 30,000 years ago have been found. Modern human skeletal remains with ‘Neanderthal traits’ were found in Lagar Velho (Portugal), dated to 24,500 years ago and interpreted as indications of extensively admixed populations.Neanderthal stone tools provide further evidence for their presence where skeletal remains have not been found. The last traces of Mousterian culture, a type of stone tools associated with Neanderthals, were found in Gorham’s Cave on the remote south-facing coast of Gibraltar .Other tool cultures sometimes associated with Neanderthal include Châtelperronian, Aurignacian, and Gravettian, with the latter extending to 22,000 years ago, the last indication of Neanderthal presence.
28,000 BC Date of latest fossil of Homo Neanderthalensis. Probably died off because of climate change and the arrival of Homo Sapien sapien(modern man)
“This definitely is its own species,” Dr. Tattersall affirmed, glancing first to the Neanderthal and then to a modern human skeleton next to it. “If people didn’t believe that before, by all rights they should now.”Also Gary Sawyer, a senior technician in anthropology, who directed the reconstruction and other technicians began developing their skills several years ago with the reconstruction of Peking Man, a Homo erectus from China. Their goal is to recreate skeletons of about 20 hominid species.
A DNA study has concluded that some Neanderthals also had red hair, although the mutation responsible for this differs from that which causes red hair in modern humans.But it does suggest that Red hair was a survival benefit in Ice Age Europe .
The Last Glacial Maximum, or Ice Age as it is more commonly referred began some 26 000 years ago, it was thought that there were two principal safe havens for humans. They were thought to exist in a “Franco-Cantabrian” area which roughly coincides with northern Spain/southern France, and a ‘Periglacial province’ on the plains in the Ukraine.
THESE ARE THE ABORIGINAL EUROPEAN SURVIVORS FROM C50,000 THEY CARRY THE RED HAIR AND WHITE SKIN MUTATION
THE RED HAIR AND PALE SKIN GENE APPEARS IN CELTIC ARYANS. AN EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTION TO THE ICE AGE ENVIRONMENT.
Northern Europeans could be descended from as few as 50 individuals who survived the last ice age.
New DNA evidence suggests that a few hundred Stone Age hunter-gatherers were the ancestors of many modern day northern Europeans.
The genetic marker for these people RED HAIR. This genetic adaption must of happened after 18,000 BC,as it does not cross into the native American population but before 11,000BC and the end of the Ice Age.
Red hair is the rarest natural hair colour in humans. The pale skin associated with red hair may be of advantage in far-northern climates where sunlight is scarce. Studies by Bodmer and Cavalli-Sforza (1976) hypothesized that lighter skin pigmentation prevents rickets in colder latitudes by encouraging higher levels of Vitamin D production and also allows the individual to retain heat better than someone with darker skin. Rees (2004) suggested that the vividness and rarity of red hair may lead to its becoming desirable in a partner and therefore it could become more common through sexual selection
Red hair appears in people with two copies of a recessive gene on chromosome 16
Red hair is caused by the MC1R gene and is non-pathological. It is associated with fair skin colour, freckles, and sensitivity to ultraviolet light, as the mutated MC1R protein is found in the skin and eyes instead of the darker melanin. It is a genetic marker of Celtic Aryan desent, from BOTH parents as it is a recessive gene.
SO WHERE ARE THEY NOW?
Today, red hair is most commonly found at the western fringes of Europe; it is associated particularly with the people of the British Isles
Redheads constitute approximately four percent of the European population. Scotland has the highest proportion of redheads, as 13 percent of the population has red hair and approximately 40 percent carries the recessive redhead gene. Ireland has the second highest percentage; as many as 10 percent of the Irish population have red, auburn, or strawberry blond hair. Red hair reaches frequencies of up to 10 percent in Wales.
Red-hair is found commonly amongst Ashkenazi Jewish populations.
(You know those NON-SEMITIC JEWS which make up over 80% of modern Judaism,which was invented by the ARYAN CYRUS THE GREAT!!)
Red or reddish-tinged hair is also found in other European populations particularly in the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as parts of the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Germany, Russia and South Slavic countries and Albania.
The Berber populations of Morocco and northern Algeria have occasional redheads. Red hair frequency is especially significant among the Kabyles from Algeria where it reaches 4 percent.
In Asia, darker or mixed tinges of red hair can be found sporadically from Northern India, northern Middle East (such as Iran, Lebanon and the countries of the Levant). Red hair can be found amongst those of Iranian descent, such as the Pashtuns, Persians, Lurs & Nuristanis.
ALL THESE PEOPLE HAVE ARYAN DESCENT OR CONNECTIONS!
THE ARYAN CELTS CROSS INTO AMERICA c.22,000BC
James Wilson and Prof David Goldstein of University College London, with colleagues at Oxford University and the University of California, “The findings provide the first direct evidence of a close relationship between the people known as Celts and the Basques. The gene patterns of three races passed down through the male line are all strikingly similar, researchers concluded. Basques can trace their roots back to the Stone Age and are one of Europe’s most distinct people, fiercely proud of their ancestry and traditions.
The team looked for similarities between the Y chromosomes (which are only carried by men) they sampled DNA from; 88 “Celtic fringe” individuals from Anglesey, North Wales, 146 from Ireland with Irish Gaelic surnames, and 150 Basques, revealing “remarkable’ similarities. On the other hand, he and his colleagues compared Celtic and Norwegian populations and found them to be quite different.
The Celts carried the early Y chromosome, which provides the first clear evidence of a close relationship in the paternal heritage of Basque and Celtic speaking populations. “They were statistically indistinguishable’, we also noticed that there’s something quite striking about the Celtic populations, and that is that there’s not a lot of genetic variation on the male Y-chromosome, We conclude that both the Basques and Celts are reflecting pre-farming Europe. Somehow these people have remained in isolation from the rest of Europe up until the Bronze age where their genes begin to indicate an influx of female genes from mainland Europe” said Prof Goldstein.
Geneticist Prof Steve Jones, who recently published a book called Y – The Descent of Man, said;
“Genetics provided more reliable clues to the distant past than language did”. He and colleagues at University College, London, have spent years creating a genetic map of the Y chromosome, which is passed by males from generation to generation. The results show that the Welsh are related to the Basques of northern Spain and southern France and to native Americans. He said: “There has been much less interbreeding in Wales than you might expect. Wales and Ireland have the most homogenous group of males of anywhere in the world, from the research that’s been done so far”.
He said; “The Y chromosome common among Welsh males was an ancient one. Most native Americans have the same one
The Solutreans of Spain are now believed to have crossed the Atlantic using the southern Equatorial current and entered the Caribbean and Central America between 18,000 and 12,000 years ago to become known as the Clovis hunters of America. Recent genetic findings suggest that the people now known as Gaelic speaking Celts (including Irish, Welsh, Scots, Basques and Berbers) are a remnant of a group of people who also left Spain between 18,000 and 12,000 years ago
During the most recent ice age (at its maximum about 20,000 years ago) the world’s sea level was about 130 m lower than today, due to the large amount of sea water that had evaporated and been deposited as snow and ice, mostly in the Laurentide ice sheet. The majority of this had melted by about 10,000 years ago.
In July 2000, deep ocean engineer Paulina Zelitzky discovered a possible megalithic site 2,310 feet below the water off the western coast of Cuba. The site encompasses an area about 20 square kilometers (about 7.7 square miles) in size, near the Guanahabibes Peninsula. Using sidescan sonar, Zelitzky, owner and operator of a company called Advanced Digital Communications (ADC), found “in the middle of this beautiful white sand … clear manmade large-size architectural designs” (Reuters, May 14, 2001, as quoted on CyberspaceOrbit.com).
In the summer of 2001, the researchers returned to film the ruins using a Robotic Ocean Vehicle known as an ROV. On close examination, they saw a large plateau with organized stone structures that appeared to be pyramids, rectangular buildings, and roads. The researchers believe this underwater “city” was built at least 6,000 years ago, when the land was above water. Zelitzky hypothesizes that an earthquake or volcanic activity caused the land to sink (Reuters, December 6, 2001, as quoted on TalkCity.com).
Manuel A. Iturralde Vincent, research director of Cuba’s National Museum of Natural History in Old Havana, viewed the site and confirmed that the shapes are similar to pyramids and streets when seen from above. He also confirmed the existence of large faults and an underwater volcano nearby, and indications of “significantly strong seismic activity” (Reuters, March 30, 2001 as quoted in ElectricWarrior.com).
In January 2002, Linda Moulton Howe, an investigative journalist, interviewed Zelitzky, and her business partner and husband, Paul Weinzweig. Weinzweig stated: “The Center for Marine Archaeology and Anthropology at the Cuban Academy of Sciences is currently analyzing video data which we have from the perimeter of the site from megalithic stones. They are working on inscriptions [editor's emphasis] that they have detected on these stones…”
The stones were about six and a half feet wide and deep by sixteen feet high, and resemble the stones seen on Easter Island and at Stonehenge. Mr. Weinzweig added that they were “…very large and smooth and light colored that bear no relationship to the surrounding ecology. And also there is evidence of smooth cut and fit, that is one on top of another, as if the basis of a pyramid or large building” (Earth Files).
The stones are inscribed with lettering that is unknown but has the “same tendency, but … is not Greek,” according to Zelitzky. The inscriptions, according to Mr. Weinzweig, also include pictographs of “a Central American cross … two oval shapes crossing each other” which pre-date Columbus, probably by thousands of years. (See illustration at left of a similar pictograph found in a Cuban cave explored by Paulina Zelitzky.) Although similar, the pictographs are not identical to symbols found on Central American pyramids. These oval crosses also bear some similarity to “Old World” hieroglyphs — from the “Linear C Language” of an ancient culture on Crete — to hieroglyphs found in the Assyrian culture, from the area which is now Iraq (Earth Files).
The researchers stress that their understanding of this site is preliminary and requires more exploration and analysis before any definitive statements can be made. Since Zelitzky reportedly has an agreement with the National Geographic Society for exclusive magazine coverage, it is only a matter of time before the whole story comes out.
Recent studies of the tool kits of the first Americans suggest an entry from Spain and not from Siberia. Not only this, but paleolithic Caucasian genes appear to form the basal layer of the genetic makeup of many native Americans, helping to confirm a trans-Atlantic entry into Central America between 18,000 and 12,000 years ago. Recent discoveries of three 13,000 year old Cro magnon man skeletons in an underwater cave in the Bahamas suggests that the above is true and correct.
Almost all archaeology to date has been based on the discovery of sites that are above sea level. Sea levels rose to present day levels about 6,000 years ago, therefore there has to be a great deal hidden underwater prior to this event,
In 1977, University of Kentucky archaeologist Thomas Dillehay began excavating this ancient settlement, which had been remarkably preserved under a blanket of peat. Radiocarbon dating fixed the site at 14,850 years old, centuries before the Clovis had even begun their trek southward.
“There was considerable diversity among the early people(of America); they were much more diverse than Native Americans today. So somehow that diversity was reduced,”
says Richard Jantz, the University of Tennessee anthropologist who has been studying these ancient crania.
In the DNA profile of the Ichigua Native American tribe he identified a lineage that was clearly European in origin, too old to be due to genetic mixing since Columbus’ discovery of the New World. Instead it dated to Solutrean times. The genetic timelines show the Ice Age prompted a number of migrations from Europe to America. It looks highly likely that the Solutreans were one.
While most of northern Europe and Canada were under ice sheets, argues Stanford, these ancient Solutreans could simply have followed the sea-ice round the north Atlantic and down to the north-east coast of America.
These new discoveries suggests humans may have crossed the land bridge into the Americas much earlier — possibly during an ice age — and rapidly colonized the two continents.
“It poses some real problems trying to explain how you have people arriving in Central Asia almost at the same time as people in the Eastern United States.”
NEW ARYAN CULTURAL BELIEFS EMERGE ,NOW ANCIENT CULTURAL BELIEFS -DRUIDIC,HINDU ,BUDDHIST c.18,000 YEARS OLD
Proto-Indo-European religion is the hypothesized religion of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) peoples based on the existence of similarities among the deities, religious practices and mythologies of the Indo-European peoples
Recent archeological work on the Chang Tang plateau finds evidence of an Iron Age culture which some have tentatively identified as the Zhangzhung. This culture is notable for the following characteristics:
a system of hilltop stone forts or citadels, likely used as a defense against the steppe tribes of Central Asia, such as the Scythians
burial complexes which use vertical tombstones, occasionally in large arrays, and including up to 10,000 graves in one location
stone temples located in the mountains adjacent to the plains, characterized by windowless rooms, corbelled stone roofs, and round walls
evidence of a stratified social structure, as indicated by royal or princely tombs
petroglyphs which shows the culture was a warrior horse culture
These characteristics more closely match the Iron Age cultures of Europe and the Asian steppes than those of India or East Asia, suggesting a cultural influence which arrived from the west or north rather than the east or south
In Tibetan Buddhist tradition, Shambhala (also spelled Shambala or Shamballa; Tibetan: bde ‘byung, pron. De-jung) is a mythical kingdom hidden somewhere in Tibet. It is mentioned in various ancient texts, including the Kalachakra Tantra[ and the ancient texts of the Zhang Zhung culture which predated Tibetan Buddhism in western Tibet. The Bön[ scriptures speak of a closely related land called Olmolungring.
Bön (Tibetan: བོན་; Wylie: bon; Lhasa dialect IPA: [pʰø̃̀(n)]) is the oldest spiritual tradition of Tibet.
The Bön canon comprises more than two hundred volumes, classified in four categories: the Sutras (mdo), the Perfection of Wisdom Teachings (‘bum), the Tantras (rgyud) and Knowledge (mdzod). Besides these, the Bön canon includes material on rituals, arts and crafts, logic, medicine, poetry and narrative. It is interesting to note that the “Knowledge” section concerning cosmogony and cosmology, though in some respects unique to Bön, shares a more than passing resemblance to Nyingma (rnying ma) doctrines.
The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug). “Nyingma” literally means “ancient,” and is often referred to as the “school of the ancient translations” or the “old school” because it is founded on the first translations of Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Tibetan
It is noteworthy that the Bönpo tradition was founded by a buddha like figure named Tonpa Shenrab Miwoche[, whose teachings are similar in scope to the teaching espoused by the historical Buddha. Bönpos claim that Tonpa Shenrab Miwoche lived some 18,000 years ago, and visited Tibet from the land of Tagzig Olmo Lung Ring, or Shambhala. Bönpos also suggest that during this time Lord Shenrab Miwoche's teaching permeated the entire subcontinent and was in part responsible for the development of the Vedic religion. An example of this link is that Mount Kailash, as the center of Zhang Zhung culture, is also the most sacred mountain to Hindus. In turn, Buddhism evolved from the spiritual teachings of the Vedic religion. As a result, the Bönpos claim that the much later teaching at least indirectly owes its origin to Tonpa Shenrab Miwoche.
The Druids & the Brahmins
Druid - The Druids were suppressed in Gaul by the Romans under Tiberius (reigned AD 14-37) and probably in Britain a little later. In Ireland they lost their priestly functions after the coming of Christianity and survived as poets, historians, and judges (filid, senchaidi, and brithemain). Many scholars believe that the Hindu Brahman in the East and the Celtic Druid in the West were lateral survivals of an ancient Indo-European priesthood." - Britannica.com
The easiest of parallels to be drawn between the Celtic and Vedic peoples must be that of the Druids and the Brahmins. The Druids and the Brahmins were both the priests and philosophers of their respective cultures. Both orders of priests were the wise ones of their lands, the seers and teachers, to whom warriors and kings turned for counsel and advice. They were free to wander the lands, as many of India's holy men still do, and, according to Caesar's writings, the Druids were "held with great honour by the people".
The name 'Druid' is considered by some to have originated the mediterranean and the East. The first syllable of the word 'Druid', according to Pliny the Elder (1 CE), is related to the Greek word for the Oak tree, 'drus'. The root of which is 'dr' and it is to be found in several Aryan languages. More likely its the Celtic root dru which means "immersion",which also appears in Sanskrit.(the Greek word drus, a later reference to the oak and Druids)The second syllable is thought to have originated from the sanskrit word 'vid', meaning 'knowledge', which is also the root of the term 'Vedas'. If this is accurate then the Druids would have been those who possess the 'knowledge of the Oak tree' to a Greek. The Oak tree in Celtic myth and legend was closely associated with knowledge and wisdom, or more correctly, a Druid was one "immersed in knowledge."
The scholars of the Greek Alexandrian school clearly described them as a parallel caste to the brahmins of Vedic society.Tacitus, a Greek historian, commented on the striking similarity of the bathing Druids to the Brahmins, suggesting they were "so emblematic of the brahmins."
Interestingly the term for soul (I use the term soul for reasons of simplicity) in Vedic literature is 'atman', whereas the Celtic term for soul is 'anam'."Due to the cessation of the Druids a vast wealth of knowledge and wisdom has been lost. As part of an oral tradition, like the Brahmins of old, nothing was ever wrote down, all myths, laws and teachings were held to memory.The Celts had a large pantheon of which about 300 to 400 names are known to us today.This also stands true for the Vedic pantheon.It is interesting to note that the Celtic term for the Gods is 'Deuos' and the Vedic term is 'Devas', both terms meaning "Shining Ones".
The Cailleach; Crone of Beare. Great Goddess in her Destroyer aspect; called "Veiled One". Another name is Scota, from which Scotland comes. Originally Scotland was called Caledonia, (Domain of Cali or Cali's Domain)or land given by Caillech and Ireland was refered to as Scotland.
In parts of Britain she is the Goddess of Winter. Depicted as a blue-faced hag, who is reborn October 31 (Samhain) She brings the snow until the Goddess Brigit deposes her and she eventually turns to stone April 30 (Beltaine). In later times the mythical witch like figure of "Black Annis" is believed to have derived from her.
She was an ancient Goddess of the pre-Celtiberian peoples of Ireland. She controlled the seasons and the weather; and was the goddess of earth and sky, moon and sun.
She is a Tutelary Goddess to southwest Munster, and appears in tales describing a knight being importuned by an old hag for love, acceptance of which transforms her into a beautiful maiden.
Kali, also known as Kalika (Bengali: কালী, Kālī / কালিকা Kālikā ; Sanskrit: काली), is a Hindu goddess associated with eternal energy. The name Kali means "black", but has by folk etymology come to mean "force of time (kala)". Despite her negative connotations, she is today considered the goddess of time and change. Although sometimes presented as dark and violent, her earliest incarnation as a figure of annihilation still has some influence.
She is the foremost among the Dasa-Mahavidyas, ten fierce Tantric goddesses
According to David Kinsley, Kali is first mentioned in Hinduism as a distinct goddess, related to war, around 600 CE. Scriptures like Agni Purana and Garuda Purana describe her terrible appearance and associate her with corpses and war.
Kālī is the feminine of kāla "black, dark coloured" (per Panini 4.1.42). It appears as the name of a form of Durga in Mahabharata 4.195, and as the name of an evil female spirit in Harivamsa 11552.
The Karpuradi-stotra clearly indicates that Kali is more than a terrible, vicious, slayer of demons who serves Durga or Shiva. Here, she is identified as the supreme mistress of the universe, associated with the five elements. In union with Lord Shiva, who is said to be her spouse, she creates and destroys worlds.
In contrast to her terrible aspects, she takes on hints of a more benign dimension. She is described as young and beautiful, has a gentle smile, and makes gestures with her two right hands to dispel any fear and offer boons. The more positive features exposed offer the distillation of divine wrath into a goddess of salvation, who rids the sadhaka of fear. Here, Kali appears as a symbol of triumph over death
Pashupati (Sanskrit: पशुपति Paśupati), "Lord of all animals", is an epithet of the Hindu god Shiva.The Rigveda has the related pashupa "protector of animals" as a name of Pushan. The name was also applied by John Marshall to a figure, probably a deity depicted as sitting among animals, on a seal discovered in the context of the Indus Valley Civilization .The main temple of Nepal is Pashupatinath at Katmandu.
The seal discovered during excavation of the Mohenjodaro archaeological site in the Indus Valley (2900BC-1900BC) has drawn attention as a possible representation of a "yogi" or "proto-Shiva" figure
Mythological reference to the Horned God Pashupati can be found in ancient Indian and Nepalese scriptural texts. The legend of Pashupati can be found in reference to the Indian God Shiva, of whom Pashupati is referred to as being the proto-type. In the Skanda Purana it tells how the God Shiva used to love a great forest called the 'Sleshmantaka Forest' . It was here that Shiva spent so much time being emersed in 'the wilderness of this forest in merry-making assuming Himself the form of a deer' . It reads in the Skanda Purana -
As I reside here in the forest of Sleshmanta in the form of a beast,
My name will hence be known as the Pashupati the world over.
To this day the Sleshmantaka forest remains sacred and is known as 'Mrigasthali', 'the abode of deers'. The name Pashupati means ' Lord of Animals' (Pashu - animal, Pati -Lord) and was later taken to mean (Lorrd of Souls).
In the Indus Valley many seals have been found which show images of the Horned God with many animals surrounding him the figure is sitting in a traditional cross-legged yoga pose with its hands resting on its knees.On the seals is what has became known as the Indus script. This is a written language which looks similar to runes and other ancient scripts, however academics have been struggling for many years to correctly decipher it. Although several decipherings have been made in the last 50 years none have gained complete approval by scholars and academics.
What the Indus Valley seals of the horned God suggest is that there is an undeniable connection between the horned God Pashupati and the horned God of the Celts,
The Horned God Cernunnos.Cernunnos (also Cernenus) is a pagan Celtic god whose representations were widespread in the ancient Celtic lands of western Europe.The most detailed, clear and famous of all images of Cernunnos comes from a unique and marvellous piece of Celtic work: The Gundestrup Cauldron.
He is seated cross-legged. He has antlers with seven tines (or points per horn), and is, unusually, depicted clean-shaven. He wears a torque and carries a second one in his right hand. He wears a tunic and bracae (Celtic trousers) which cover him from the wrist to above the knee, and a patterned belt. He wears sandals on his feet. His hair appears to be brushed straight back.
In his left hand he holds the ram-horned serpent. This serpent also appears on another two of the five interior panels.
Surrounding him are many beasts.
The images of him are unusually consistent. His main attribute are his horns, those of a stag. He is usually portrayed as a mature man with long hair and a beard. He wears a torc: this was an ornate neck-ring worn by the Celts to denote nobility. He often carries other torcs in his hands or hanging from his horns.
He is usually portrayed seated and cross-legged, in the meditative or shamanic position.
Cernunnos is nearly always portrayed with animals, in particular the stag. He is also frequently associated with a unique beast that seems to belong only to him: a serpent with the horns of a ram. Less often he is associated with other beasts, including bulls, dogs and rats.
The ram-horned serpent is particularly interesting. The serpent occurs in myths all across the world, and is nearly always associated with knowledge. Usually these associations are purely pagan, but remember that it was a serpent that tempted Eve to eat from the tree of knowledge. It is also commonly associated with death and the otherworld, and is hence described as cthonic. Cernunnos carries it in his left hand, and in his right he carries a torc, the Celtic symbol of nobility, the symbol of having been initiated into that special state.
Was Cernunnos the Celtic god of initiation ?
The Song of Amergin
I am a stag of seven tines,
I am a wide flood on a plain,
I am a wind on the deep waters,
I am a shining tear of the sun,
I am a hawk on a cliff,
I am fair among flowers,
I am a god who sets the head afire with smoke.
I am a battle waging spear,
I am a salmon in the pool,
I am a hill of poetry,
I am a ruthless boar,
I am a threatening noise of the sea,
I am a wave of the sea,
Who but I knows the secrets of the unhewn dolmen ?
Origin obscure but certainly Celtic
The Celts made numerous models, or icons, of their various gods, and there are over 60 depicting Cernunnos, from all over Europe. We only know his name because it is carved on a single one of these, made by sailors from the Gallic Parisii tribe (from whom Paris got its name) in the first century AD, by which time Gaul (modern France) had become a Roman province. The earliest image of him that has been found was carved on rock in Northern Italy in the 4th century BC.
Cornu in modern French means "horned, because modern French has grown from the Latin language imposed upon them by the Romans. The Latin for horn is also cornu. The Romans had a habit of changing local names to fit the Roman pattern: most Roman names end in us. So Cernunnos is a Roman name meaning Horned One. It was probably the new Romanised name given by the Gauls to all their very old horned gods, in which case its use may have been widespread through out Gaul after it became a Roman province.
Danu in Celtic & Vedic Myth
One of the most striking comparisons to be found between the Celtic and Vedic pantheon is that of a Goddess named Danu and the myths surrounding her (also known in Celtic traditions as Don, Dana and possibly also Anu or Ana). A Goddess named Danu appears both in Celtic and Vedic mythology. She features heavily in Celtic mythology as the Mother Goddess (and a river Goddess). She is one of the most ancient known of all Celtic Goddesses, from whom the hierarchy of Gods received it's name of Tuatha De Danann, "Folk of the Goddess Danu" Among the ancient Celts, Danu was regarded as the "Mother Goddess." The Irish Gods and Goddesses were the Tuatha De Danaan ("Children of Danu").Whereas in Vedic mythology the Goddess Danu ,a red headed goddess ,who gives birth to the seven Danvanas, the dark ones of the ocean.
The Celtic Danu was the "divine waters" falling from heaven and nurturing Bíle, the sacred oak from whose acorns their children sprang. Moreover, the waters of Danu went on to create the great Celtic sacred river--Danuvius, today called the Danube.
Not only is the story of Danu and the Danube a parallel to that of Ganga and the Ganges but a Hindu Danu appears in the Vedic story "The Churning of the Oceans," a story with parallels in Irish and Welsh mytholgy. Danu in Sanskrit also means "divine waters" and "moisture.".
Surrounding the Goddess Danu in each culture's mythology is a similar tale of battle,
Danu in the Vedic myth is bondage and restraint and her son Vrtra is the constrictor. Whereas the Goddess Aditi is the Boundless and the Infinite, and Indra by using his tapas, which is represented by his lightening bolt, becomes the "winner of the light".It is the macrocosmic struggle between light and dark, order and chaos. While on the microcosmic level it is knowledge over ignorance.
In the Celtic myth the Goddess Domnu is regarded as being of "Chaos and Old Night", the abyss, from whence came the Fomors the deities of the dark waters who were conquered by Lug, the Celtic Sun God, and the Tuatha De Danann. Again it is the light conquering the darkness. The two myths are fundamentally the same, both tell of the primordial waters, that undifferentiated state of being before the time of creation, and light emerging in triumph over darkness to allow life to flow. This theme seems to be repeated in a rather abstract creation hymn in the Rig Veda, "Darkness there was: at first concealed in darkness this All was indiscrimated chaos. All that existed then was void and formless: by the great power of Warmth was born that unit" (X.129).
Here we also find a possible root of the mesotopamian creation myth, creation from a chaotic deep watery abyss.
Is it also possible that the Celtic Vedic split was caused by a socio/religious disputes? In this case the role of women in society.Danu is a Good goddess in Celtic myths and female Druids and Warriors and Queens are common in Celtic society ,not so in Hinduism where Danu is the Mother of chaos and women tend to be subserviant in society.
Not only were there women Druids but from written accounts it is known that women also fought in battle. Diodorus described Celtic women as being "nearly as big and strong as their husbands and as fierce."
CELTIC LUG AND VEDIC INDRA THE SUN GODS
Successful comparisons may also be drawn between Lug and Indra.Throughout the Rig Veda there are many hymns to Indra (more than any other God or Goddess) and many of these contain references that associate Indra with the Sun and light. Another parallel between Lug and Indra is that they were both not the original leaders of their respective groups.Indra has also been connected with the Celtic myth of Tain Bo Cuailgne. Here Indra's symbolic animal representation, the bull, is compared with the Celtic bull of Quelgny. Again what is found is a solar association in both Celtic and Vedic myth.
Places of Worship
Some of the most auspicious places of worship for the Celtic and Vedic peoples were rivers.Many European rivers bear the name of Danu--the Rhône (ro- Dhanu, "Great Danu") and several rivers called Don. Rivers were sacred in the Celtic world, and places where votive offerings were deposited and burials often conducted. The Thames, which flows through London, still bears its Celtic name, from Tamesis, the dark river, which is the same name as Tamesa, a tributary of the Ganges.In both Celtic and Vedic cultures offerings were often placed in rivers and those of the Celts were especially elaborate.
Another of the sacred dwellings was that of specific areas of woods and groves. According to Tacitus the "Woods and groves are the sacred depositories; and the spot being consecrated to those pious uses, they give to that sacred recess the name of the divinity that fills the place, which is never profaned by the steps of man. The gloom fills every mind with awe; revered at a distance and never seen but with the eye of contemplation." The Druids and their daily activities of bathing in rivers is a mirror image of the Vedic Brahmins, who bathe during the first hours of sun rise in rivers such as the Ganges Similarly there are many Indian tales of Brahmans and holy men who lived in forests of which some were especially sacred spaces A selection of Vedic texts written after the four main Samhitas (the Rig, Sama, Yajur and Artharva Vedas) are the Aranyakas, meaning 'forest treatise'. Indicating that these were composed in the reclusive depths of the forests.
Celtic & Vedic Fairies
Celtic stories are well known for their fairy folk, the little people who inhabit trees and hills. Sometimes they were the source of mischief or misfortune, other times the were advantageous and benevolent. The stories tell us that they delight in music and loved to dance. The Celtic fairies (also called Sidhes) often blended in myth with the Gods and like the Gods the fairies knew magick, fought wars and married amongst themselves.
Vedic nature spirits are yaksas, the favourite of the yaksas' locations is in a rural village's sacred tree. Here they would be safe from harms way and it was believed that having the yaksas there was prosperous for the village. Offerings and tiny gifts would be laid at the trunk of the tree, while flower garlands would be hung from the branches. There was also a fertility association with the yaksas in the sacred tree. As were there also associations of treasure buried at the tree roots, again like some of the Celtic fairies.
THE ANCIENT LANGUAGE
P-Celtic incorporates the following:
Q-Celtic incorporates the following:
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P-Celtic_and_Q-Celtic"
The Celtic languages are part of the Indo-European language group that also includes modern German, Spanish, French(which are heavily influenced from Latin ,which in turn is heavilly influenced from Celtic/Gaelic or more correctly GAULIC) and so forth; indeed, in Western Europe only the Basques of the western Spanish/French border area speak an unrelated language.
And there is no evidence that any pre-Indo-European language people were conquered anywhere else in Europe. Furthermore, judging by their adaptations to climate, with large blondes in the north and shorter, darker people in the south, the same peoples appear to have lived in these various areas for a very long time.
Ancient Greek and Italian were also Indo-European languages,which would of both been influenced by the Celtic language, as were the Farsi language of ancient Persia (Iran) and Sanskrit in India which would of developed in parallel with Gaelic growing from the same roots. And here, too, conventional history tells us that the original inhabitants, speakers of the still extant Dravidian languages, were conquered by invading "Aryans" from the northwest. And here, too, there is no evidence of this. The oldest known civilization in the region (until undersea ruins were discovered off the coasts of India) was the 5,000 year old Indus-Sarasvati culture, with cities like Harappa and Mohenjo-daro. Since they did not seem to have horses and chariots like the later "Aryan" culture, it was assumed that they were conquered by people who did...but, once more, there is no evidence of war or conquest, and these new technologies both here and in western Europe need not have been spread by war. In fact, their art depicted swastikas and phalluses like the art of the much later Hindus, and one of their ancient seals depicts a man in a yoga position. They had river boats and perhaps sea going boats as well, and traded with the Sumerians of present-day Iraq. They also seem to have practiced goddess worship and had paintings of leaping bulls like the Minoan culture of Crete. Their culture appears to have undergone a slow, natural decline.
No chariots yet is not suprising as the chariot probably originated in Mesopotamia about 3000 BC. The earliest depiction of vehicles in the context of warfare is on the Standard of Ur in southern Mesopotamia, ca. 2500 BC
Professor Calvert Watkins of Harvard, one of the leading linguistic experts in his field, has pointed out that of all the Celtic linguistic remains, Old Irish represents an extraordinarily archaic and conservative tradition within the Indo-European family.
Its nominal and verbal systems are a far truer reflection of the hypothesized parent tongue, from which all Indo-European languages developed, than are Classical Greek or Latin. The structure of Old Irish, says Professor Watkins, can be compared only with that of Vedic Sanskrit or Hittite of the Old Kingdom.
The vocabulary is amazingly similar. The following are just a few examples:
Old Irish - arya (freeman),Sanskrit - aire (noble)
Old Irish - naib (good), Sanskrit - noeib (holy)
Old Irish - badhira (deaf), Sanskrit - bodhar (deaf)
Old Irish - names (respect), Sanskrit - nemed (respect)
Old Irish - righ (king), Sanskrit - raja (king)
This applies not only in the field of linguistics but in law and social custom, in mythology, in folk custom and in traditional musical form. The ancient Irish law system, the Laws of the Fénechus, is closely parallel to the Laws of Manu. Many surviving Irish myths, and some Welsh ones, show remarkable resemblances to the themes, stories and even names in the sagas of the Indian Vedas.
The ancient Irish law system, the Laws of the Fénechus, is closely parallel to the Laws of Manu. Many surviving Irish myths, and some Welsh ones, show remarkable resemblances to the themes, stories and even names in the sagas of the Indian Vedas.
For some time, especially through the work of D. A. Binchy, the laws were held to be conservative and useful primarily for reconstructing the laws and customs of the Proto-Indo-Europeans just as linguists had reconstructed the Proto-Indo-European language. For instance, Historians have seen comparisons between Irish and Indian customs of fasting as a method of shaming a wrongdoer, in order to recover a debt or to demand the righting of a wrong. Other legal institutions prominent in early Irish law but foreign to most contemporary legal systems, such as the use of sureties have been considered as survivals from earlier periods. There is still the possibility to suggest a past for a certain legal topic based on Irish legal terms being cognate with terms in other Celtic languages, although that information does not mandate that the practice described by the legal term has not changed.There is, however, one area where scholars have found material that is clearly old. A number of legal terms have been shown to have originated in the period before the Celtic Languages split up because they are preserved in both Old Irish and in the Welsh legal texts.
Comparisons are almost endless. Among the ancient Celts, Danu was regarded as the "Mother Goddess." The Irish Gods and Goddesses were the Tuatha De Danaan ("Children of Danu"). Danu was the "divine waters" falling from heaven and nurturing Bíle, the sacred oak from whose acorns their children sprang. Moreover, the waters of Danu went on to create the great Celtic sacred river--Danuvius, today called the Danube. Many European rivers bear the name of Danu--the Rhône (ro- Dhanu, "Great Danu") and several rivers called Don. Rivers were sacred in the Celtic world, and places where votive offerings were deposited and burials often conducted. The Thames, which flows through London, still bears its Celtic name, from Tamesis, the dark river, which is the same name as Tamesa, a tributary of the Ganges.
Not only is the story of Danu and the Danube a parallel to that of Ganga and the Ganges but a Hindu Danu appears in the Vedic story "The Churning of the Oceans," a story with parallels in Irish and Welsh mytholgy. Danu in Sanskrit also means "divine waters" and "moisture."
WHY DID DRUIDS PAINT THIER WARRIORS BLUE FOR PROTECTION AND USE RELIGIOUS PICTOGRAMS IN BATTLE.IS IT COINCIDENCE THAT THE HEAD DEITIES IN HINDUISM ARE ALSO BLUE WITH PICTOGRAMS?
Vishnu (IAST vi??u, Devanagari ??????), (honorific: Bhagavan Vishnu), is the Supreme God in Vaishnavite tradition of Hinduism. Smarta followers of Adi Shankara, among others, venerate Vishnu as one of the five primary forms of God,and his supreme status is declared in the Hindu sacred texts like Yajurveda, the Rigveda and the Bhagavad Gita
According to various Purana, Vishnu is the ultimate omnipresent reality, is shapeless and omnipresent. However, a strict iconography governs his representation, whether in pictures, icons, or idols:
He is to be depicted as a four-armed male-form: The four arms indicate his all-powerful and all-pervasive nature. The physical existence of Vishnu is represented by the two arms in the front while the two arms at the back represent his presence in the spiritual world. The Upanishad titled Gopal Uttartapani describes the four arms of Vishnu.
The color of his skin has to be new-cloud-like-blue: The blue color indicates his all-pervasive nature, blue being the color of the infinite space as well as the infinite ocean on which he resides.
THE CELTS HAVE SIMILAR BLUE FEMALE HEAD DEITYS
THE CELTS WEAR BLUE WOAD
He has the mark of sage Bhrigu's feet on his chest.
THE CELTS WEAR PICTOGRAMS
Around his neck, he wears the auspicious "Kaustubha" jewel, and a garland of flowers (vanamaalaa). It is in this jewel, on Vishnu's chest that Lakshmi dwells.
AND THE CELTIC TORQUE REPRESENTS THE DIVENE FEMALE Depictions of the gods and goddesses of Celtic mythology frequently show them wearing torcs The famous Roman copy of the original Greek sculpture The Dying Gaul depicts a wounded Gallic warrior naked except for a torc
Also on his chest is the srivatsa mark, symbolising his consort Lakshmi. It is on the chest of Vishnu, where Lakshmi resides.
AND MORE PICTOGRAMS
A crown should adorn his head: The crown symbolizes his supreme authority.
OLDEST CROWN IN EUROPE IS SCOTTISH
He is to shown wearing two earrings: The earrings represent inherent opposites in creation — knowledge and ignorance; happiness and unhappiness; pleasure and pain.
CELTS ARE REKNOWN FOR THIER JEWELRY
He rests on Ananta: the immortal and infinite snake
THE SNAKE AGAIN
Krishna (????? in Devanagari, k???a in IAST, pronounced ['kr????] in classical Sanskrit) is a deity worshiped across many traditions of Hinduism in a variety of different perspectives. While many Vaishnava groups recognize him as an avatar of Vishnu, other traditions within Krishnaism consider Krishna to be svayam bhagavan, or the supreme being
The Sanskrit word k???a has the literal meaning of “black”, “dark” or “dark-blue” and is used as a name to describe someone with dark skin. Krishna is often depicted in murtis (images) as black, and is generally shown in paintings with a blue skin
THE BLUE CELTIC PICTS AGAIN
For an indepth look at the Druidic Vedic link here is “Druidism was it Western Hinduism 18,000 years old?”
THE CELTIC PEOPLE
THE FIRST ARYAN CELTIC CULTURE c.12,000BC (btw its in the “Holy Land” so it was given to the Aryan Celts 10,000 years before the Hebrews!!)
The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE), a reconstructed prehistoric language of Eurasia.
Knowledge of them comes chiefly from the linguistic reconstruction, along with material evidence from archaeology and archaeogenetics.
The Fertile Crescent is a region in the Near East, incorporating the Levant and Mesopotamia, and often incorrectly extended to Egypt. Mesopotamia is considered the Cradle of civilization and saw the development of the earliest human civilizations and is the birthplace of writing and the wheel
The Levant The Natufian culture existed in the Mediterranean region of the Levant 12,000 to 9600 BCE. It was a Mesolithic culture, but unusual in that it was sedentary, or semi-sedentary, before the introduction of agriculture.Settlements occur in the woodland belt where oak and Pistacia species dominated. The underbrush of this open woodland was grass with high frequencies of grain. The high mountains of Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon, the steppe areas of the Negev desert in Israel and Sinai, and the Syro-Arabian desert in the east put up only small Natufian living areas due to both their lower carrying capacity and the company of other groups of foragers who denuded this large region.The superstructure was probably made of brushwood. No traces of mudbrick have been found, which became common in the following Pre-Pottery Neolithic A, abbreviated PPN A. The round houses have a diameter between 3 and 6 meters, they contain a central round or subrectangular fireplace
The Natufian communities are possibly the ancestors of the builders of the first Neolithic settlements of the region.A semi-sedentary life may have been made possible by abundant resources due to a favourable climate at the time, with a culture living from hunting, fishing and gathering, including the use of wild cereals. Tools were available for making use of cereals: flint-bladed sickles for harvesting, and mortars, grinding stones, and storage pits.
Ain Mallaha was a Natufian settlement built and settled circa 10,000–8,000 BCE. The site is located in Northern Israel, and is in an area surrounded by hills and located by an ancient lake, Lake Huleh. The inhabitants are known to have eaten gazelle, fallow deer, wild boar, red and roe deer, hare, tortoise, reptiles, and fish. Also known as Eynan (Hebrew) or Mallaha (Arabic), this Natufian village was colonized in three phases. The first two phases were comprised of massive stone-built structures with smaller ones in the third phase. The phases occurred from 12,000 to 9600 BCE.Hundreds of Natufian graves have been excavated in Israel, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon.In 2008, the grave of a Natufian ‘priestess’ was discovered (in most media reports referred to as a shaman or witch doctor ). The burial contained complete shells of 50 tortoises, which are thought to have been brought to the site and eaten during the funeral feast
c. 12,000 BC Round wooden houses, oak woodland and massive stone structures,hunter gatherers with flint blades and sickles and priestess shaman ,these are proto-Celtic people .By c.11,000 BC the ice sheets would melt and reveal Central and then Northern Europe. The first hunter gatherers arrive in Scotland c.10,800 BC but probably settled in the North Sea basin before it flooded c.4,000BC.Its then we see,and still can see today in the British Isles, massive stone structures and roundhouses.Also sickles and Druidic Prietesses meeting in oak woodlands.
THE FIRST CELTIC ARYAN TEMPLE IS BUILT c11,000BC
An early temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe dated to 10,000 BC may be regarded as the beginning of the Neolithic. This site was developed by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, evidenced by the lack permanent housing in the vicinity. This temple site is the oldest known man-made place of worship.Through the radiocarbon method, the end of stratum III could be determined at circa 9,000 BC ; its beginnings are estimated to 11,000 BC or earlier. Stratum II dates to about 8,000 BC.
Thus, the complexes originated before the so-called Neolithic Revolution, the beginning of agriculture and animal husbandry, which is assumed to begin after 9,000 BC.The oldest occupation layer (stratum III) contained monolithic pillars linked by coarsely built walls to form circular or oval structures. So far, four such buildings, with diameters between 10 and 30m have been uncovered. Geophysical studies suggest 16 further structures
But the construction of the Göbekli Tepe complex implies organisation of a degree of complexity not hitherto associated with pre-Neolithic societies. The archaeologists estimate that up to 500 persons were required to extract the 10-20 ton pillars (in fact, some weigh up to 50 tons) from local quarries and move them 100 to 500m to the site.The monoliths are decorated with carved relief of animals or of abstract pictograms. These signs cannot be classed as writing, but may represent commonly understood sacred symbols, as known from Neolithic cave paintings elsewhere.
After 8000 BC, the site was abandoned and purposely covered up with soil.
EUROPE GETS RE-POPULATED FROM THE MIDDLE EASTERN ARYAN POPULATIONS C10,000
By analysing large quantities of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from Europeans who belong to two major lineages – who share a common genetic ancestor – named J and T, the researchers filled in many of the gaps that have existed and created a more complete picture of early Europeans. What is known is that these haplogroups (groups sharing similar DNA traits such as J and T) originated in the Middle East, and up until now it was thought that they migrated to Europe in the Neolithic age, approximately 9 000 years ago.
However, the team provided evidence that shows humans belonging to the J and T haplogroups actually migrated to Europe much earlier than was previously thought, beginning as soon as the Ice Age started to end.
c.11,000BC THE ICE AGE ENDS THE CELTS SPREAD FROM THE MEDITERANIAN
CELTS ARRIVE IN EUROPE
The Proto-Indo-Europeans in this sense likely lived during the late Neolithic, or roughly the 4th millennium BC. Mainstream scholarship places them in the forest-steppe zone immediately to the north of the western end of the Pontic-Caspian steppe in Eastern Europe. Some archaeologists would extend the time depth of PIE to the middle Neolithic (5500 to 4500 BC) or even the early Neolithic (7500 to 5500 BC), and suggest alternative location hypotheses.
The discovery of Göbekli Tepe seems to have pushed this date even further back in time
Göbekli Tepe [ɡøbe̞kli te̞pɛ] (“Potbelly Hill”) is a Neolithic (stone-age) hilltop sanctuary erected at the top of a mountain ridge in southeastern Anatolia, some 15 kilometers (9 mi) northeast of the town of Şanlıurfa (formerly Urfa / Edessa). It is the oldest known human-made religious structure. The site was most likely erected by hunter-gatherers in the 10th millennium BCE (c. 12,000 years ago)
8 000BC Oldest Ever Calendar found in Scotland Rewrites the History Books
The site – at Warren Field, Crathes, Aberdeenshire – contains a 50 metre long row of twelve pits which were created by Stone Age Britons and which were in use from around 8000 BC (the early Mesolithic period) to around 4,000 BC (the early Neolithic).
the pits appear to represent the months of the year as well as the lunar phases of the moon making this remarkable ancient site 5,000 years older that the oldest known calendar from Bronze Age Mesopotamia.But this is no primitive or simplistic calendar.
The incredible discovery shows us once again that our ancient ancestors were not as primitive as our history books tell us. Professor Gaffney, who headed the research term said: “The research demonstrates that Stone Age society 10,000 years ago was much more sophisticated than we had previously suspected. The site has implications for the way we understand how Mesolithic society developed in economic, social and cosmological terms”.
The Indo-European languages are a family (or phylum) of several hundred related languages and dialects, including most major current languages of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia and also historically predominant in Anatolia. With written attestations appearing since the Bronze Age, in the form of the Anatolian languages and Mycenaean Greek, the Indo-European family is significant to the field of historical linguistics as possessing the longest recorded history after the Afroasiatic family.
Albanian ·Armenian ·Baltic ·Celtic ·Germanic ·Hellenic ·Indo-Iranian (Indo-Aryan, Iranian) ·Italic ·Slavic
Indo-European language-speaking peoples
Balts ·Slavs ·Albanians ·Italics ·Celts ·Germanic peoples ·Greeks ·Paleo-Balkans (Illyrians ·Thracians ·Dacians)
Anatolians (Hittites, Luwians) ·Armenians ·Indo-Iranians (Iranians ·Indo-Aryans) ·Tocharians
Abashevo culture ·Afanasevo culture ·Andronovo culture ·Baden culture ·Beaker culture ·Catacomb culture ·Cernavodă culture ·Chasséen culture ·Chernoles culture ·Corded Ware culture ·Cucuteni-Trypillian culture ·Dnieper-Donets culture ·Gumelniţa-Karanovo culture ·Gushi culture ·Karasuk culture ·Kemi Oba culture ·Khvalynsk culture ·Kura-Araxes culture ·Lusatian culture ·Kurgan ·Koban ·Kura-Araxes ·Shulaveri-Shomu ·Colchian ·Trialeti ·Maykop culture ·Leyla-Tepe culture ·Jar-Burial ·Khojaly-Gadabay ·Middle Dnieper culture ·Narva culture ·Novotitorovka culture ·Poltavka culture ·Potapovka culture ·Samara culture ·Seroglazovo culture ·Sredny Stog culture ·Srubna culture ·Terramare culture ·Usatovo culture ·Vučedol culture ·Yamna culture
Doggerland is a name given by archaeologists and geologists to a former landmass in the southern North Sea that connected the island of Great Britain to mainland Europe during and after the last Ice Age, surviving until about 6,500 or 6,200 BCE and then gradually being flooded by rising sea levels. Geological surveys have suggested that Doggerland was a large area of dry land that stretched from Britain’s east coast across to the present coast of the Netherlands and the western coasts of Germany and Denmark. Doggerland was probably a rich habitat with human habitation in the Mesolithic period
During the most recent glaciation, the Last Glacial Maximum that occurred around 18,000 years ago, the North Sea and almost all of the British Isles were covered with glacial ice and the sea level was about 120 m (390 ft) lower than it is today. After that the climate became warmer and during the Late Glacial Maximum much of the North Sea and English Channel was an expanse of low-lying tundra, extending around 12,000 BCE as far as the modern northern point of Scotland
As sea levels rose after the end of the last glacial period of the current ice age, Doggerland became submerged beneath the North Sea, cutting off what was previously the British peninsula from the European mainland by around 6500 BCE. The Dogger Bank, which had been an upland area of Doggerland, is believed to have remained as an island until at least 5000 BCE
A recent hypothesis is that much of the remaining coastal land, already much reduced in size from the original land area, was flooded by a tsunami around 6200 BCE (approximately 8200 BP), caused by a submarine landslide off the coast of Norway known as the Storegga Slide. This theory suggests “that the Storegga Slide tsunami would have had a catastrophic impact on the contemporary coastal Mesolithic population… Following the Storegga Slide tsunami, it appears, Britain finally became separated from the continent and, in cultural terms, the Mesolithic there goes its own way
Stride, A.H (January 1959). “On the origin of the Dogger Bank, in the North Sea”. Geological magazine 96 (1): 33–34. http://geolmag.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/96/1/33. Retrieved 12 january 2010.
^ “The Doggerland Project”, University of Exeter Department of Archaeology
^ a b c d Patterson, W, “Coastal Catastrophe” (paleoclimate research document), University of Saskatchewan
^ a b c d University of Sussex, School of Life Sciences, C1119 Modern human evolution, Lecture 6, slide 23
^ a b c d e Vincent Gaffney, “Global Warming and the Lost European Country”
^ a b Bernhard Weninger et al., The catastrophic final flooding of Doggerland by the Storegga Slide tsunami, Documenta Praehistorica XXXV, 2008
ANCIENT CELTIC GLOBAL INFLUENCES IN CHINA ,EGYPT AND GREECE AND MANY OTHER CIVILISATIONS
INCLUDE ANCIENT CELTIC MUMMIES IN CHINA c.3500BC
At their peak, the influence of the Celts stretched from Ireland in the west to the south of Spain and across to Italy’s Po Valley, and probably extended to parts of Poland and Ukraine and the central plain of Turkey in the east. These mummies seem to suggest, however, that the Celts penetrated well into central Asia, nearly making it as far as Tibet (and probably much further)
Solid as a warrior of the Caledonii tribe, the man’s hair is reddish brown flecked with grey, framing high cheekbones, a long nose, full lips and a ginger beard. When he lived three thousand years ago, he stood six feet tall, and was buried wearing a red twill tunic and tartan leggings. He looks like a Bronze Age European. In fact, he’s every inch a Celt. Even his DNA says so.
But this is no early Celt from central Scotland. This is the mummified corpse of Cherchen Man, unearthed from the scorched sands of the Taklamakan Desert in the far-flung region of Xinjiang in western China,
The burial sites of Cherchen Man and his fellow people were marked with stone structures that look like dolmens from Britain, ringed by round-faced, Celtic figures, or standing stones. Among their icons were figures reminiscent of the sheela-na-gigs, wild females who flaunted their bodies and can still be found in mediaeval churches in Britain. A female mummy wears a long, conical hat which has to be a witch or a wizard’s hat. Or a druid’s, perhaps? The wooden combs they used to fan their tresses are familiar to students of ancient Celtic art.
Even older than the Cherchen find is that of the 4,000-year-old Loulan Beauty, who has long flowing fair hair and is one of a number of mummies discovered near the town of Loulan. One of these mummies was an eight-year-old child wrapped in a piece of patterned wool cloth, closed with bone pegs.
The Loulan Beauty’s features are Nordic. She was 45 when she died, and was buried with a basket of food for the next life, including domesticated wheat, combs and a feather.
The new finds are also forcing a reexamination of old Chinese books that describe historical or legendary figures of great height, with deep-set blue or green eyes, long noses, full beards, and red or blond hair. Scholars have traditionally scoffed at these accounts, but it now seems that they may be accurate
The Tocharians were the Tocharian-speaking inhabitants of the Tarim Basin, making them the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity
The Tocharians, living along the Silk Road, had contacts with the Chinese, Persians, Indian and Turkic tribesThe Tocharians who remained in the Tarim Basin adopted Buddhism, which, like their alphabet, came from northern India(Aryan) .Commonalities between the Tocharian languages and various other Indo-European language families (as with Celtic) are suggested but are still “controversial”.
.In the 6th century AD fresco, Qizil, Tarim Basin. “Tocharian donors”, possibly the “Knights with Long Swords” of Chinese accounts, depicted with light hair and light eye color. Graphical analysis reveals that the third donor from left is performing a Buddhist Vitarka Mudra gesture. These frescoes are associated with annotations in Tocharian and Sanskrit made by their painters.
The Tarim mummies suggest that precursors of these easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language may have lived in the region of the Tarim Basin from around 1800 BC until finally they were assimilated by Uyghur Turks in the 9th century AD
Afanasevo (or Afanasievo) culture, 3500—2500 BC, an archaeological culture of the late copper and early Bronze Age
It became known from excavations in the Minusinsk area of the Krasnoyarsk Krai, southern Siberia, but the culture was also widespread in western Mongolia, northern Xinjiang, and eastern and central Kazakhstan, with connections or extensions in Tajikistan and the Aral area.
The Afanasevo (or Afanasievo) culture is the earliest Eneolithic archaeological culture found until now in south Siberia, with wooden tools dating through radiocarbon as early as 3705 BC and human remains of 2874 BC
The Afanasevo people became the first food-producers in the area by breeding cattle, horses, and sheep, but they also practiced hunting.
The burials bear a remarkable resemblance to those much further west in the Yamna culture, the Sredny Stog culture, the Catacomb culture and the Poltavka culture, all of which are believed to be Indo-European in nature. In this interpretation, the Afanasevo culture is a strong candidate to represent the earliest cultural form of what was later called the Tocharians
Out of 10 human male remains assigned to the Afanasevo horizon from the Krasnoyarsk region, 9 possessed the R1a Y-chromosome haplogroup and one C-M130 haplogroup (xC3). mtDNA haplogroups of nine individuals assigned to the same Andronovo horizon and region were as follows: U4 (2 individuals), U2e, U5a1, Z, T1, T4, H, and K2b.
90% of the Bronze Age period mtDNA haplogroups were of west Eurasian origin and the study determined that at least 60% of the individuals overall (out of the 26 Bronze and Iron Age human remains’ samples of the study that could be tested) had light hair and blue or green eyes
C. Keyser et al. 2009. Ancient DNA provides new insights into the history of south Siberian Kurgan people. Human Genetics.
The economy seems to have been semi-nomadic pastoralism, with cattle, ovicaprids and horse remains being documented, along with those of wild game
This early extreme outlier of presumably Indo-European culture makes it an automatic candidate for being the earliest attested representative for speakers of the Tocharian stock.
Wall painting of “Tocharian Princes” from Cave of the Sixteen Sword-Bearers (no. 8), Qizil, Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China. Carbon 14 date: 432–538 AD.
The Tocharians or Tokharians (/təˈkɛəriənz/ or /təˈkɑriənz/) were inhabitants of medieval oasis city-states on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (modern Xinjiang, China). Their Tocharian languages (a branch of the Indo-European family) are known from manuscripts from the 6th to 8th centuries AD, after which they were supplanted by the Turkic languages of the Uyghur tribes.
Some scholars have linked the Tocharians with the Afanasevo culture of eastern Siberia (c. 3500–2500 BC), the Tarim mummies (c. 1800 BC) and the Yuezhi of Chinese records, most of whom migrated from southern Gansu to Bactria in the 2nd century BC and then later to northwest India where they founded the Kushan Empire.
The Hittites were an ancient Anatolian(Indo-European) people who established an empire at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC. This empire reached its height during the mid-14th century BC under Suppiluliuma I, when it encompassed an area that included most of Asia Minor as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia. After c. 1180 BC, the empire came to an end during the Bronze Age collapse, splintering into several independent “Neo-Hittite” city-states, some of which survived until the 8th century BC.
The Hittite language was a member of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family. They referred to their native land as Hatti. The conventional name “Hittites” is due to their initial identification with the Biblical Hittites in 19th century archaeology.
The Mitanni (Hittite cuneiform KUR URUMi-ta-an-ni, also Mittani Mi-it-ta-ni) or Hanigalbat (Assyrian Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat) was an Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and south-east Anatolia from ca. 1500 BC–1300 BC. Founded by an Indo-Aryan ruling class governing a predominately Hurrian population.
Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit close similarities to Indo-Aryan, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion.
In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni, the deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya (Ashvins) are invoked. Kikkuli’s horse training text includes technical terms such as aika (eka, one), tera (tri, three), panza (pancha, five), satta (sapta, seven), na (nava, nine), vartana (vartana, turn, round in the horse race). The numeral aika “one” is of particular importance because it places the superstrate in the vicinity of Indo-Aryan proper.
Paul Thieme, The ‘Aryan’ Gods of the Mitanni Treaties. JAOS 80, 1960, 301-17
THE EGYPTIAN CIVILISATION AND “THE NEW KINGDOM”
Blonde and Red Haired Mummies of Egypt
Pharaoh Ramses II (of the 19th Dynasty), is generally considered to be the most powerful and influential King that ever reigned in Egypt. He is one of the few rulers who has earned the epithet “the Great”. Subsequently, his racial origins are of extreme interest.
In 1975, the Egyptian government allowed the French to take Ramesses’ mummy to Paris for conservation work. Numerous other tests were performed, to determine Ramses’ precise racial affinities, largely because the Senegalese scholar Cheikh Anta Diop, was claiming at the time that Ramesses was black. Once the work had been completed, the mummy was returned in a hermetically sealed casket, and it has remained largely hidden from public view ever since, concealed in the bowels of the Cairo Museum. The results of the study were published in a lavishly illustrated work, which was edited by L. Balout, C. Roubet and C. Desroches-Noblecourt, and was titled La Momie de Ramsès II: Contribution Scientifique à l’Égyptologie (1985).
Professor P. F. Ceccaldi, with a research team behind him, studied some hairs which were removed from the mummy’s scalp. Ramesses II was 90 years-old when he died, and his hair had turned white. Ceccaldi determined that the reddish-yellow colour of the mummy’s hair had been brought about by its being dyed with a dilute henna solution; it proved to be an example of the cosmetic attentions of the embalmers. However, traces of the hair’s original colour (in youth), remain in the roots, even into advanced old age. Microscopic examinations proved that the hair roots contained traces of natural red pigments, and that therefore, during his youth, Ramses II had been red-haired. It was concluded that these red pigments did not result from the hair somehow fading, or otherwise altering post-mortem, but did indeed represent Ramses’ natural hair colour. Ceccaldi also studied a cross-section of the hairs, and he determined from their oval shape, that Ramesses had been “cymotrich” (wavy-haired). Finally, he stated that such a combination of features showed that Ramesses had been a “leucoderm” (white-skinned person). [Balout, et al. (1985) 254-257.]
Balout and Roubet were under no illusions as to the significance of this discovery, and they concluded as follows:
“After having achieved this immense work, an important scientific conclusion remains to be drawn: the anthropological study and the microscopic analysis of hair, carried out by four laboratories: Judiciary Medecine (Professor Ceccaldi), Société L’Oréal, Atomic Energy Commission, and Institut Textile de France showed that Ramses II was a ’leucoderm’, that is a fair-skinned man, near to the Prehistoric and Antiquity Mediterraneans, or briefly, of the Berber of Africa.” Balout, et al. (1985) 383.
Seti I grave
It is interesting to note the link to the North African Berbers: some Berber tribes, such as the Riffians of the Atlas Mountains, have incidences of blondism reaching almost 60%, and they have a percentage of red-haired people which is comparable to that of the Irish. [Coon & Hunt (1966) 116-117.]
These facts have not only anthropological interest however, but also great symbolic importance. In ancient Egypt, the god Seth was said to have been red-haired, and redheads were claimed to have worshipped the god devoutly. [Wainwright (1938) 31, 33, 53.] In the Ramses study cited above, the Egyptologist Desroches-Noblecourt wrote an essay, in which she discussed the importance of Ramesses’ rufous condition. She noted that the Ramessides (the family of Ramses II), were devoted to Seth, with several bearing the name Seti, which means “beloved of Seth”. She concluded that the Ramessides believed themselves to be divine descendants of Seth, with their red hair as proof of their lineage; they may even have used this peculiar physical feature to propel themselves out of obscurity, and onto the throne of the Pharaohs. Desroches-Noblecourt also speculated that Ramesses II may well have been descended from a long line of redheads. [Balout, et al. (1985) 388-391.]
Her speculations have been proved correct: Dr. Joann Fletcher, a consultant to the British Bioanthropology Foundation, has proved that Seti I (the father of Ramesses II), had red hair. [Parks (2000).] It has also been demonstrated that the mummy of Pharaoh Siptah (a great-grandson of Ramesses II), has red hair. [Partridge (1994) 169.]
I believe that Set is a version of the Aryan Horned God. This is why we cannot figure out which desert animal he represents, he was originally a woodland horned god.It was these Set worshippers that joined with the southern Ra Horus worshippers to create Egypt.
It has also been suggested that the myth may reflect historical events. According to the Shabaka Stone, Geb divided Egypt into two halves, giving Upper Egypt (the desert south) to Set and Lower Egypt (the region of the delta in the north) to Horus, in order to end their feud. However, according to the stone, in a later judgment Geb gave all Egypt to Horus. Interpreting this myth as a historical record would lead one to believe that Lower Egypt (Horus’ land) conquered Upper Egypt (Set’s land); but, in fact Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt. So the myth cannot be simply interpreted. Several theories exist to explain the discrepancy. For instance, since both Horus and Set were worshiped in Upper Egypt prior to unification, perhaps the myth reflects a struggle within Upper Egypt prior to unification, in which a Horus-worshiping group subjected a Set-worshiping group. What is known is that during the Second Dynasty, there was a period in which the King Peribsen’s name or Serekh — which had been surmounted by a Horus falcon in the First Dynasty — was for a time surmounted by a Set animal, suggesting some kind of religious struggle. It was ended at the end of the Dynasty by Khasekhemwy, who surmounted his Serekh with both a falcon of Horus and a Set animal, indicating some kind of compromise had been reached.
Regardless, once the two lands were united, Seth and Horus were often shown together crowning the new pharaohs, as a symbol of their power over both Lower and Upper Egypt. Queens of the 1st Dynasty bore the title “She Who Sees Horus and Set.
Set also became associated with foreign gods during the New Kingdom, particularly in the Delta. Set was also identified by the Egyptians with the Hittite deity Teshub, who was a storm god like Set.The Hittites where proto-Celtic Aryans.
Set was one of the earliest deities, with a strong following in Upper Egypt. Originally highly regarded throughout Kemet as the god of the desert, a political faction inspired an initial disparaging of Set’s name and reputation. Kemet was originally split into two kingdoms: Upper ruled by Horus (and later Ra), Lower by Set. Set’s followers resisted a unification of the Upper and Lower kingdoms of Egypt by the followers of Horus/Ra (with the followers of Osiris and Isis). This political split was echoed in the Osiris & Isis myth, and subsequent battle with Horus. The followers of Horus thus denigrated Set as chaotic and evil.Set was further demonized immediately after the Hyksos Period, the evidence from the Nineteenth Dynasty proves that this is a more complex picture.
By the 22nd Dynasty, Set was equated with his old enemy, Apep, and his images on temples were replaced with those of Sobek or Thoth.
Zeus , Appollo the Titans and many “Greek” myths can all be found in Celtic mythology which pre-dates Greek civilisation by 1,000′s of years!
Dodona (from Doric Greek ??d??a, Ionic Greek: ??d???,Dòdònè) in Epirus in northwestern Greece, was a prehistoric oracle devoted to the Mother Goddess identified at other sites with Rhea or Gaia, but here called Dione and later, in historical times also to the Greek god Zeus.The shrine of Dodona was the oldest Hellenic oracle, according to the fifth-century historian Herodotus and in fact dates to pre-Hellenic times, perhaps as early as the second millennium BCE.(eariler in my opinion) Aristotle considered the region to have been the most ancient part of Greece and where the Hellenes originated.Priestesses and priests in the sacred grove interpreted the rustling of the oak (or beech) leaves to determine the correct actions to be taken.
For their part the Hyperboreans sent mysterious gifts, packed in straw, which came first to Dodona and then were passed from people to people until they came to Apollo’s temple on Delos (Pausanias). Abaris, Hyperborean priest of Apollo, was a legendary wandering healer and seer.(Druid?)
Abaris the Hyperborean (Greek: ?ßa??? ?pe?ß??e???, Abaris Hyperboreios),was a legendary sage, healer, and priest of Apollo known to the Ancient Greeks. He was supposed to have learned his skills in his homeland of Hyperborea,
As the patron of Delphi (Pythian Apollo), Apollo was an oracular god — the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. Medicine and healing were associated with Apollo, when it was a major site for the worship of the god Apollo after he slew the Python, a deity who lived there and protected the navel of the Earth.
When Apollo wanted to escape the chill of winter, he headed his swan-driven chariot to the land of Hyperborea. Hyperborea is a mythical place — an island, sometimes — in the distant north,If you’ve ever seen a picture of Apollo on a swan chariot, it is connected with this myth. The chariot was a gift from Zeus that Apollo used to fly to Hyperborea.
Both Homer (Odyss. XII. 1) and Hesiod ,(Theogonia, v.242. 959) in their theogonic legends exclusively refer to the lower Danube as the Okeanos Potamos(Great Ocean River God).At the end of the Okeanos Potamos, is the holy island of Alba (Leuke, Pytho Nisi, Isle of Snakes). sacred to the Pelasgian ,a pre-Greek civilisation, Apollo, and later, the Greeks would also worship him, greeting the sun rising in the east….,Alba is the Gaelic name of Scotland
“Pelasgian” has come to mean more broadly all the autochthonous inhabitants of the Aegean lands and their culture before the advent of the Greek language the Pelasgians used to speak a Barbarian language.There are, indeed, various names affirmed to designate the ante-Hellenic inhabitants of many parts of Greece — many seem similar to known Celtic names.
In the Highlands of Scotland, the adder or serpent is supposed to represent the CAILLEACH’S power,. See: SAMHAIN, and OIMELC
In partnership with the goddess Brìghde, the Cailleach is seen as a seasonal deity or spirit, ruling the winter months between Samhuinn (November 1) and Bealltainn (May 1), while Brìghde rules the summer months between Bealltainn and Samhuinn
Hecateus Abderitas refers to Apollo’s island from the region of the Hyperboreans, in the Okeanos.(Great Ocean)
Alone among the Twelve Olympians, Apollo was venerated among the Hyperboreans, the Hellenes thought: he spent his winter amongst them(CAILLEACH with the power of the snake?).In Greek mythology, according to tradition, the Hyperboreans were a mythical people who lived far to the north of Thrace. The Greeks thought that Boreas, the North Wind,lived in Thrace, and that therefore Hyperborea was an unspecified region in the northern lands that lay beyond Scythia. Their land, called Hyperborea or Hyperboria — “beyond the Boreas” Hesiod mentioned the Hyperboreans, Herodotus reported, though the text is now lost, and Homer also in the Epigoni.
Also, the sun was supposed to rise and set only once a year in Hyperborea, which would place it at or near the North Pole. i.e. North of Scotland “Alba in Gaelic” ,or Orkney? (Could the flooding of the North Sea basin c.7000-4000 BC be a flood myth or Atlantis sinking?)
HERE WE FIND THE SNAKE GOD AND HEALER AGAIN, PYTHIA APOLLO AND HE APPEARS TO BE A CELT!!
THE ANCIENT MYTHIC LANDS OF HYPERBOREA AND THULE
Russian bylinas (epic poems), the Indian Rigveda, the Iranian Avesta, Chinese and Tibetan historical chronicles, German epic poetry, Celtic and Scandinavian mythology all describe a very ancient northern land, a near-paradise, in which a Golden Age prevailed. That land was settled in ancient times by glorious people – the children of the “gods”.
From east to west: Celts as Hyperboreans
Six classical Greek authors also came to identify these mythical people at the back of the North Wind with their Celtic neighbours in the north: Antimachus of Colophon, Protarchus, Heraclides Ponticus, Hecataeus of Abdera, Apollonius of Rhodes and Posidonius of Apamea. The way the Greeks understood their relationship with non-Greek peoples was significantly moulded by the way myths of the Golden Age were transplanted into the contemporary scene, especially in the context of Greek colonisation and trade. As the Rhipean mountains of the mythical past were identified with the Alps of northern Italy, there was at least a geographic rationale for identifying the Hyperboreans with the Celts living in and beyond the Alps, or at least the Hyperborean lands with the lands inhabited by the Celts. A reputation for feasting and a love of gold may have reinforced the connection
Abaris the Hyperborean
A particular Hyperborean legendary healer was known as “Abaris” or “Abaris the Healer” whom Herodotus first described in his works. Plato (Charmides, 158C) regarded Abaris as a physician from the far north.
Greek legend asserts that the Boreades, who were the descendants of Boreas and the snow-nymph Chione (or Khione), founded the first theocratic monarchy on Hyperborea. This legend is found preserved in the writings of Aelian: “This god [Apollon] has as priests the sons of Boreas (North Wind) and Chione (Snow), three in number, brothers by birth, and six cubits in height [about 3 metres].”
Diodorus Siculus added to this account: “And the kings of this (Hyperborean) city and the supervisors of the sacred precinct are called Boreadae, since they are descendants of Boreas, and the succession to these positions is always kept in their family.”
The Boreades were thus believed to be giant kings, around 3 metres tall, who ruled Hyperborea.
No other physical descriptions of the Hyperboreans are provided in classical sources
Plutarch, writing in the 1st century AD, connected the Hyperboreans with the Gauls who had sacked Rome in the 4th century BC (see Battle of the Allia).
Romans cast themselves as underdogs in hand-to-hand combat with physically superior Celts, to such an extent that guile or divine aid is seen as the most likely explanation when a Roman manages to win: T. Manlius earns the nickname (cognomen) Torquatus by outsmarting a Gaul in single combat and stripping him of his torque; M. Valerius Corvus got his cognomen when a divinely-sent raven (corvus) distracted his opponent. Regardless of factuality, these stories contributed to the fashioning of a distinctly Roman identity in relation to a Gallic “Other.”
Williams explores the relation of myth and history throughout Beyond the Rubicon; see also Rankin, Celts and the Classical World; Jonathan Barlow, “Noble Gauls and Their Other in Caesar’s Propaganda,” in Julius Caesar as Artful Reporter: The War Commentaries as Political Instruments (Classical Press of Wales, 1998). The following account of Roman attitudes toward the Celts derives from Williams and Rankin.
Ancient identification with Britain
Hyperborea was identified with Britain first by Hecataeus of Abdera in the 4th century BC, as in a preserved fragment by Diodorus Siculus:
In the regions beyond the land of the Celts there lies in the ocean an island no smaller than Sicily. This island, the account continues, is situated in the north and is inhabited by the Hyperboreans, who are called by that name because their home is beyond the point whence the north wind (Boreas) blows; and the island is both fertile and productive of every crop, and has an unusually temperate climate.
Diodorus Siculus, Book II, 47–48
Hecateaus of Abdera also wrote that the Hyperboreans had a ‘circular temple’ on their island, and some scholars have identified this with Stonehenge. This is further supported by the fact that Stonehenge has been known as Apollo’s Temple since classical antiquity, and Hyperborea in Greek legend was related to Apollo (see Legends below).
Pseudo-Scymnus, around 90 BC, wrote that Boreas dwelled at the extremity of Gaulish territory, and that he had a pillar erected in his name on the edge of the sea (Periegesis, 183). Some have claimed this is a geographical reference to northern France, and Hyperborea as the British Isles which lay just beyond the English Channel.
Ptolemy (Geographia, 2. 21) and Marcian of Heraclea (Periplus, 2. 42) both placed Hyperborea in the North Sea which they called the “Hyperborean Ocean”.
Alone among the Twelve Olympians, Apollo was venerated among the Hyperboreans, the Hellenes thought: he spent his winter amongst them.For their part the Hyperboreans sent mysterious gifts, packed in straw, which came first to Dodona and then were passed from tribe to tribe until they came to Apollo’s temple on Delos (Pausanias). Abaris, Hyperborean priest of Apollo, was a legendary wandering healer and seer. Theseus visited the Hyperboreans, and Pindar transferred Perseus’s encounter with Medusa there from its traditional site in Libya, to the dissatisfaction of his Alexandrian editors.
Along with Thule, Hyperborea was one of several terrae incognitae to the Greeks and Romans, where Pliny, Pindar and Herodotus, as well as Virgil and Cicero, reported that people lived to the age of one thousand and enjoyed lives of complete happiness. Hecataeus of Abdera collated all the stories about the Hyperboreans current in the fourth century BC and published a lengthy treatise on them, lost to us, but noted by Diodorus Siculus (ii.47.1–2). Also, the sun was supposed to rise and set only once a year in Hyperborea; which would place it above or upon the Arctic Circle, or, more generally, in the arctic polar regions.
The ancient Greek writer Theopompus in his work Philippica claimed Hyperborea was once planned to be conquered by a large race of soldiers from another island (some have claimed this was Atlantis), the plan though was abandoned because the soldiers from Meropis realized the Hyperboreans were too strong for them and the most blessed of people; this unusual tale, which some believe was satire or comedy, was preserved by Aelian (Varia Historia, 3. 18).
Apollonius wrote that the Argonauts sighted Hyperborea, when they sailed through Eridanos.
Squire, Charles, Myths & Legends of the Celts, p.42 ff
Lewis Spence, The Mysteries of Britain, 1905.
Bridgman,Hyperboreans. Myth and history in Celtic-Hellenic contacts, 2005 p. 91
J. Rendel Harris, 1925. “Apollo at the Back of the North Wind”, Journal of Hellenic Studies 45.2 pp. 229–242.
Perseus: Lin Carter, “Behind the North Wind”
Early in the fifth century AD Claudian, in his poem, On the Fourth Consulship of the Emperor Honorius, Book VIII, rhapsodizes on the conquests of the emperor Theodosius I, declaring that the “Orcades [Orkney Islands] ran red with Saxon slaughter; Thule was warm with the blood of Picts; ice-bound Hibernia [Ireland] wept for the heaps of slain Scots.” This implies that Thule was Scotland .Later in Against Rufinias, the Second Poem, Claudian writes of “Thule lying icebound beneath the pole-star.”
Thule (pronounced /’?u?li/, us: thoo’·le; Greek T????, Thoule; also spelled in various sources Thile, Tile, Tilla, Toolee, Tylen, Thula, Thyle, Thylee, Thila, and Tila) is, in classical literature, a place, usually an island. Ancient European descriptions and maps locate it either in the far north, often Iceland, possibly the Orkney Islands or Shetland Islands or Scandinavia, or in the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance Iceland or Greenland.
The Scottish Gaelic for Iceland is “Innis Tile”, which means literally the “Isle of Thule”.
The inhabitants or people of Thule are described in most detail by Strabo in his Geographica, having preserved fragments of the account of Pytheas who was an alleged eye-witness in the 4th century BC:
…the people (of Thule) live on millet and other herbs, and on fruits and roots; and where there are grain and honey, the people get their beverage, also, from them. As for the grain, he says, since they have no pure sunshine, they pound it out in large storehouses, after first gathering in the ears thither; for the threshing floors become useless because of this lack of sunshine and because of the rains
Solinus in his Polyhistor repeated these descriptions, noting that the people of Thule had a fertile land where they grew a good production of corn and fruits.
Claudian believed that the inhabitants of Thule were Picts. This is supported by a physical description of the inhabitants of Thule by the Roman poet Silius Italicus, who wrote that the people of Thule were blue painted:
… the blue-painted native of Thule, when he fights, drives around the close-packed ranks in his scythe-bearing chariot.
The Picts are often said to have derived their name from Latin pingere “to paint”; pictus, “painted”. Martial talks about “blue” and “painted Britons”, just like Julius Caesar.
Eustathius of Thessalonica in his 12th century commentary on the Iliad, wrote that the inhabitants of Thule were at war with a dwarf-like stature tribe only 20 fingers in height
Polyhistor, ch. XXXIV
On the Fourth Consulship of the Emperor Honorius, Book VIII
Punica, 17. 416; for translation see: http://www.dot-domesday.me.uk/anglesey.htm
XI, 53; XIV, 99.
De Bello Gallico, V, 14.
THE MOTHER TONGUE OF THE EUROPEAN LANGUAGES INCLUDING LATIN AND GREEK
Professor Calvert Watkins of Harvard, one of the leading linguistic experts in his field, has pointed out that of all the Celtic linguistic remains, Old Irish represents an extraordinarily archaic and conservative tradition within the Indo-European family.
Its nominal and verbal systems are a far truer reflection of the hypothesized parent tongue, from which all Indo-European languages developed, than are Classical Greek or Latin. The structure of Old Irish, says Professor Watkins, can be compared only with that of Vedic Sanskrit or Hittite of the Old Kingdom.
Some influences of proto-Celts, the Dacian language submitted by the Gauls to the Romans.
1.WORD : APA in proto-celt =ABO
2.WORD : ARA, in proto-celt =ARO ,Old Irish: aratha,rMiddle Breton: arazr ,Lat. aratrum,Gr. a´rotron.
3.WORD : TATA , in proto-celt =TATO, ATA, Middle Welsh: tat ,Gr. a´tta, Go. atta, Lat. Atta
4.WORD : AUZ (URECHE) , in proto-celt =AUS, Gaulish: Su-ausia ,Lat. auris,audire.
5.WORD : BOU , in proto-celt =BOU, Old Irish: bo ,Skt. Gau.
6. WORD : BUZA , in proto-celt =BUSSU, Old Irish: bus,Gaulish: Bussu-maros ,Gaul. Bussu-gnata.
7. WORD :(verbul) A DA , in proto-celt =DA, Skt. da^-, Lat. dare, OCS dati.
8. WORD : DAR, DANIE , in proto-celt =DANU, Old Irish: da´n.
9. WORD : DOGOARE , in proto-celt =DEGUI, Old Irish: daig ,Alb. djeg ‘burn’.
10.WORD : DUIOS , in proto-celt =DUIO.
11.WORD : A FACE,A FAURII , in proto-celt =FARE-BER,FARU , ( arfer, arferu, arferyd),Lat= fare.
12.WORD : A BEA , in proto-celt =PIBO (FIBO), Gaulish: ibetis,Skt. pi´bati, Lat. Bibo.
13.WORD : CAPRA , in proto-celt =GABRA, Gaulish: Gabro-magus [Toponym] ‘Goatfield’, Gabrus
14.WORD : GARD, CURTE , in proto-celt =GORTO (GORDO) ,probabil in franceza CORDON,’enclosure, gardenSkt. gr•ha´- ‘house’, Lat. hortus ‘garden’, OHG garto ‘garden’.
15.WORD : GAT , in proto-celt =GUTU=voce, Old Irish: guth.
16.WORD : ROATA , in proto-celt =K—ROTO, ’round object’.
17.WORD :ROSU (sange) , in proto-celt =K—RUS.
18.WORD : CAINE , in proto-celt =CUON, Lat. Canis.
19.WORD : LAUT (INBAIERE) , in proto-celt =LOUATRO, Gaulish: lautro,Lat. lauƒbrum, G. Loetro.
20.WORD : LUCIRE, LICARIRE , in proto-celt =LOUKO, Lat. lux, ‘light’, Go. liuha? ‘light’, Gr. Leuko.
THANK YOU “DACUL-DD” FOR THIS INFO.
BIRTH OF THE CELTIC NATIONS OF SCOTLAND ,IRELAND AND WALES… ANCIENT BRITON
It is believed that the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation The Orkney islands may have been attached to the mainland, as was the present-day island of Great Britain to Continental Europe. Much of the North Sea basin was also dry land until after 4000 BC. This would have made travel to northern Scotland relatively easy for early human settlers.Little is known of the people who settled in the Hebrides but they were likely of the same Celtic stock that had settled in the rest of Scotland.
Groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago (4000 BC).It is possible earlier settlements are now under the North Sea.Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherers are known to have occupied constructed lakeshore platforms in central and northwest Ireland at c.4500 BC. Neolithic crannogs are also known in Scotland. The islet of Eilean Domhnuill, Loch Olabhat on North Uist may be the earliest crannóg, dated to 3200-2800 BC in the Neolithic period.A variant of the crannóg was the island roundhouse. Built on a small, rocky island in a lochan and usually reached by means of a causeway, these are extremely common in the Western Isles
Scholars say that people arrived in Ireland after 8000 B.C. via land bridges from Scotland. These land bridges were submerged by 7000 B.C. The first inhabitants were Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) hunters and gatherers. The land was very densely forested and the people lived along the coasts, rivers, and lakes. They may have come from southern Scotland, Wales, and southwestern Europe. They fished and domesticated oxen, goats, and sheep. They also made rough pottery. Around 4000 to 3500 B.C., They had stone axes to clear land for crops and livestock. Axes made in northern Ireland were exported to (England)Celtic Briton. The people were also weavers and potters. The two societies coexisted for a time and gradually merged together. The Neolithic farmers built megalithic (stone) tombs between 4000 and 2000 B.C. The famous passage grave at Newgrange dates to 3200 B.C. or earlier, making it older than the pyramids of Egypt. There are signs of 1200 megalithic tombs in Ireland today. Megalithic tombs are also found along the Atlantic coast from Spain to Scandanavia.
It should be noted that the oldest stone built Neolithic settlements in Scotland ,Wales and Ireland ALL appear at the times of global flooding.
Ireland is cut off from Celtic Briton c.7000BC.Historically,the Island of Anglesey(Wales) has long been associated with the Druids.Anglesey is rich in prehistoric remains. The first evidence of humans on the island comes from the Mesolithic period, about 7000 BC
The North Sea basin floods in c.4000BC .The Knap of Howar on the Orkney island of Papa Westray, is a well preserved Neolithic farmstead. Dating from 3500 BC to 3100 BC. I would suggest that older settlements would be found under the North Sea which would of been wooded glades before the flood.
Skara Brae (pronounced /ˈskɑrə ˈbreɪ/) is a large stone-built Neolithic settlement, located on the Bay of Skaill on the west coast of mainland Orkney, Scotland. It consists of ten clustered houses, and was occupied from roughly 3100-2500BC. It is Europe’s most complete Neolithic village The dwellings contain a number of stone-built pieces of furniture, including cupboards, dressers, seats, and storage boxes. A sophisticated drainage system was even incorporated into the village’s design, one that included a primitive form of toilet in each dwelling.The eighth house has no storage boxes or dresser, but has been divided into something resembling small cubicles. When this house was excavated, fragments of stone, bone and antler were found. It is possible that this building was used as a workshop to make simple tools such as bone needles or flint axes A comparable — if smaller — site exists at Rinyo on Rousay.
The site was farther from the sea than it is today, and it is possible that Skara Brae was built adjacent to a freshwater lagoon protected by dunes.Although the visible buildings give an impression of an organic whole, it is certain that an unknown quantity of additional structures had already been lost to sea erosion before the site’s rediscovery and subsequent protection by a seawall. Uncovered remains are known to exist immediately adjacent to the ancient monument in areas presently covered by fields, and others, of uncertain date, can be seen eroding out of the cliff edge a little to the south of the enclosed area.
Knap of Howar on the Orkney island of Papa Westray, is a well preserved Neolithic farmstead. Dating from 3500 BC to 3100 BC, it is similar in design to Skara Brae, but from an earlier period, and it is thought to be the oldest preserved standing building in northern Europe.Unstan ware is the name used by archaeologists for a type of finely made and decorated Neolithic pottery from the 4th millennium BC. Typical are elegant, round based bowls with a band of grooved patterning below the rim.It is named after Unstan chambered cairn and fort on the Mainland of the Orkney Islands, a fine example of a stalled burial chamber in a circular mound, where the style of pottery was first found.It has been found at many sites including Knap of Howar, Balbridie and Eilean Domhnuill.Unstan ware may have evolved into the later grooved ware style
A 5500 YEAR OLD (3500BC) TEMPLE COMPLEX FOUND
Ness of Brodgar is an archaeological site covering 2.5 hectares (6.2 acres) located between the Ring of Brodgar and the Stones of Stenness in the Heart of Neolithic Orkney World Heritage Site near Loch of Harray, Orkney, in Scotland. Excavations at the site began in 2003. The site has provided evidence of housing, decorated stone slabs, a massive stone wall with foundations, and a large building described as a Neolithic “cathedral” or “palace”. The site may have been occupied from as early as 3500 BC to the close of the Neolithic period more than a millennium and a half later.
According to project manager Nick Card, the discoveries are unparalleled in British prehistory, the complexity of finds is changing the “whole vision of what the landscape was 5,000 years ago” and that “it’s of a scale that almost relates to the classical period in the Mediterranean with walled enclosure and walled precincts”. Additionally, according to archaeologists in general, the site could be more important than Stonehenge.
Excavations have revealed several buildings, both ritual and domestic and the works suggest there are likely to be more in the vicinity. Pottery, cremated animal bones, stone tools and polished stone mace heads have also been discovered. Some of the stone slabs are decorated with geometrical lozenges typical of other Neolithic sites.
There are the remains of a large stone wall (the “Great Wall of Brodgar”) which may have been 100 metres (330 ft) long and 4 metres (13 ft) or more wide. It appears to traverse the entire peninsula the site is on and may have been a symbolic barrier between the ritual landscape of the Ring and the mundane world around it.
The temple-like structure, which was discovered in 2008, has walls 4 metres (13 ft) thick and the shape and size of the building are visible, with the walls still standing to a height of more 1 metre (3.3 ft). The structure is 25 metres (82 ft) long and 20 metres (66 ft) wide and a standing stone with a hole shaped like an hourglass was incorporated into the walls. There is a cross-shaped inner sanctum and the building was surrounded by a paved outer passage. The archaeological team believe it is the largest structure of its kind anywhere in the north of Britain and that it would have dominated the ritual landscape of the peninsula. Recent finds include Skaill knives and hammer stones and the another, perhaps even bigger wall. The dig involves archaeologists from Orkney College and from the universities of Aberdeen, Cardiff and Glasgow.
In July 2010 a remarkable rock coloured red, orange and yellow was unearthed. This is the first discovery in Britain of evidence that Neolithic peoples used paint to decorate their buildings and is similarly coloured to the natural shades of sandstone used in the construction of the inner sanctum.It is thought that the primitive paint could have been made from iron ore, mixed with animal fat, milk or eggs. Only a week later a stone with a zigzag chevron pattern painted with a red pigment was discovered nearby.
A baked clay artefact known as the “Brodgar Boy”, and thought to be a figurine with a head, body and two eyes, was also unearthed in the rubble of one structure. It was found in two sections, the smallest of which measures 30mm, but is thought to be part of a still larger object
Ross, John and Hartley, David (14 August 2009) ” ‘Cathedral’ as old as Stonehenge unearthed.” Edinburgh. The Scotsman. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
Turnbull, Catherine (27 August 2011). “Ness of Brodgar discoveries ‘rival classical Greece’”. The Times Scotland (London). http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/uk/scotland/article3147162.ece. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
Towrie, Sigurd (16 August 2007) “Stone wall hints at Neolithic spiritual barrier ” Orkneyjar. Retrieved 17 September 2008.
Thornhill, Ted (2 January 2012). “‘Discovery of a lifetime’: Stone Age temple found in Orkney is 800 years older than Stonehenge – and may be more important”. MailOnline.com. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2081254/Stone-Age-temple-Orkney-significant-Stonehenge.html#ixzz1iK3O0ppO. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
“Ness of Brodgar, Stenness, Mainland, Orkney” UHI: Orkney College. Retrieved 30 August 2008.
“Orkney Archaeology News” Orkneyjar. Retrieved 30 August 2008.
Ross, John (14 August 2007) “Experts uncover Orkney’s new Skara Brae and the great wall that separated living from dead”. Edinburgh. The Scotsman. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
A flaked stone with a sharp edge used for cutting. This neolithic tool is named after Skaill Bay, the location of World Heritage Site Skara Brae in Orkney. See “Skaill knife” (pdf) Historic Scotland. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
“Neolithic ‘temple’ revealed at site on Orkney” Glasgow. The Herald. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
Macintosh, Lindsay (14 August 2009) ” ‘Neolithic cathedral built to amaze’ unearthed in Orkney dig” London. The Times. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
“The Ness of Brodgar Excavations”. (14 August 2009) Orkneyjar. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
“Rock shows Stone Age Scots keen decorators” (28 July 2010) Glasgow: The Herald.
“Painted walls in Orkney ’5,000 years old’”. BBC News. 26 July 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-north-east-orkney-shetland-10763044. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
“Decorated Neolithic stonework found on Orkney”. (4.8.10) Glasgow: The Herald.
“Brodgar Boy” Orkneyjar. Retrieved 28 Aug 2011.
The use of bronze spread to Ireland around 2200 to 2100 B.C.,probably from Scotland either through commercial contacts or through the migration of a new people. The so-called Beaker People came at the beginning of the Irish Bronze Age.
Many archaeologists believe that the Beaker ‘people’ did not exist as a group,as there is no genetic evidence of this, and that the beakers and other new artefacts and practices found across Europe at the time that are attributed to the Beaker people are indicative of the development of particular manufacturing skills.This new knowledge may have come about by any combination of population movements and cultural contact. An example might be as part of a prestige cult related to the production and consumption of beer, or trading links such as those demonstrated by finds made along the seaways of Atlantic Europe. Palynological studies of pollen analysis conducted, associated with the spread of beakers certainly suggests increased growing of barley, which may be associated with beer brewing.These contacts provided a flow of novelties in several directions: flint, metal, livestock, wool and new drinking tradition.
They were farmers and herders from Europe who used copper and then bronze. They settled wherever copper could be found in Ireland, especially in Munster in the west. At about the same time, a new people came over from Britain. This group is called the Food Vessel people because they buried food vessels along with the bodies in their tombs.
The Food Vessel Culture is a name given by some archaeologists to a culture of northern Britain (Scotland) and Ireland during the Early Bronze Age c.2100-1700BC (Burgess 1995, 145) due to the material culture of the people. The term Food Vessel Culture is not generally used in modern archaeological reports as the term is seen as rather ‘Old-Fashioned’ due to changes in archaeological theory.This is just another new cultural fashion rather than a new people arriving.
During the Bronze Age, gold jewelry made in Ireland was traded for blue glazed copper beads (faience) from England(Celtic Briton) and amber from the Baltic. Stone circles, some placed around important tombs, date from 2100 B.C. to the mid-second millennium. Crannogs, timber houses or huts built on an artificial island in a lake or along the lake’s edge, were built in the Late Bronze Age. Crannogs were usually surrounded by a palisade wall. Some crannogs continued to be used until the fifth century A.D. The earliest hill forts also date to the Late Bronze Age. The Irish Bronze Age lasted from about 2200 B.C. to 600 B.C. In Scotland, the Bronze Age also lasted from about 2200 B.C. to 700 B.C. (2, 10)
The Vitrified Forts of Scotland:
One of the great mysteries of classical archaeology is the existence of many vitrified forts in Scotland.The evidence of the vitrified forts is clear: some hugely successful and organised civilisation was living in Scotland, England and Wales in prehistoric times, circa 1000 BC or more, and was building gigantic structures including forts.The Tap o’ Noth is a hill fort on top of the Hill of Noth, 20 miles west of Inverurie in Aberdeenshire, Scotland at grid reference NJ485293. It is the second highest fort in Scotland and its main feature is its well-preserved vitrified wall which encloses an area of approximately 100 m by 30 m. Archaeological finds from the site include a stone axe head dated to between c2000BC–c800BC
How do you vitrify a fort?
There have been many theories as to how vitrification has occured in some ancient forts, ranging from the use of special chemicals to the composition of the rocks used for the forts. As a result of our research we have concluded that the in order to create a “true” vitrified rampart, the heat required is in excess of that that which would normally be the case if the rampart alone was the only fuel. Temperatures in excess of 1000 degrees Centigrate would need to be applied consistently over large areas of the wall, in close proximity for a significant period of time.
There are said to be at least 60 such forts throughout Scotland. Among the most well-known are Tap o’Noth, Dunnideer, Craig Phadraig (near Inverness),Abernathy (near Perth), Dun Lagaidh (in Ross), Cromarty, Arka-Unskel, Eilean na Goar, and Bute-Dunagoil on the Sound of Bute off Arran Island. Another well-known vitrified fort is the Cauadale hill-fort in Argyll, West Scotland.
Were these structures built as a means of defence? Was the vitrification the result of design or accident? How was the vitrification produced?
In this vitrification process, huge blocks of stones have been fused with smaller rubble to form a hard, glassy mass. Explanations for the vitrification are few and far between, and none of them is universally accepted.
BUT FROM THE FACTS IT SEEMS THE FORT VITRIFICATION WAS DONE ON PURPOSE
BUT HOW IT WAS DONE IS STILL A MYSTERY
In order to consistently achieve a satisfactory level of vitrification the heat produced by the fire must be concentrated and directed towards the ramparts. It is therefore suggested that during their construction/modification the rampart will have been shrouded by a wood and turf structure, which turned the rampart into the interior of a kiln.
(1) Many of the Primary rocks, particularly the schists, gneisses and traps, which contain large quantities of potash and soda, can be readily fused in the open air by means of wood fires—the alkali of the wood serving in some measure as a flux. (2) The walls are chiefly vitrified at the weakest points, the naturally inaccessible parts being unvitrified. (3) When the forts have been placed on materials practically infusible, as on the quartzose conglomerates of the Old Red Sandstone, as at Craig Phadraic, and on the limestones of Dun Mac Uisneachain, pieces of fusible rocks have been selected and carried to the top from a considerable distance. (4) The vitrified walls of the Scottish forts are invariably formed of small stones which could be easily acted upon by fire,whereas the outer ramparts where used, are not vitrified and are built of large blocks. (5) Many of the continental forts are so constructed that the fire must have been applied internally, and at the time when the structure was being erected. (6) Daubrée, in an analysis which he made on vitrified materials taken from four French forts, and which he submitted to the Academy of Paris’ in February 1881, found the presence of natron in such great abundance that he inferred that sea-salt was used to facilitate fusion.
One problem with all the many theories is their assumption of a primitive state of culture associated with ancient Scotland.
It is astonishing to think of how large and well coordinated the population or army must have been that built and inhabited these ancient structures. Janet and Colin Bord in their book, Mysterious Britain,speak of Maiden Castle to give an idea of the vast extent of this marvel of prehistoric engineering.
It covers an area of 120 acres, with an average width of 1,500 feet and length of 3,000 feet. The inner circumference is about 11 miles round, and it has been estimated…that it would require 250,000 men to defend it!
With 250,000 men defending a fort, we are talking about a huge army in a very organised society. This is not a bunch of fur-wearing Picts with spears defending a fort from marauding bands of hunter-gatherers. The questions remain, though. What huge army might have occupied these cliffside forts by the sea or lake entrances? And what massive maritime power were these people unsuccessfully defending themselves against?(Long time before the Vikings)
Settlements such as the one found in East Lothian had to be fortified as tribal warfare became a way of life for the Caledonians. Hundreds of years before the birth of Christ, the Celts built hill forts all over Scotland.
The Celts also built artificial islands called Crannogs for shelter against animals and invaders. These so-called floating islands were small circular homes, like huts, built on wood pilings over a pond or body of water for exceptionally good protection. And they needed that protection, sea raiders invaded Scotland, in search of slaves for the Roman Empire, a century before Christ. To better protect themselves, Celts built fortified towers called Brochs.
THE CELTIBERIANS ARRIVE IN IRELAND AND BRING THE GAELIC LANGUAGE C.500BC
The Celtiberians arrived in Ireland during the first millennium B.C., perhaps between 700 B.C., and 400 B.C. By the 6th century B.C., new pottery styles suggest an influx of Hallstatt Celts The first Celtiberians settled in the south and west, suggesting that they came from Spain and Portugal. These Celtiberians grew barley, beans, millet, and apples.They bring the Q-Celtic Gaelic language and culture we refer to as Celtic today.In Ireland it should be more correctly called Celtiberian culture, as Scotland is genetically more Celtic and Welsh a more Celtic language.
In 387 B.C.E. the Celts invaded Rome and held it for 7 months,(After being BETRAYED by the Romans whom they where allied to in a battle.) leaving only after being debilitated by an epidemic, although not so debilitated that they didn’t exact a huge payment from the Romans for the privelege of seeing them go! Almost a century later, the Celts invaded Greece and sacked Delphi, removing a large hoard of gold.(Claiming it as payment for the Greeks “prostituting” THIER CELTIC God “Apollo Pythian” who lives in Alba ,the Gaelic name for Scotland) Even Alexander the Great found it prudent to form an alliance with the people whom the Greeks called the “Keltoi” or “Galatai”. As with all conquering societies, even when they withdrew from a region part of their heritage and personality was inevitably left behind.
The earliest native writing script was the Ogham or Ogam script. It was developed around the first centuries A.D. Ogham writing consisted of short horizontal and diagonal lines on stones and was used for names and geneaologies. It ultimately derived from Latin or Greek letters. The recording of longer texts did not begin in Ireland until the fourth century A.D. Before then, tribal histories and stories were passed down through a rich oral tradition
The P-Celtic-speaking Celtic blond/red haired Picts of Scotland seem to be associated through genetics with the Dal nAraide or Pictish Cruithne of Ireland.They are in fact the same people.
The Iron-Age Q-Celtic-speaking dark haired Celtiberians entered Ireland around 500 B.C. The period of 300 A.D. to 700 A.D. may have been a time of Q-Celtic Celtiberian population growth in Ireland. Niall Noigiallach (Niall of the Nine Hostages) raided in the Hebrides during the 420s or 430s. There were probably earlier raids along the coasts of Wales and elsewhere. Possibly to deter these raids, the Romans rebuilt forts in Wales during the 3rd century. The Celtiberian Irish never settled permanently in Wales. Instead they settled outside of Roman-controlled areas and turned their eyes to Scotland.(6, 7)
According to some traditions, the Q-Celtic-speaking Celtiberian Irish may have founded Dalriada in Scotland as early as the 3rd century. Other traditions suggest the founders arrived around 500 A.D.Most likely it is the Celtic Pictish Cruithne people taking on the Q-Celtic Celtiberian culture either through interbreding or conquest.(Later the Pictish King of Dalraiada Kenneth mac Alpin unites Pictland and Dalriada under Q-Celtic customs to form modern Scotland) The people of Dalriada ruled over the Inner Hebrides and Argyll. The name Argyll comes from Airir Goidel or “The Coast of the Gael”. Dunadd is believed to have been the capital of Dalriada. The first settlements were peaceful. By the 4th century A.D., the “Irish Scots” in Dalriada and the Picts in the rest of Scotland were allies against the Romans. The Picts and the people of Dalriada were allied until some time after the 450s. (6, 8)
The first of the well known kings of Dalriada was Gabran. He seems to have fought the Picts under Bridei mac Maelcon and also the Britons. Gabran died in 558. Columba left Ireland and stayed for awhile with Gabran’s successor, Conall. Some sources say that Conall gave Columba Iona while others state that the Picts gave Columba Iona. St. Columba founded the monastery of Iona between 563 and 573. Conall seems to have allied himself with the King of Meath to fight the people of the Western Isles(the Norse). He died in 574. One of Conall’s successors was his cousin, Aedan. Columba preferred that Eoganan, another cousin of Conall’s, become the ruler but he was corrected by an angel and Aedan became the king. Columba thus had some control over who became king and Columba helped to strenghten the kingship. Aedan fought the Pictish ruler of the Orkneys, who had submitted to Bridei, and joined with the Ulaid of northern Ireland and the Britons to fight the Northumbrians. He also fought against the English(saxons) at Degsastan in 603. The English(saxons) deafeated the British(Britons) in that battle. Later kings included Domnall Brecc, who died at Strathcarron at the hands of the Britons of southern Scotland in 643. By the mid-7th century, Dalriada was split into 7 powerful families with their own kings and assemblies. A high king ruled over all. Ferchar ‘the Tall’ united Dalriada around 680 to 696. For around a century after 741, the Picts controlled Dalriada. Then, in 843 or 844, the Dalriadic Pictish king Kenneth mac Alpin (whose father has a Pictish name), joined Pictland and Dalriada into one Gaelic-speaking kingdom
For a Factual look at the “Book of Conquests” check this post.
CELTIC BRITON AND PICTLAND
The Britons (sometimes Brythons or British) were the Celtic people culturally dominating Great Britain from the Iron Age through the Early Middle Ages. They spoke the Insular Celtic language known as British or Brythonic. They lived throughout Britain south of about the Firth of Forth; after the 5th century Britons also migrated to continental Europe, where they established the settlements of Brittany in France and the obscure Britonia in what is now Galicia, Spain. Their relationship to the Picts north of the Forth has been the subject of much discussion, though most scholars accept that the Pictish language during this time was a Brythonic language related to, but perhaps distinct from, British.
The earliest evidence for the Britons and their language in historical sources dates to the Iron Age. After the Roman conquest of 43 AD, a Romano-British culture began to emerge. With the advent of the Anglo-Saxon settlement in the 5th century, however, the culture and language of the Britons began to fragment. By the 11th century their descendants had split into distinct groups, and are generally discussed separately as the Welsh, Cornish, Bretons, and the people of the Hen Ogledd (“Old North”). The British language developed into the distinct branches of Welsh, Cornish, Breton, and Cumbric
The Picts were a group of Late Iron Age and Early Mediaeval people living in what is now eastern and northern Scotland.There is an association with the distribution of brochs, Pit-names, for instance Pitlochry, and Pictish stones. They are recorded from before the Roman conquest of Britain until the 10th century, when they merged with the Gaels. They lived to the north of the rivers Forth and Clyde, and spoke the extinct Pictish language, thought to have been related to the Brythonic languages spoken by the Britons to the south. They are assumed to have been the descendants of the Caledonii and other tribes named by Roman historians or found on the world map of Ptolemy. Pictland, also known as Pictavia, gradually merged with the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata to form the Kingdom of Alba (Scotland). Alba expanded, absorbing the Brythonic kingdom of Strathclyde and Bernician Lothian, and by the 11th century the Pictish identity had been subsumed into the “Scots” amalgamation of peoples.
The Greek traveller Pytheas mentions the Germans about 300 BC, but they do not enter history until the Teutons descend on Italy to be defeated by Marius at the end of the second century. The ancient Greeks before Pytheas assigned all lands now known as Germanic to the Celts. It is also possible that at this time the Germans were a subject people of the Celts and had no separate political existence,but there is not much evidence for this. The German language borrowed many words from Celtic.
Modern France is a composite of many earlier peoples. The Celts settled there and the largest tribe, called the “Galli” by the Romans, gave their name to the region and people, the Gauls. The Gauls were heavily involved in the invasions of Northern Italy. When the Roman Empire expanded many of the Gaullish tribes fled, but some stayed and became Romanised, losing the Celtic language. Later a Germanic tribe, the Franks, invaded the area and settled. The Franks gave their name to the region but adopted the language and customs of the people. Thus France is a Germanic/Celtic people, speaking a Romance language in a country with a Germanic name
Belgium is similar in situation to France. The dominant tribe, the Belgae, gave their name to the region. They were later conquered by the Romans.
The Helvetii were a Gallic tribe or tribal confederation occupying most of the Swiss plateau at the time of their contact with the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC. According to Julius Caesar, the Helvetians were divided into four subgroups or pagi. Of these Caesar only names the Verbigeni and the Tigurini, while Poseidonios mentions the Tigurini and the Tōygenoi (Τωυγενοί). They feature prominently in the Commentaries on the Gallic War.
The distribution of La Tène culture burials in Switzerland indicates that the Swiss plateau between Lausanne and Winterthur was relatively densely populated. Settlement centres existed in the Aare valley between Thun and Bern, and between Lake Zurich and the river Reuss. The Valais and the regions around Bellinzona and Lugano also seem to have been well-populated; however, those lay outside the Helvetian borders.
Almost all the Celtic oppida were built in the vicinity of the larger rivers of the Swiss midlands
The endonym Helvetii can be derived from the PIE root *pelh1u- “many”, Celtic elu-, which is seen in Welsh elw, meaning “gain” or “profit”, and the Old Irish prefix il-, meaning “many” or “multiple”. The second part of the name has sometimes been interpreted as *etu-, “terrain, grassland”, thus interpreting the tribal name as “rich in land”.
The name of the national personification of Switzerland, Helvetia, and the country’s Neo-Latin name, Confoederatio Helvetica, are both derived from the name of the Helvetii
The Gallaeci or Callaeci were a Celtic people who inhabited Gallaecia, the north-western corner of Iberia, a region roughly corresponding to what is now Galicia (Spain), northern Portugal and Western Asturias, before and into the Roman period. They spoke a Q-Celtic language related to Celtiberian, usually called Gallaic or Northwestern Hispano-Celtic, which also shows other linguistic influences, mainly Lusitanian
The fact that the Gallaeci did not adopt writing until the first contacts with the Roman Empire, makes the study of history previous to the first contacts with Romans impossible. However, early allusions to this people are present in ancient Greek and Latin authors previous to the conquest, and it allows the reconstruction of a few historical events of this people since the second century BC
Thanks to Silius Italicus, it’s known that between the years 218 and 201 BC, during the Second Punic War, some Gallaecian troops were involved in the fight in the ranks of Carthaginian Hannibal against the Roman army of Scipio Africanus.
The Celtiberians were Celtic-speaking people of the Iberian Peninsula in the final centuries BC. These tribes or nation spoke the Celtiberian language. Extant tribal names include the Arevaci, Belli, Titti, Lusones, and Berones.
Archaeologically, the Celtiberians participated in the Hallstatt culture in what is now north-central Spain. The term Celtiberi appears in accounts by Diodorus Siculus, Appian and Martial who recognized intermarriage between Celts and Iberians after a period of continuous warfare, though Barry Cunliffe says ‘this has the ring of guesswork about it’; Strabo just saw the Celtiberians as Celts and recognised them as a branch of the Celtic Pliny considers the Celts from Iberia to have migrated from the territory of Lusitania’s Celtici which he appears to regard as the original seat of the whole Celtic population of the Iberian peninsula including the Celtiberians, on the ground of an identity of sacred rites, language, and names of cities.
The Celtiberian language is one of the Iberian Celtic languages that were spoken in pre-Roman and early Roman Iberia.
Strabo cites Ephorus’s belief that there were Celts in the Iberian peninsula as far as Cadiz, bringing aspects of Hallstatt culture in the 6th to 5th centuries BC, adopting much of the culture they found.
Metalwork stands out in Celtiberian archaeological finds, partly from its indestructible nature, emphasizing Celtiberian articles of warlike uses, horse trappings and prestige weapons. The two-edged sword adopted by the Romans was previously in use among the Celtiberians, and Latin lancea, a thrown spear, was a Hispanic word
The Galatians of the New Testament of the Bible were a Celtic tribe that migrated through the Balkans. They pillaged as they moved and attacked, but were defeated by, the Greeks and eventually moved into Turkey, founding Galatia. They were destroyed and assimilated by the Turks early in the first millenium AD
Ancient Galatia (pron.: /ɡəˈleɪʃə/; Greek: Γαλατία) was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia (Ankara, Çorum, Yozgat Province)in modern Turkey. Galatia was named for the immigrant Gauls from Thrace (cf. Tylis), who settled here and became its ruling caste in the 3rd century BC, following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in 279 BC. It has been called the “Gallia” of the East, Roman writers calling its inhabitants Galli (Gaul or Celt). The Galateans themselves were not literate, and their name for themselves remains unknown.
Galatia was bounded on the north by Bithynia and Paphlagonia, on the east by Pontus and Cappadocia, on the south by Cilicia and Lycaonia, and on the west by Phrygia. Its capital was Ancyra (i.e. Ankara, today the capital of modern Turkey ).
The Galatians were in their origin a part of the great Celtic migration which invaded Macedon, led by Brennus. The original Celts who settled in Galatia came through Thrace under the leadership of Leotarios and Leonnorios c. 270 BC. These Celts consisted of three tribes, the Tectosages, the Trocmii, and the Tolistobogii.
Ancient Thrace and Dacia
Pre-Dacian and Dacian Culture – Intro
Pre-Dacian and Dacian Art Intro p. 2
Pre-Dacian and Dacian Culture Intro p.3
Artifacts and ancient vestiges that speak about Dacians’ culture. They are presented in chronological order
The Dacians Romania’s ancestors Ancient Dacia documentary
THE EUROPE WE KNOW TODAY
The Danube,East Europe, is the longest river in the European Union .Its name is Celtic.( Celtic *danu, meaning “to flow, run”,)
The Rhine River , whose name comes from the Celtic word renos, meaning raging flow, begins at the Rheinwaldhorn Glacier in the Swiss Alps and flows north and east approximately 820 miles (1,320 km).
The Rhine and the Danube formed most of the northern inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days, the Rhine has been a vital, navigable waterway, and carried trade and goods deep inland. However, in the beginning of the Pre-Roman Iron Age (ca 600 BC), the Proto-Germanic tribes crossed the Weser River and the Aller, expanding the whole distance to the banks of the Rhine. This expansion is shown archaeologically in the form of the Jastorf culture. From ca 500 BC onwards, the lower Rhine, not the Weser or the Aller, would increasingly mark the border between the Celtic and Germanic tribes.
Terry Jones – Barbarians – Ep. 1 – The Primitive Celts
Terry Jones takes a look at the Roman take over of Celtic Europe and the true sophistication of the ancient Celts ,even compared to the Romans.
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